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  • 1. Anderson., D. M
    et al.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Preservatives and methods for algal cell enumeration2017In: Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring and Management / [ed] Anderson D. M., S. F. E. Boerlage, M. B. Dixon, Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2017, p. 509-517Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2. Berdalet, Elisa
    et al.
    Kudela, Raphael
    Urban, Ed
    Enevoldsen, Henrik
    Banas, Neil S.
    Bresnan, Eileen
    Burford, Michele
    Davidson, Keith
    Gobler, Christopher J.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lim, Po Teen
    Mackenzie, Lincoln
    Montresor, Marina
    Trainer, Vera L.
    Usup, Gires
    Yin, Kedong
    GlobalHAB A New Program to Promote International Research, Observations, and Modeling of Harmful Algal Blooms in Aquatic Systems2017In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 70-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersen, Per
    Nautsvoll, Lars Johan
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Modelling the dynamics of harmful blooms of Chattonella sp. in the Skagerrak and the Kattegat2011In: ICES CM 2006/E:12, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation shows observations, satellite images and model results describing the growth and spreading of Chattonella sp. flagellates in the Skagerrak and the Kattegat. Chattonella sp. is a harmful alga that may cause fish kills due to damage of the gills. Calm weather, stable water column stratification, and low turbulence may facilitate the onset of a Chattonella bloom. Results from the three-dimensional hydrodynamical model HIROMB (High Resolution Operational Model for the Baltic Sea) are used as forcing of a transport model that computes vertical and horizontal transports of chemical and biological compounds. A modified version of the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) is used to describe the temporal evolution of the phytoplankton spring blooms in the year 2001 when Chattonella was abundant and 2002 when only small amounts of Chattonella were observed. A comparison with satellite images and cell counts indicates that the model captures the main transport patterns of phytoplankton in the surface layers of the offshore areas. The Chattonella bloom of the model starts in the quite shallow parts of the western Kattegat and in the stratified coastal areas of the northern Skagerrak. The coastal waters near the river Göta Älv of Sweden also indicate a tendency of an increased occurrence of Chattonella. Chattonella is observed in the model during both years but the occurrence of Chattonella is more significant in the year 2001 than in 2002.

  • 4. Eriksson, Leif E. B.
    et al.
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Dierking, Wolfgang
    Berg, Anders
    Santoro, Maurizio
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lindh, Henrik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Evaluation of new spaceborne SAR sensors for sea-ice monitoring in the Baltic Sea2010In: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, ISSN 1712-7971, Vol. 36, p. S56-S73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) and the Envisat, RADARSAT-2, and TerraSAR-X satellites were compared to evaluate their usefulness for sea-ice monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Radar signature characteristics at different frequencies, polarizations, and spatial resolutions are presented for three examples from 2009. C-band like-polarization data, which have been used for operational sea-ice mapping since the early 1990s, serve as a reference. Advantages and disadvantages were identified for the different SAR systems and imaging modes. One conclusion is that cross-polarized data improve the discrimination between sea ice and open water. Another observation is that it is easier to identify ice ridges in L-band data than in images from shorter wavelengths. The information content of X-and C-band images is largely equivalent, whereas L-band data provide complementary information. L-band SAR also seems to be less sensitive to wet snow cover on the ice.

  • 5. Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Cusack, Caroline
    Pedersen, John
    Andersen, Per
    Anderson, Donald M.
    Bresnan, Eileen
    Cembella, Allan
    Dahl, Einar
    Diercks, Sonja
    Elbraechter, Malte
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Galluzzi, Luca
    Gescher, Christine
    Gladstone, Melissa
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kulis, David
    LeGresley, Murielle
    Lindahl, Odd
    Marin, Roman
    McDermott, Georgina
    Medlin, Linda K.
    Naustvoll, Lars-Johan
    Penna, Antonella
    Toebe, Kerstin
    Intercalibration of classical and molecular techniques for identification of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) and estimation of cell densities2007In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 56-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A workshop with the aim to compare classical and molecular techniques for phytoplankton enumeration took place at Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Sweden, in August 2005. Seventeen different techniques - nine classical microscopic-based and eight molecular methods - were compared. Alexandrium fundyense was the target organism in four experiments. Experiment 1 was designed to determine the range of cell densities over which the methods were applicable. Experiment 2 tested the species specificity of the methods by adding Alexandrium ostenfeldii, to samples containing A. fundyense. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the ability of the methods to detect the target organism within a natural phytoplankton community. Most of the methods could detect cells at the lowest concentration tested, 100 cells L-1, but the variance was high for methods using small volumes, such as counting chambers and slides. In general, the precision and reproducibility of the investigated methods increased with increased target cell concentration. Particularly molecular methods were exceptions in that their relative standard deviation did not vary with target cell concentration. Only two of the microscopic methods and three of the molecular methods had a significant linear relationship between their cell count estimates and the A. fundyense concentration in experiment 2, where the objective was to discriminate that species from a morphologically similar and genetically closely related species. None of the investigated methods were affected by the addition of a natural plankton community background matrix in experiment 3. The results of this study are discussed in the context of previous intercomparisons and the difficulties in defining the absolute, true target cell concentration. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Hakonen, Aron
    et al.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    Hulth, Stefan
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    A potential tool for high-resolution monitoring of ocean acidification2013In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 786, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions generate besides global warming unprecedented acidification rates of the oceans. Recent evidence indicates the possibility that ocean acidification and low oceanic pH may be a major reason for several mass extinctions in the past. However, a major bottleneck for research on ocean acidification is long-term monitoring and the collection of consistent high-resolution pH measurements. This study presents a low-power (<1 W) small sample volume (25 mu L) semiconductor based fluorescence method for real-time ship-board pH measurements at high temporal and spatial resolution (approximately 15 s and 100 m between samples). A 405 nm light emitting diode and the blue and green channels from a digital camera was used for swift detection of fluorescence from the pH sensitive dye 6,8-Dihydroxypyrene-1,3-disulfonic acid in real-time. Main principles were demonstrated by automated continuous measurements of pH in the surface water across the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat region with a large range in salinity (similar to 3-30) and temperature (similar to 0-25 degrees C). Ship-board precision of salinity and temperature adjusted pH measurements were estimated as low as 0.0001 pH units. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Hieronymus, Jenny
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Saraiva, Sofia
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Causes of simulated long-term changes in phytoplankton biomass in the Baltic proper: a wavelet analysis2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5113-5129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Hu, Yue O. O.
    et al.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Charvet, Sophie
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea2016In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, article id 679Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lindahl, Odd
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Rosenberg, Rutger
    SMHI.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Kattegat and the Skagerrak: OSPAR ASSESSMENT 20072007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface area of the Kattegat and the Skagerrak, located in the eastern North Sea, is about 22 000 km2 and 32 000 km2, and the mean depth is about 23 m and 210 m, respectively. The Skagerrak and the Kattegat forms the inner end of the Norwegian trench, which has the characteristics of a deep (700 m) fjord connecting the Baltic Sea with theNorwegian Sea (e.g. Rodhe, 1987). The sill depth of the fjord is about 270 m. The Kattegat offshore and inshore waters were identified as problem areas, whereas the Inshore Skagerrak waters the OSPAR categories I - IV indicate a slight incoherence in the assessment, although with an overalljudgement to be identifi ed as a problem area. The offshore Skagerrak was identified as a non problem area, according to the OSPAR Comprehensive Procedure. (OSPAR Commission, 2005).

  • 10.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Algblomningar skapar rubriker2017In: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 80-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Förödande algblomning drabbar hela Västerhavets ekosystem2017In: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 77-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kraftfulla alggifter bromsar musselodlingens framväxt2017In: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 86-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, C.R
    Coyne, K.J.
    Kudela, R.
    Sellner, K.G.
    Anderson, D.M.
    Designing an observing system for early detection of harmful algal blooms2017In: Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring and Management / [ed] Anderson D. M., S. F. E. Boerlage, M. B. Dixon, Paris: IOC, UNESCO , 2017, p. 89-117Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    The Chattonella-bloom in year 2001 and effects of high freshwater input from river Göta Älv to the Kattegat-Skagerrak area2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In autumn year 2000 and winter-spring 2001 the precipitation in the catchment area of Lake Vänern was higher than normal. During spring 2001, the flow in river Göta älv was around 1200 m3/s, nearly three times higher than the average indicating extreme conditions. The flow in the smaller rivers entering the Bohus coast is minor compared to river Göta Älv. To investigate possible effects on the marine environment in the area close to the river mouth an investigation with weekly sampling at four locations was initated by SMHI. Physical and chemical variables in the water was measured as well as phytoplankton composition and abundance. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Water Quality Association of the Bohus Coast co-funded the investigation together with SMHI. Effects on the water quality such as low surface salinities, high concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved phosphate and silicate compared to monthly averages 1990-99 was observed close to the river mouth but not off shore. Effects on the Secchi depth were not observed. On a few occassion high phytoplankton biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, was observed. At other locations along the Bohus coast effects where absent or small. Primary productivity measurements at the mouth of the Gullmar Fjord, showed no effects from the river outflow. During the investigation a bloom of the harmful alga Chattonella sp. occurred in the Kattetat and the Skagerrak.. The bloom of this small flagellate, which is described in the report, is probably not connected to the river input. A unique or unusual feature of the Chattonella-bloom is that it occured in cold water right after the diatom spring bloom in early March. In conclusion the effects of the extreme flooding were less than expected, the fresh water from the river were quickly mixed with the water in the sea and only small effects were seen. No connection between the flooding and the Chattonella bloom was detected.

  • 15.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kaitala, S.
    Kronsell, Johan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mohlin, M.
    Seppala, J.
    Wranne, A. Willstrand
    A comparison of FerryBox data vs. monitoring data from research vessels for near surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat2016In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 162, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Funquist, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kaitala, Seppo
    FIMR, Finnish Institute for Marine Research/SYKE Marine Centre.
    Sørensen, Kai
    NIVA, Norwegian Institute for Water Research.
    Infrastructure for marine monitoring and operational oceanography2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated systems for observing physical, chemical and biological conditions in the sea are being implemented worldwide as part of the Global Ocean Observing System. This report describes their use in the Baltic and the Skagerrak-Kattegat areas. An evaluation of the use of FerryBox systems in the waters around Sweden shows that the quality of data from near surface waters is high, and that the frequent sampling makes possible observations of short term phenomena such as algal blooms. These events are often overlooked by infrequent sampling using research vessels, which leads to erroneous estimates of phytoplankton biomass, ecosystem carrying capacity etc. Data come from the Helsinki Lübeck route, operated by the Finnish Institute for Marine Research and from routes in the Skagerrak- Kattegat operated by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research. FerryBox data were compared with data from traditional sampling, principally from RV Argos operated by SMHI, but also from the HELCOM databank at ICES.Observations using automated systems such as satellites, stationary platforms (buoys and piles) and FerryBox systems may contribute substantially to improving the quality of results from models describing the physical and biogeochemical conditions in Scandinavian waters. Boundary conditions for models can be obtained using measurements in the eastern North Sea and in the Skagerrak, while data assimilation from a network of buoys, FerryBoxsystems and research vessels improves the quality of model results. Today, between four and six automated oceanographic observation systems are in operation in Swedish waters, which can be compared to more than 700 for meteorological purposes. A dramatic increase in the number of observations is necessary for effective data assimilation. To make the observations useful for biogeochemical models, parameters such as inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and oxygen must be added to the basic parameters salinity and temperature.A detailed proposal for a new infrastructure for marine monitoring and operational oceanography in Sweden is put forward. FerryBox systems should be operated in collaboration with institutes in Finland, Estonia, Poland, Germany, Denmark and Norway. Coastal buoys contribute to the monitoring needs of the EU Water Framework Directive while offshore buoys are for long term climate and ecological research and for fulfilment of the EU Marine Strategy Directive . Products combining satellite data with in-situ observations should be developed. These automated systems augment monitoring using research vessels but do not replace it. SMHI, the Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, the Swedish Water Authorities, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Swedish Navy, Coast guard, Maritime Administration and Board of Fisheries are proposed to govern and operate the system, with SMHI as the lead partner. The function -National data host for operational oceanographic data- is proposed, to be established at the National Oceanographic Data Centre at SMHI.A number of indicators for describing the status of the pelagic environment around Sweden are proposed. Some already exist while some are new. New ones include indicators for acidification, changes in plankton community structure and physical climate indicators. Basin wide indicators are based on measurements using a combination of sampling platforms. Other indicators are more specific, e.g. for transport between basins and inflow of water to the deep basins of the Baltic Proper.This report was commissioned by the Swedish National Environment Protection Agency

  • 17.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Graneli, W
    Sahlsten, Elisabeth
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kuylenstierna, M
    Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the Skagerrak - Processes and plankton community structure1996In: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 35, no 1-3, p. 139-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface chlorophyll maxima are common phenomena in both the coastal and open ocean. The main objective of this study was to clarify possible differences in the structure and function of the plankton community in subsurface chlorophyll maxima and at the surface. Sampling was performed at seven stations in the Skagerrak, northeast Atlantic, during five cruises in May and August 1992 and April, May and August 1993. Subsurface chlorophyll fluorescence maxima (FM) occurred on 25 out of 32 sampling occasions. The FMs were usually situated below the pycnocline and associated with the nutricline. The ratio of chlorophyll a to particulate carbon and the light-saturated primary production were higher for plankton at the FM than at the surface, although assimilation numbers (primary production rate:chlorophyll a) were not different from surface plankton. The light protective pigment diadinoxanthin occurred in higher concentrations relative to chlorophyll a in surface plankton than in FM plankton. Respiration was higher in the FM than at the surface. This was not related to abundance of bacteria or bacterial production since no differences between surface and FM values were detected for these parameters. FM plankton was characterized by high nutrient uptake rates, but in this study there were no significant differences compared to surface plankton. 'New' production was on average 25%, but up to about 50% in the western Skagerrak in spring. The average nitrogen uptake rates were dominated by the regenerated nutrients ammonium and urea, accounting for about 50 and 25%, respectively. The <3 mu m size fraction contributed significantly to concentrations of total chlorophyll a, particulate carbon, and nitrogen as well as to nitrogen uptake. Its contribution was highest when total values were low. Microscopical investigations and analysis of pigments specific to algal groups showed that diatoms dominated in the FMs in spring and that peridinin-containing dinoflagellates dominated in FMs in August. Autotrophic nanoplankton was dominated by the Prymnesiophyceae contributing about 50% of total cell numbers. Colonies of Phaeocystis sp. were abundant along the NW Danish coast in April and May 1993, Autotrophic eukaryotic picoplankton occurred in cell numbers up to about 30 x 10(6) cells . dm(-3) along the Swedish coast. The highest cell numbers of cyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type, about 100 x 10(6) cells . dm(-3), were found in the central Skagerrak in August and the abundance of Synechococcus was correlated with nitrogen uptake in the <3 mu m size fraction.

  • 18.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Johansson, Johannes
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Linders, Johanna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mohlin, Malin
    SMHI.
    Willstrand Wranne, Anna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Distribution of cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea2017In: Marine and Fresh-Water Harmful Algae. / [ed] Proenca, L. A. O. and Hallegraeff, G., International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2017, p. 100-103Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Mohlin, Malin
    Hu, Ye O.O.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Miljöövervakning av växtplankton i Kattegatt och Östersjön med rDNA-barcoding och mikroskopi: En jämförelse av molekylärbiologisk metodik och mikroskopi.2018Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Göteborg University, Clinical Bacteriology, Institution of Laboratory Medicine, SE-413 46 Gothenburg, Sweden & Kristianstad University, Institution of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, SE-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Loo, Lars-Ove
    Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University, Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, SE-452 96 Strömstad, Sweden..
    Temporal and spatial distribution of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.), at the Swedish West Coast, NE Atlantic, years 1988-20052007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this report is to compile and present available data on algal toxins in blue mussels from the west coast of Sweden. The hazards associated with the consumption of mussels are mostly dependent on the occurrence and composition of toxic algae in the areas where shellfish are grown. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST), i.e. okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) have occurred regularly in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the Swedish west coast (i.e. Skagerrak) during the past years. A maximum residue limit of 160 µg.kg-1 mussel meat has been set by National Food Administration. The toxic incidences in the region has been linked to the occurrence of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta. In general there is seasonal variation of DST in mussels with low concentrations from March to August (160 µg.kg-1 mussel meat). Peaks above the maximum residue limit have in some years also occurred in late June to late July. Rapid intoxication vs. slow detoxification of mussels is a common phenomenon, especially in autumn-winter. Temporal and regional differences are large. There is also a considerable variation in toxin levels between years. In 1994 almost 5000 µg DST.kg-1 mussel meat was detected. In 1997 mussel farmers experienced very low levels, i.e. only three samples above the restriction limit of DST. In autumn 1989 to spring 1990 and in early autumn 2000 to early 2001, high levels (about 200 to 2000 µg DTX.kg-1 mussel meat) were recorded during 26 weeks. The Koljö Fjord region had low levels of toxins until 1998, despite regular recordings of potentially DST producing algae in the area. Today mussels grown and harvested in this area have similar toxin levels to mussels from other fjords in the Skagerrak region. Measurements of other toxins than DST are few and are not included in the report. Målet med denna rapport är att sammanställa och presentera tillgängliga data med algtoxiner i blåmusslor från svenska västkusten. Risken att bli förgiftad av algtoxiner via musslor hänger samman med förekomst och sammansättning av toxiska alger i det vatten där musslorna växer. Diarréframkallande ämnen (diarrheic shellfish toxins), t.ex. okadasyra (OA) och dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) har förkommit regelbundet i blåmusslor (Mytilus edulis) längs svenska västkusten (Skagerack) de senaste tjugofyra åren. Ett gränsvärde på 160 µg.kg-1 musselkött är fastställt av livmedelsverket. Toxinförekomsten i regionen associeras till förekomsten av Dinophysis acuminata och D. acuta. "Normalt" är det en säsongsvariation av DST i musslor med låga koncentrationer från mars till augusti (<160 µg.kg-1 musselkött) och höga från oktober till december (>160 µg.kg-1 musselkött). Toppar över gränsvärdet för konsumtion har vissa år förekommit från slutet av juni till slutet av juli. En snabb ökning i toxinhalt respektive långsam minskning är också ett vanligt förekommande fenomen, speciellt under höst-vinter. Tidsmässiga och regionala skillnader är stora. Det är också en stor skillnad i toxinhalt mellan åren. 1994 uppmättes den högsta toxinhalten till nästan 5000 µg DST.kg-1 musselkött. Under 1997 var halterna låga under hela säsongen, endast vid tre tillfällen var halterna över gränsvärdet. Från hösten 1989 till våren 1990 och från tidig höst 2000 till tidig vår 2001 uppmättes höga halter (ca 200 to 2000 µg DTX.kg-1 musselkött) under 26 veckor i en följd. I Koljöfjorden var det låga halter av toxiner fram till år 1998, trots förekomst av potentiellt DST producerande alger i området. I dag har musslor som växer och skördas i detta område ungefär samma nivåer av toxin som från andra områden. Mätningar av andra algtoxiner än DST är fåtaliga och tas inte upp i rapporten.

  • 21.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Algblomningar - en utmaning för miljöövervakning och forskning2017In: Västerhavet, ISSN 1104-3458, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22. Paczkowska, J.
    et al.
    Rowe, Of
    Schluster, L.
    Legrand, C.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, A.
    Allochthonous matter: an important factor shaping the phytoplankton community in the Baltic Sea2017In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 23-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Petersen, W.
    et al.
    Colijn, F.
    Gorringe, Patrick
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kaitala, S.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    King, A.
    Lips, U.
    Ntoumas, M.
    Seppälä, J.
    Sørensen, K.
    Petihakis, G.
    De La Villéon, L.P.
    Wehde, H.
    FERRYBOXES WITHIN EUROPE: STATE-OF-THE-ART AND INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN OCEAN OBSERVATION SYSTEM (EOOS)2017In: OPERATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY: Serving Sustainable Marine Development / [ed] Erik Buch, Vicente Fernández, Dina Eparkhina, Patrick Gorringe and Glenn Nolan, EuroGOOS. Brussels, Belgium , 2017, p. 63-70Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and use of FerryBox systems as a cost-effective instrument for continuous observations of the marine environment has been well established since more than 15 years. The systems have evolved to maturity and are since widely used around the coastal ocean of Europe. The availability of newly developed sensors allows the extension of FerryBox measurements to more biogeochemical parameters which are of interest for the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The FerryBox community initially formed from the partners of an EU funded FerryBox project provides mutual exchange of experience and is now organized within EuroGOOS as a so called FerryBox Task Team (www.ferrybox.org). Within the EU funded infrastructure projects JERICO and JERICO-NEXT the technical harmonization as well as the developing of best practise guides for FerryBox systems have been a step further to high quality environmental data products. Within JERICO-NEXT it has been decided to build up a common FerryBox database and data portal in order to make the FerryBox data more available and visible. Furthermore this database will be function as a close link to the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Services (CMEMS) and the EMODnet portal.

  • 24. Prevett, Andrew
    et al.
    Lindstrom, Jenny
    Xu, Jiayi
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Selander, Erik
    Grazer-induced bioluminescence gives dinoflagellates a competitive edge2019In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 29, no 12, p. R564-R565Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Puillat, I
    et al.
    Carlier, A
    Facq, JV
    Rubio, A
    Lazure, P
    Delauney, L
    Petihakis, G
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Artigas, F
    Farcy, P
    DEPLOYMENT OF NEW OBSERVING SYSTEMS WITHIN THE JERICO-RI2017In: OPERATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY: Serving Sustainable Marine Development, 2017, p. 43-51Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key message of the JERICO-RI consortium (2014): “The complexity of the coastal ocean cannot be well understood if interconnection between physics, biogeochemistry and biology is not guaranteed. Such integration requires new technological developments allowing continuous monitoring of a larger set of parameters”. In agreement with this consideration, several new observing systems are developed, tested and deployed in the framework of the JERICO-NEXT H2020 project, amongst which a few of them will be presented as well as some preliminary results after the first deployments. Focus will be given on coastal transports and hydrology and on benthic biodiversity. In the first case, we will present a low cost 2D moored system dedicated to acquire vertical temperature profiles in shallow waters and its application to study the high frequency hydrodynamics. In addition, during one of the campaigns foreseen for testing these new systems in an area covered by HF radar, hydrographic and current measurements in the water column, together with phytoplankton and plastic sampling, were conducted. In the second case, attention will be drawn on a new floating pulled system dedicated to observe benthic habitat without disturbing it.

  • 26. Puillat, I.
    et al.
    Farcy, P.
    Durand, D.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Petihakis, G.
    Seppala, J.
    Sparnocchia, S.
    Progress in marine science supported by European joint coastal observation systems: The JERICO-RI research infrastructure2016In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 162, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. von Schuckmann, Karina
    et al.
    Le Traon, Pierre-Yves
    Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Balmaseda, Magdalena
    Breivik, Lars-Anders
    Brewin, Robert J. W.
    Bricaud, Clement
    Drevillon, Marie
    Drillet, Yann
    Dubois, Clotilde
    Embury, Owen
    Etienne, Hélène
    Sotillo, Marcos García
    Garric, Gilles
    Gasparin, Florent
    Gutknecht, Elodie
    Guinehut, Stéphanie
    Hernandez, Fabrice
    Juza,, Melanie
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Korres, Gerasimos
    Legeais, Jean-François
    Levier, Bruno
    Lien, Vidar S.
    Morrow, Rosemary
    Notarstefano, Giulio
    Parent, Laurent
    Pascual, Álvaro
    PérezGómez, Begoña
    Perruche, Coralie
    Pinardi, Nadia
    Pisano, Andrea
    Poulain, Pierre-Marie
    Pujol, Isabelle M.
    Raj, Roshin P.
    Raudsepp, Urmas
    Roquet, Hervé
    Samuelsen, Annette
    Sathyendranath, Shubha
    She, Jun
    Simoncelli, Simona
    Cosimo, Solidoro
    Tinker, Jonathan
    Tintoré, Joaquín
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ablain, Michael
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Bonaduce, Antonio
    Clementi, Emanuela
    Cossarini, Gianpiero
    Dagneaux, Quentin
    Desportes, Charles
    Dye, Stephen
    Fratianni, Claudia
    Good, Simon
    Greiner, Eric
    Gourrion, Jerome
    Hamon, Mathieu
    Holt, Jason
    Hyder, Pat
    Kennedy, John
    ManzanoMuñoz, Fernando
    Melet, Angélique
    Meyssignac, Benoit
    Mulet, Sandrine
    Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno
    O´Dea, Enda
    Olason, Einar
    Paulmier, Aurélien
    Pérez-González, Irene
    Reid, Rebecca
    Racault, Marie-Fanny
    Raitsos, Dionysios E.
    Ramos,, Antonio
    Sykes, Peter
    Szekely, Tanguy
    Verbrugge, Nathalie
    The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service Ocean State Report2017In: Journal of operational oceanography. Publisher: The Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology, ISSN 1755-876X, E-ISSN 1755-8778, Vol. 9, no Sup.2, p. 235-320Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Walve, J
    et al.
    Höglander, H
    Andersson, A
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Karlsson, C
    Johansen, Marie
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Phytoplankton in coastal waters2016In: Ecological Assessment of Swedish Water Bodies; development, harmonisation and integration of biological indicators.: Final report of the research programme WATERS. Deliverable 1.1-4, WATERS report no 2016:10. Havsmiljöinstitutet, Sweden, 95-106., 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29. Wells, Mark L.
    et al.
    Trainer, Vera L.
    Smayda, Theodore J.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Trick, Charles G.
    Kudela, Raphael M.
    Ishikawa, Akira
    Bernard, Stewart
    Wulff, Angela
    Anderson, Donald M.
    Cochlan, William P.
    Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future2015In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 49, p. 68-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change pressures will influence marine planktonic systems globally, and it is conceivable that harmful algal blooms may increase in frequency and severity. These pressures will be manifest as alterations in temperature, stratification, light, ocean acidification, precipitation-induced nutrient inputs, and grazing, but absence of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms driving harmful algal blooms frustrates most hope of forecasting their future prevalence. Summarized here is the consensus of a recent workshop held to address what currently is known and not known about the environmental conditions that favor initiation and maintenance of harmful algal blooms. There is expectation that harmful algal bloom (HAB) geographical domains should expand in some cases, as will seasonal windows of opportunity for harmful algal blooms at higher latitudes. Nonetheless there is only basic information to speculate upon which regions or habitats HAB species may be the most resilient or susceptible. Moreover, current research strategies are not well suited to inform these fundamental linkages. There is a critical absence of tenable hypotheses for how climate pressures mechanistically affect HAB species, and the lack of uniform experimental protocols limits the quantitative cross-investigation comparisons essential to advancement. A HAB "best practices" manual would help foster more uniform research strategies and protocols, and selection of a small target list of model HAB species or isolates for study would greatly promote the accumulation of knowledge. Despite the need to focus on keystone species, more studies need to address strain variability within species, their responses under multifactorial conditions, and the retrospective analyses of long-term plankton and cyst core data; research topics that are departures from the norm. Examples of some fundamental unknowns include how larger and more frequent extreme weather events may break down natural biogeographic barriers, how stratification may enhance or diminish HAB events, how trace nutrients (metals, vitamins) influence cell toxicity, and how grazing pressures may leverage, or mitigate HAB development. There is an absence of high quality time-series data in most regions currently experiencing HAB outbreaks, and little if any data from regions expected to develop HAB events in the future. A subset of observer sites is recommended to help develop stronger linkages among global, national, and regional climate change and HAB observation programs, providing fundamental datasets for investigating global changes in the prevalence of harmful algal blooms. Forecasting changes in HAB patterns over the next few decades will depend critically upon considering harmful algal blooms within the competitive context of plankton communities, and linking these insights to ecosystem, oceanographic and climate models. From a broader perspective, the nexus of HAB science and the social sciences of harmful algal blooms is inadequate and prevents quantitative assessment of impacts of future HAB changes on human wellbeing. These and other fundamental changes in HAB research will be necessary if HAB science is to obtain compelling evidence that climate change has caused alterations in HAB distributions, prevalence or character, and to develop the theoretical, experimental, and empirical evidence explaining the mechanisms underpinning these ecological shifts. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30. Wells, M.L
    et al.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Harmful Algal Blooms in a Changing Ocean2018In: Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, Ecological Studies, vol. 232: Presents the key research areas of the international GEOHAB programme / [ed] Glibert, P.M., Berdalet, E., Burford, M.A., Pitcher, G.C., Zhou, M. (Eds.), Springer International Publishing , 2018, 1, p. 77-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31. Zhang, Daoxi
    et al.
    Lavender, Samantha
    Muller, Jan-Peter
    Walton, David
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kronsell, Johan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Determination of phytoplankton abundances (Chlorophyll-a) in the optically complex inland water - The Baltic Sea2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 601, p. 1060-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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