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  • 1. Cornwallis, Charlie K.
    et al.
    Svensson-Coelho, Maria
    Lindh, Markus
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Li, Qinyang
    Stabile, Franca
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Rengefors, Karin
    Single-cell adaptations shape evolutionary transitions to multicellularity in green algae2023In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334XArticle in journal (Refereed)
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    Single-cell adaptations shape evolutionary transitions to multicellularity in green algae
  • 2.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Andersson, Sandra
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Engström, Erik
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Difference between WMO Climate Normal and Climatology: Insights from a Satellite-Based Global Cloud and Radiation Climate Data Record2023In: Remote Sensing, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 15, no 23, article id 5598Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Difference between WMO Climate Normal and Climatology: Insights from a Satellite-Based Global Cloud and Radiation Climate Data Record
  • 3.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography. SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Klimatanalys för havsmiljöförvaltningen - Inledande bedömning 20232023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In the analysis, observed and modelled present and future changes in Swedish seas are described with a focus on the nearby decades. The analysis includes a review of various source materials for the following marine environmental parameters: water temperature, marine heat waves, maximum sea ice extent, fresh water supply, sea levels and land elevation, salinity and inflows of salt into the Baltic Sea, stratification, waves and currents, residence times, upwelling, oxygen conditions, acidification and carbon dioxide, nutrients phosphorus and nitrogen, organic carbon, blue carbon and brownification.

    The results show that the sea level and surface water temperature in the seas around Sweden are rising, the occurrence of new heat records is increasing and the maximum extent of sea ice is decreasing. In southernmost Sweden, the sea level rise is already causing problems today, but along the coast of Norrland, the land rise is faster than the rising sea level. Precipitation and runoff from Sweden increase and stratification increases in the Baltic Sea due to increased temperature and reduced salinity in the surface water and increased salinity in the deep water. Future changes in salinity-dependent stratification are uncertain. Oxygen conditions in the Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Baltic Sea are deteriorating and the Baltic proper has undergone a regime shift with a large increase in completely oxygen-free areas. Total nitrogen has decreased in the Skagerrak and Kattegat. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen has decreased in the Skagerrak and Kattegat, the Gulf of Bothnia and in the southern and western parts of the Baltic Sea. Total phosphorus has increased in all areas except Skagerrak. Phosphate has increased in the Baltic Sea and the Bothnian Sea, but decreased in the Skagerrak. Changes in ocean acidification are not measurable in the central and northern Baltic Sea, while observations in the Skagerrak and Kattegat indicate decreased pH. The visibility depth in large parts of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea has deteriorated and increased browning of the water together with increased amounts of suspended particles from increased runoff causes coastal darkening. Chapter 4 provides an extended summary of the results.

    The conclusion from the analysis is that the state of our seas is changing, which needs to be considered in monitoring, planning and management. Continuous monitoring is necessary to follow up the effects of measures and to detect long-term changes in the marine environment. For the planning of a sustainable development, support is also needed from models that can describe future changes and explain the causes and effects from measures and climate change.

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    Klimatanalys för havsmiljöförvaltningen - Inledande bedömning 2023
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    Appendix 1
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    Appendix 2
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    Appendix 3
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    Appendix 4
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    Appendix 5
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    Appendix 6
  • 4.
    Engström, Erik
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Wern, Lennart
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Hellström, Sverker
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Zhou, Chunlüe
    Chen, Deliang
    Azorin-Molina, Cesar
    Data rescue of historical wind observations in Sweden since the 1920s2023In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 2259-2277Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Data rescue of historical wind observations in Sweden since the 1920s
  • 5.
    Grundström, Maria
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Asker, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Segersson, David
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Alpfjord Wylde, Helene
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    van Dongen, Eef
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Windmark, Fredrik
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    High resolution air quality modelling of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 for Sweden: A national study for 2019 based on dispersion modelling from regional down to street canyon level2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this development project, concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 have been calculated for the whole of Sweden for the year 2019. Simulations have been made with a new methodology that enables an almost completely seamless combination of dispersion modelling on three scales; regional, urban and street scale, without double counting emissions. Pollution levels have been calculated at 50x50 m2 resolution, which provides a complete and detailed dataset at a national level. The spatial resolution of 50 m captures concentration gradients important for high-resolution exposure calculations. A strength of using dispersion models to calculate pollutant levels is the direct connection to emission inventories and projections.New functionality, parameterizations and inputs have been developed with the goal of increasing the performance of model calculations while preserving storage capacity. This is crucial to be able to carry out a comprehensive national modelling with a high geographical resolution. Parameterizations and detailed input data have been developed to better represent the real dispersion conditions, the physical environment and the size of emissions from, for example, traffic.For NO2, high levels are seen in urban environments near roads with high traffic load, and exceedances of the air quality limit values are seen in several locations. The number of exceedances of current air quality standards are relatively low for PM10. Levels of PM2.5 are often low and no exceedances of current standards occur at all. In a future perspective with stricter requirements for clean air, the situation will likely be different. With potentially stricter limit values there is a risk for exceedances in the several Swedish municipalities, especially for PM10.The validation of the modelling results compared to measurements has shown that modelling quality objectives are achieved for PM2.5 at both urban and local traffic stations. For NO2 and PM10, the modelling quality objectives are not met. The model underperforms at a number of stations and the 90 % requirement is thus not achieved. The RDE indicator is however fulfilled for several stations except for NO2 at traffic stations where the margin to fulfilment was very close. Further investigation of these sites is required and should be prioritized to understand the causes and improve modelled concentrations. Model performance, memory and storage capacity remain a major challenge for performing high-resolution calculations efficiently. Work on this also needs to be prioritised in future projects.The national modelling results constitute a national description of the current state of air quality in which all of Sweden's municipalities are included. The dataset facilitates the identification of locations where air pollution levels are at risk of exceeding threshold values for air quality standards and environmental quality objectives. This can be of great help to municipalities that lack measurements and modelling of air pollution and supports the work with Swedish air pollution assessment and mitigation. A comprehensive national assessment is especially important to have available when the updated EU Ambient Air Quality Directive, with stricter requirements for clean air, is implemented in the coming years. The dataset can also support the design of measurement networks, selection of measurement site locations and provide valuable information to experts and researchers as well as an interested public. The results will be made freely available on the SMHI web portal “Luftwebb” by the turn of the year 2023/2024.

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    High resolution air quality modelling of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 for Sweden
  • 6.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2021 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A climatological atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea was first published in 2011 in SMHI Report Oceanography No 42. Since 2011, annual updates have been made as additional data have been reported to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. In this report the results for 2020 have been updated and the preliminary results for 2021 are presented. Oxygen data from 2021 have been collected from various sources such as international ICES coordinated trawl survey, national monitoring programmes and research projects with contributions from Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Denmark, Sweden and Finland.For the autumn period each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representing the depths at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions respectively are found. The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia were then calculated and the results transferred to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period.The updated results for 2020 and the preliminary results for 2021 show that the severe oxygen conditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continues. Levels of anoxia decreased somewhat compared to the record years 2018-2019, while the extent of hypoxia remained largely unchanged. The decreased in anoxia was seen in the southern Baltic Proper and in the Gulf of Finland.The hydrogen sulphide that had disappeared from the Eastern and Northern Gotland Basin due to the inflows in 2014-2016 continues to increase in the deep water. No major inflow has occurred during 2021.

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    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2021 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-2021
  • 7.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2022 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20222023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 SMHI published the Report Oceanography No 42 with a climatological atlas of the oxygen status in the deep water of the Baltic Sea in 2011. Subsequently, annual updates have been released as new data have been reported to the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. This report provides an update for 2021 and presents the preliminary results for 2022. The oxygen data for 2022 were collected from various sources, including international ICES coordinated trawl surveys, national monitoring programmes, and research projects involving Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. 

    For the autumn period, each profile in the dataset was analyzed for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations to produce two surfaces that represent the depths at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions are present, respectively. The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia were then calculated and the results transferred to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analyzed period. 

    The updated results for 2021 and the preliminary results for 2022 show that the severe oxygen conditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continues. Levels of anoxia increased somewhat compared to the results for 2020, while the extent of hypoxia remained largely unchanged 2021 but increased in 2022. The increase in anoxia was seen in the southern Baltic Proper and in the Gulf of Finland. In 2021 anoxia was found at 21% of the bottom areas and 31% suffered from hypoxia. Preliminary results for 2022 show that anoxia affected 21% of the bottom areas and 34% suffered from hypoxia. The concentration of hydrogen sulphide is extremely high in all the basins around Gotland. In the Eastern and Western Gotland Basin hydrogen sulphide in the bottom water has reached levels not recorded before. The inflows that occurred during 2021 - 2022 did only affect the oxygen situation in southern parts of the Baltic Proper. No inflows reached the deeper basins around Gotland.    

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    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2022 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-2022
  • 8.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Lindh, Markus
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Växtplankton och deras miljö i Västra Götalands kustvatten 1986-20212023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Växtplanktondata från provtagningar under perioden 1986–2021 längs Västra Götalands kust (Bohuskusten och Göteborgs skärgård) har analyserats. Fokus har varit åtta stationer som har tidsserier från 1991–2021 med provtagningar året om. Data från andra stationer har också använts. När det gäller klorofyll samt fysiska och kemiska parametrar finns ett större datamaterial med provtagningar på 14 stationer. En station i centrala Skagerrak har använts för jämförelser. Resultat från mikroskopanalys av prover visar på en relativt hög biodiversitet. Antal identifierade släkten är 195 och antalet arter är stort. Högst antal arter observeras under hösten, troligen som en effekt av transport av vatten från Nordsjön till Bohuskusten. Under den undersökta perioden har antal observerade släkten ökat. Om detta beror på en verklig ökning av biodiversiteten, t.ex. att arter som trivs i hög temperatur kommit till eller på andra faktorer, t.ex. att skickligheten hos de som analyserar prover ökat, går inte att utläsa från materialet. Strukturen på växtplanktonsamhället varierar under året och geografiskt. Havstensfjorden har en högre andel dinoflagellater jämfört med de flesta andra stationer. Flera arter som är nya för området har observerats, bl.a. Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax, Chaetoceros cf. peruvianus, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis och Dinophysis tripos. Växtplanktonbiomassan mätt som klorofyll a (0–10 m djup) har minskat i Koljöfjord, Havstensfjord, Byfjorden och vid Galterö (Stenungsund) under perioden 1991–2021 när man tittar på årsmedelvärden. Det gäller även om enbart värden från sommaren används. Då noteras även en minskning vid Stretudden (Brofjorden), vid Valö (Askimsfjorden) och station Å17 (öppna Skagerrak). Siktdjupet har ökat på flera platser sommartid: vid Byttelocket (Smögen), Stretudden (Brofjorden), Släggö (Gullmarsfjorden) och i Koljöfjorden. Koncentrationer under vintern av löst oorganiskt kväve (DIN = summan av nitrat, nitrit och ammonium) har minskat i ytvattnet på de flesta lokaler medan fosfathalter är i stort sett oförändrade. Kiselhalter vintertid har ökat på stationer som ligger i närheten av Göta Älvs/Nordre Älvs mynning eller andra floder eller åar. Författarna finner det troligt att åtgärder för att minska tillförsel av näringsämnen från land till hav har haft effekt. Minskad kvävebelastning har sannolikt resulterat i lägre växtplanktonbiomassa och större siktdjup vid kusten, bl.a. innanför Orust och Tjörn. Andra orsaker till förändringarna kan dock inte uteslutas. Årsmedelvärden för ytvattentemperatur (0–10 m) har ökat med upp till 2 grader 1991–2021, sommartid har ytvattentemperaturen ökat med 1–2°C. Salthalt i ytvattnet är oförändrad under den undersökta perioden. Skadliga alger förekommer varje år. År 2017 var det en större blomning av Pseudochattonella som orsakar fiskdöd. Alggifter som ansamlas i musslor och ostron utgör en risk för människors hälsa och ett problem för havsbruket. Kontrollprogram som administreras av Livsmedelsverket har säkerställt att produkter som innehåller alggifter inte kommit ut på marknaden. Det vanligaste problemet är dinoflagellater från släktet Dinophysis som producerar diarrégifter. Arter från släktet Alexandrium förekommer också, där de flesta producerar paralyserande skaldjursgifter. År 2017 uppmättes höga halter i musslor och skörd stoppades. Flera andra släkten av skadliga alger observeras regelbundet, t.ex. kiselalgen Pseudo-nitzschia som producerar ett alggift som kan orsaka minnesförlust. Kammaneten Mnemiopsis leidyi har etablerat sig i området sedan år 2006. Ursprunget är troligen Nordamerikas östra kust. Arten livnär sig på mindre plankton och är  5  vanlig sommartid. Den har sannolikt påverkat strukturen på växtplanktonsamhället. Författarna föreslår ett utökat samarbete mellan myndigheter som ansvarar för växtplanktonövervakningen för att förbättra övervakningen och informationen till allmänheten och till havsbrukare. En anpassning till övervakning av effekter av klimatförändringar rekommenderas. Flera ändringar i nuvarande övervakningsprogram föreslås, bl.a. att pikoplanktonanalys permanentas och att en station med högfrekvent växtplanktonprovtagning etableras i Göteborgs södra skärgård. Placeringen är vald för att möjliggöra tidiga varningar för skadliga algblomningar för vattenbruk längre norrut. Den Baltiska strömmen transporterar generellt sett vattnet norrut längs den svenska västkusten. Dessutom föreslås en ny station vid norra Bohuskusten mellan Smögen och Kosterfjorden där det är glest mellan provtagningspunkterna idag. Antalet stationer behöver dock balanseras mot provtagningsfrekvensen. Tät provtagning i tiden är på många sätt viktigare än provtagning vid många stationer, d.v.s. en stor geografisk spridning. Nya metoder bör övervägas, t.ex. automatisk växtplanktonanalys med avbildande flödescytometri (Imaging Flow Cytometry). Genetiska metoder (eDNA – metabarcoding) bör införas i övervakningen av biodiversitet och främmande arter. Dessutom föreslås övervakning av havets brunifiering genom att halter av Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter mäts. 

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    Växtplankton och deras miljö i Västra Götalands kustvatten 1986-2021
  • 9. Klingberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Strandberg, Bo
    Grundström, Maria
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Sjoman, Henrik
    Wallin, Goran
    Pleijel, Hakan
    Variation in Polycyclic Aromatic Compound (PAC) Concentrations in a Norway Spruce Stand Close to a Major Traffic Route-Influence of Distance and Season2023In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 234, no 9, article id 563Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Variation in Polycyclic Aromatic Compound (PAC) Concentrations in a Norway Spruce Stand Close to a Major Traffic Route—Influence of Distance and Season
  • 10. Latz, Meike A. C.
    et al.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Brugel, Sonia
    Hedblom, Mikael
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Jurdzinski, Krzysztof T.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lindh, Markus
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Lycken, Jenny
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Torstensson, Anders
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    A comprehensive dataset on spatiotemporal variation of microbial plankton communities in the Baltic Sea2024In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
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    A comprehensive dataset on spatiotemporal variation of microbial plankton communities in the Baltic Sea
  • 11. Minola, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Lonn, Jessika
    Azorin-Molina, Cesar
    Zhou, Chunlue
    Engström, Erik
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Wern, Lennart
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Hellström, Sverker
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Zhang, Gangfeng
    Shen, Cheng
    Pezzoli, Alessandro
    Chen, Deliang
    The contribution of large-scale atmospheric circulation to variations of observed near-surface wind speed across Sweden since 19262023In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 176, no 5, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Raza, Auriba
    et al.
    Partonen, Timo
    Hanson, Linda Magnusson
    Asp, Magnus
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Engström, Erik
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Halonen, Jaana, I
    Daylight during winters and symptoms of depression and sleep problems: A within-individual analysis2024In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108413Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Daylight during winters and symptoms of depression and sleep problems: A within-individual analysis
  • 13.
    Sjökvist, Elin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Björck, Emil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Eklund, Anna
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Jacobsson, Karin
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Johnell, Anna
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Södling, Johan
    SMHI, Samhällsberedskap.
    Zabori, Julia
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Jämförelse länsanalyser och scenariotjänst2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The county analyzes (Sjökvist et al. 2015) were published by SMHI in 2015 with the aim to produce county-wise climate data based on results from the IPCC's fifth assessment report (AR5, 2013). In 2021, SMHI published a new climate scenario web service (www.smhi.se/klimat), containing updated data from climate research. As both the methodology, calculation methods and level of detail have been developed and updated, differences between the results in the county analyzes and the scenario service are expected. This report aims to clarify the differences between the two datasets and explain what these differences are due to, in support of old and new users of SMHI's climate data.

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    Jämförelse länsanalyser och scenariotjänst
  • 14.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Wesslander, Karin
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering. SMHI, Core Services.
    The Swedish National MarineMonitoring Programme 2022: Hydrography, Nutrients, Phytoplankton2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    The temperature in surface layer was above normal in several months during 2022,temperatures below normal were measured only on a few occasions in the summer.These occasions were caused by upwelling events. The minimum temperatures in thesurface layer in 2022 were reached in March in Skagerrak, which is a month later thannormal. In Kattegat the temperature reached its minimum in January and in March inthe Baltic Proper.

    Temperatures above normal were measured in the deep and intermediate waters in theBaltic Proper. In the Baltic Proper the temperature in the deep waters show anincreasing trend.

    The ice season was classified as mild but the duration was longer than normal, with thefirst ice observations around 25th of October and the last ice seen on 2nd of June.

    The nutrient surveys in winter showed that the concentrations of dissolved inorganicnitrogen were below normal, whereas silicate and phosphate were above normal in theBothnian Bay. The latter is consistent with a trend of increasing phosphate and silicateconcentration in the Bothnian Bay. The nutrients decreased in spring as the springbloom started, in 2022 this happened in March in Kattegat and in April in Skagerrak,which is later than normal. In the Baltic Proper it occurred between the February andMarch cruises in the southern parts while it started about a month later in the basinsaround Gotland. In the Bothnian Sea we lack nutrient data for the period when thespring bloom occurred, but phytoplankton data shows that the spring bloom occurred inApril. In the Bothnian Bay inorganic nitrogen dropped to levels near the detection limitin July.

    The potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta was found in cell numbers abovethe warning limit during autumn at the stations situated in Skagerrak and Kattegat.

    The largest area of cyanobacteria surface accumulations was observed by satellite onthe 28th of June when about 83 300 km2 of the Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland wereaffected.

    No new inflows occurred that could renew the deep water, and thereforeconcentrations of nutrients in the deep basins of the Baltic Proper continued to increaseduring 2022. The deep waters show increasing concentrations of nutrients as well ashydrogen sulphide. The concentrations of both ammonium and hydrogen sulphide areat record high levels in both the Eastern and Western Gotland Basins. 

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    The Swedish National Marine Monitoring Programme 2022
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    Appendix_I_Seasonal_Plots.pdf
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    Appendix_II_Timeseries.pdf
    Download full text (pdf)
    Appendix_III_Basin_content.pdf
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    Appendix_IV_CTD_transects.pdf
  • 15.
    Torstensson, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Showalter, G. M.
    Margolin, A. R.
    Shadwick, E. H.
    Deming, J. W.
    Smith, W. O., Jr.
    Chemical and biological vertical distributions within central Arctic (>82 degrees N) sea ice during late summer2023In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 703, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Unger, AnnaKarin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Blomqvist, Anna
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Englund, Bodil
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Haugset, Trine
    SMHI, Samhällsplanering.
    Myndigheters arbete med klimatanpassning 20222023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Government decree on Swedish authorities’ work on climate adaptation establishes that 32 national authorities and all 21 County Administrative Boards shall, within their areas of responsibility and within their activities, initiate, support and monitor adaptation to climate change. The decree also establishes that the authorities shall report their work annually to the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The reporting is carried out in a web-based system, developed specifically by SMHI for this purpose. SMHI shall support the authorities in their implementation and prepare an annual follow-up analysis to the Government by the 15th of April. This report constitutes SMHI’s analysis of the work carried out in 2022. 

    The purpose of this year’s analysis is to establish to what degree the authorities covered by the decree have completed the entailed tasks. The analysis also focuses on reported obstacles and identifies if any changes have occurred compared to previous reporting cycles. Finally, an assessment is made on the effects on society that the climate adaptation work has led to.

    The analysis shows that the authorities have made clear progress between the years 2019 to 2022. However, there is great variation in how the various authorities approach the tasks in the decree. Most authorities have mainstreamed climate adaptation within their action plans in the regular planning and control processes or have ongoing work in doing so.

    Most authorities have up-to-date climate and vulnerability analyses and action plans, and have also established goals. Just over half of the authorities have identified laws and regulations that affect the authority’s work with climate adaptation. The number of authorities that report that they take climate adaptation into account in their procurement has increased. The County Administrative Boards support the municipalities' climate adaptation work, analyse how the county is affected by climate change based on various aspects, and produce material for increased knowledge and planning. 

    Identified actions by the authorities are often associated with flooding and are of the analytic kind. Most authorities have mainstreamed climate adaptation into relevant processes, for example in guidelines, regulations, strategies and in physical planning. Most authorities involve external stakeholders in the process and County Administrative Boards cooperate with municipalities within the county and the majority also with the Regions. National authorities mainly cooperate with other national authorities.

    Lack of financial and/or available human resources is a limiting factor that can lead to some authorities not having the opportunity to produce the knowledge needed. The authorities are also increasingly experiencing that a lack of knowledge, regulations and methodological support constitute obstacles to the work moving forward.

    It is recommended that SMHI initiate a discussion with the Government Office regarding the scope and frequency of the annual reporting analysis, continue to support authorities with regard to climate adaptation in procurement, review the terminology, update the web-based reporting system and offer support for the implementation of the decree in the light of the new national strategy due in 2023. The National Network for Adaptation is recommended to create multi-stakeholder arenas for cooperation and knowledge exchange, including private and non-state actors.

    Based on the analysis the Government is recommended to consider a clarification of the wording in the decree regarding the County Administrative Board's role to support and follow-up the Regions, what a climate and vulnerability analysis should include, on what basis goals should be formulated and whether or not identification of adaptation needs must be included. The Government is further recommended to continuously update the decree if exceptions are made in the written charter for the authorities, revise the national climate adaptation goal and develop one or more measurable goals. Finally, the Government is recommended to secure satisfactory, earmarked and long-term funding for climate adaptation for all authorities under the decree and introduce legal requirements for climate-adapted procurement for municipalities and regions.

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    Myndigheters arbete med klimatanpassning 2022
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