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  • 701.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen.
    Kvävetransport till Slätbaken från Söderköpingsåns avrinningsområde1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 702.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Source apportionment of riverine nitrogen transport based on catchment modelling1996Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 33, nr 4-5, s. 109-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Source apportionment of river substance transport, i.e. estimation of how much each source in each subbasin contributes to the river-mouth transport is a vital step in achieving the most efficient management practices to reduce pollutant loads to the sea. In this study, the spatially lumped (at sub-catchment level), semiempirical PULSE hydrological model, with a nitrogen routine coupled to if was used to perform source apportionment of nitrogen transport in the Soderkopingsan river basin (882 km(2)) in south-eastern Sweden, for the period 1991-93. The river basin was divided into 28 subbasins and the following sources were considered: land leakage from the categories forest arable and ley/pasture; point sources, and; atmospheric deposition on lake surfaces. The calibrated model yielded an explained variance of 60%, based on comparison of measured and modelled river nitrogen (Total N) concentrations. Eight subbasins, with net contributions to the river-mouth transport exceeding 3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), were identified as the most promising candidates for cost efficient nitrogen management. The other 20 subbasins all had net contributions below 3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). Arable land contributed 63% of the nitrogen transport at the river mouth and would thus be in focus for management measures. However, point sources (18% contribution to net transport) should also be considered due to their relatively high accessibility for removal measures (high concentrations). E.g., the most downstream subbasin, with the largest wastewater treatment plant in the whole river basin, had a net contribution of 16 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). This method for source apportionment may provide authorities with quantitative information about where in a river basin, and at which sources, they should focus their attention. However, once this is done, an analysis with higher resolution has to be performed in each of the interesting subbasins, before decisions on actual management measures can be taken. Copyright (C) 1996 IAWQ.

  • 703.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen.
    Tobiason, S
    Nitrogen removal from pretreated wastewater in surface flow wetlands1995Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 69-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The wastewater treatment plant in the town of Oxelosund (12,500 inhabitants), Sweden, has mechanical and chemical treatment for removal of BOD and phosphorus. With the aim to achieve 50% nitrogen removal, a surface flow wetland system of 21 ha was created as a final step during 1993. It consists of 5 cells, where 2+2 are operated in parallel with a final common cell, This allows intermittent filling and emptying, the goal of which is to promote both nitrification and denitrification for a design flow of 6000 m(3) day(-1). During the first year of operation, August 1993 to July 1994, the wetland removed 720 kg ha(-1) of total nitrogen from the load of 1810 kg ha(-1). Ammonium-N was the dominant fraction at the inlet as well as at the outlet, 79% and 90% of total nitrogen, respectively. The large fraction of NH4+ at the outlet showed that nitrification was the limiting step. An intensive monitoring effort in May 1994 indicated that neither wastewater toxicity nor oxygen deficiency were likely to limit nitrification. Instead, sub-optimal hydraulic loading conditions; a lack of suitable surfaces for ion exchange of NH4+ as well as for attachment of nitrifiers; and phosphorus deficiency, were considered potentially important factors in limiting nitrification. In addition to nitrogen removal, the wetland system reduced total phosphorus, BOD7 and E. coli (44 degrees C) to very low levels at the outlet.

  • 704. Wolski, Tomasz
    et al.
    Wisniewski, Bernard
    Giza, Andrzej
    Kowalewska-Kalkowska, Halina
    Boman, Hanna
    Grabbi-Kaiv, Silve
    Hammarklint, Thomas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Holfort, Juergen
    Lydeikaite, Zydrune
    Extreme sea levels at selected stations on the Baltic Sea coast2014Ingår i: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 259-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and describe the extreme characteristics of the water levels and illustrate them as the topography of the sea surface along the whole Baltic Sea coast. The general pattern is to show the maxima and minima of Baltic Sea water levels and the extent of their variations in the period from 1960 to 2010. A probability analysis is carried out on the annual sea level maxima and minima for 31 water level gauges in order to define the probability of occurrence of theoretical sea levels once in a specific number of years. The spatial distribution of sea levels for hundred-year maximum and minimum water levels is illustrated. Then, the number of storm surges for the accepted criteria are presented: these numbers increased in the 50-year period analysed. The final part of the work analyses some extreme storm events and calculates the static value and dynamic deformation of the sea surface by mesoscale, deep low-pressure systems.

  • 705. Worman, A.
    et al.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Riml, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    The power of runoff2017Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 548, s. 784-793Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 706. Worman, Anders
    et al.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Akesson, Anna
    Riml, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Drifting runoff periodicity during the 20th century due to changing surface water volume2010Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, nr 26, s. 3772-3784Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourier and wavelet analyses were used to reveal the dominant trends and coherence of a more than one-century-long time series of precipitation and discharge in several watersheds in Sweden, two of which were subjected to hydropower and intensive agriculture. During the 20th century, there was a gradual, significant drift of the dominant discharge periodicity in agricultural watersheds. This study shows that the steepness of the Fourier spectrum of runoff from the May to October period each year increased gradually during the century, which suggests a more predictable intra-annual runoff pattern (more apart from white-noise). In the agricultural watershed, the coherence spectrum of precipitation and runoff is generally high with a consistent white-noise relationship for precipitation during the 20th century, indicating that precipitation is not controlling the drift of the discharge spectrum. In the hydropower regulated watershed, there was a sudden decrease of the discharge spectrum slope when regulation commenced in the 1920s. This study develops a new theory in which the runoff spectrum is related to the hydraulic and hydro-morphological characteristics of the watershed. Using this theory, we explain the changes in runoff spectra in the two watersheds by the anthropogenic change in surface water volume and, hence, changes in kinematic wave celerity and water transit times. The reduced water volume in the agricultural watershed would also contribute to decreasing evaporation, which could explain a slightly increasing mean discharge during the 20th century despite the fact that precipitation was statistically constant in the area. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 707.
    Wu, Lichuan
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Hristov, Tihomir
    Rutgersson, Anna
    SMHI.
    Vertical Profiles of Wave-Coherent Momentum Flux and Velocity Variances in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer2018Ingår i: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 625-641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 708. Wulff, A.
    et al.
    Karlberg, M.
    Olofsson, M.
    Torstensson, A.
    Riemann, L.
    Steinhoff, F. S.
    Chierici, M.
    Mohlin, Malin
    SMHI.
    Ekstrand, N.
    THE FUTURE FOR BALTIC CYANOBACTERIA?2017Ingår i: Phycologia, ISSN 0031-8884, E-ISSN 2330-2968, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 199-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 709. Wulff, Angela
    et al.
    Karlberg, Maria
    Olofsson, Malin
    Torstensson, Anders
    Riemann, Lasse
    Steinhoff, Franciska S.
    Mohlin, Malin
    SMHI.
    Ekstrand, Nina
    Chierici, Melissa
    Ocean acidification and desalination: climate-driven change in a Baltic Sea summer microplanktonic community2018Ingår i: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 165, nr 4, artikel-id 63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 710. WULFF, F
    et al.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    LONG-TERM, SEASONAL AND SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND SILICATE IN THE BALTIC - AN OVERVIEW1988Ingår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 19-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 711. WULFF, F
    et al.
    STIGEBRANDT, A
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    NUTRIENT DYNAMICS OF THE BALTIC SEA1990Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 126-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 712.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    A model sensitivity study for the sea-air exchange of methane in the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean2014Ingår i: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 66, artikel-id 24174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ocean's sinks and sources determine the concentration of methane in the water column and by that regulating the emission of methane to the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate how sensitive the sea-air exchange of methane is to increasing/decreasing sinks and sources as well as changes of different drivers with a time-dependent biogeochemical budget model for one of the shallow shelf sea in the Siberian Arctic, the Laptev Sea. The applied changes are: increased air temperature, river discharge, wind, atmospheric methane, concentration of nutrients in the river runoff or flux of methane from the sediment. Furthermore, simulations are performed to examine how the large range in observations for methane concentration in the Lena River as well as the rate of oxidation affects the net sea-air exchange. In addition, a simulation with five of these changes applied together was carried out to simulate expected climate change at the end of this century. The result indicates that none of the simulations changed the seawater to becoming a net sink for atmospheric methane and all simulations except three increased the outgassing to the atmosphere. The three exceptions were: doubling the atmospheric methane, decreasing the rivers' concentration of methane and increasing the oxidation rate where the latter is one of the key mechanisms controlling emission of methane to the atmosphere.

  • 713.
    Wåhlström, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Impact of increasing inflow of warm Atlantic water on the sea-air exchange of carbon dioxide and methane in the Laptev Sea2016Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 121, nr 7, s. 1867-1883Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 714.
    Wåhlström, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Evaluation of open sea boundary conditions for the coastal zone. A model study in the northern part of the Baltic Proper.2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljötillståndet i Sveriges kustvatten är starkt kopplat till tillståndet i det öppna havet på grund av det stora vattenutbytet mellan dessa. Det är därför viktigt att modeller utvecklade för kustzonens vatten har drivning från utsjön av god kvalitet med bra täckning i tid och rum samt med information om de variabler som krävs.

    För att beräkna vattenkvalitén i kustnära vatten har SMHI utvecklat en modell kallad kustzonsmodellen (SCM). Den drivs för närvarande från öppna havet av resultatfiler från en en-dimensionell modell som med hjälp av observationer har korrigerat och förbättrat modellresultaten. Tyvärr är dessa observationer undermåliga i tid och rum, och saknar nödvändiga variabler för att få bra drivning av SCM modellen. Dessa mätstationer ligger också längre ut i öppna havet och kan därför underskatta variabiliteten närmare kusten för de olika parametrarna. Dessa problem löses delvis med den en-dimensionella modellen som beräknar alla de variabler som är nödvändiga i SCM. Dock är dessa resultat inte användbara om man vill undersöka en historisk period eller framtida klimatförändringar i kustzonen. På grund av dessa tillkortakommanden undersöker vi i denna studie om det är möjligt att istället ersätta dagens drivning från öppna havet med resultat från en tre-dimensionell, kopplad fysisk och biogeokemisk modell för Östersjön som drivning för SCM, framförallt för att undersöka de två ovan nämnda perioder.

    I denna studie har sju känslighetsexperiment utförts i en pilotstudie för Norra Östersjön, inklusive Stockholms skärgård. De sju känslighetsexperimenten utfördes för att utvärdera olika metoder att extrahera resultat-filer från den tre-dimensionella modellen RCO-SCOBI med avsikt att användas som drivning för SCM. RCO-SCOBI är en modell för Östersjön med hög horisontell och vertikal upplösning av de variabler som krävs. Resultaten för både de fysiska och biogeokemiska processerna från de olika testen undersöktes och utvärderades mot observationer i kustzonen med hjälp av en statistisk metod.

    Slutsaten från dessa test är att resultatfiler från RCO-SCOBI är tillämpbara som utsjödrivning för SCM. Den bästa metoden är att extrahera en djupprofil per variabel för varje ytterbassäng i SCM i en punkt 10 nautiska mil österut och 10 nautiska mil söderut i egentliga Östersjön eller norrut i Bottenhavet för varje ytterbassäng i SCM.

  • 715.
    Xingnan, Zhang
    SMHI.
    A comparative study of the HBV model and development of an automatic calibration scheme1994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a compari on between two rainfall-runoff models, namely the Swedish HBV model and the Chinese Xinanjiang medel, together with some examples of applications of the two models. It further contains a more detailed study of automatic calibration schemes for the HBV model, as well as the development of a new optimization scheme. The work was carried out by Dr ZHANG Xingnan, on a six month research leave from the Hohai University in Nanjing, China. Dr ZHANGs stay at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological lnstitute was made possible by a grant from the Swedish lnstitute. Dr ZHANG worked in close cooperation with the staff of the SMID. The work presented herein was done within the framework of the HBV-2000 project. This project is a revision of the HBV model structure, which has remained relatively unchanged since its development some twenty years ago.

  • 716.
    Yang, Wei
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Andreasson, Johan
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Wetterhall, Fredrik
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Distribution-based scaling to improve usability of regional climate model projections for hydrological climate change impacts studies2010Ingår i: HYDROLOGY RESEARCH, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 41, nr 3-4, s. 211-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As climate change could have considerable influence on hydrology and corresponding water management, appropriate climate change inputs should be used for assessing future impacts. Although the performance of regional climate models (RCMs) has improved over time, systematic model biases still constrain the direct use of RCM output for hydrological impact studies. To address this, a distribution-based scaling (DBS) approach was developed that adjusts precipitation and temperature from RCMs to better reflect observations. Statistical properties, such as daily mean, standard deviation, distribution and frequency of precipitation days, were much improved for control periods compared to direct RCM output. DBS-adjusted precipitation and temperature from two IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRESA1B) transient climate projections were used as inputs to the HBV hydrological model for several river basins in Sweden for the period 1961-2100. Hydrological results using DBS were compared to results with the widely-used delta change (DC) approach for impact studies. The general signal of a warmer and wetter climate was obtained using both approaches, but use of DBS identified differences between the two projections that were not seen with DC. The DBS approach is thought to better preserve the future variability produced by the RCM, improving usability for climate change impact studies.

  • 717.
    Yang, Wei
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Bardossy, Andras
    Caspary, Hans-Joachim
    Downscaling daily precipitation time series using a combined circulation- and regression-based approach2010Ingår i: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 102, nr 3-4, s. 439-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new conditional statistical model for generating daily precipitation time series. The generated daily precipitation can thus be used for climate change impact studies, e.g., crop production, rainfall-runoff, and other water-related processes. It is a stochastic model that links local rainfall events to a continuous atmospheric predictor, moisture flux, in addition to classified atmospheric circulation patterns. The coupled moisture flux is proved to be capable of capturing continuous property of climate system and providing extra information to determine rainfall probability and rainfall amount. The application was made to simultaneously downscale daily precipitation at multiple sites within the Rhine River basin. The results show that the model can well reproduce statistical properties of daily precipitation time series. Especially for extreme rainfall events, the model is thought to better reflect rainfall variability compared to the pure CP-based downscaling approach.

  • 718.
    Yang, Wei
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Bosshard, Thomas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Multi-variable bias correction: application of forest fire risk in present and future climate in Sweden2015Ingår i: Natural hazards and earth system sciences, ISSN 1561-8633, E-ISSN 1684-9981, Vol. 15, nr 9, s. 2037-2057Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the risk of a forest fire is largely influenced by weather, evaluating its tendency under a changing climate becomes important for management and decision making. Currently, biases in climate models make it difficult to realistically estimate the future climate and consequent impact on fire risk. A distribution-based scaling (DBS) approach was developed as a post-processing tool that intends to correct systematic biases in climate modelling outputs. In this study, we used two projections, one driven by historical reanalysis (ERA40) and one from a global climate model (ECHAM5) for future projection, both having been dynamically down-scaled by a regional climate model (RCA3). The effects of the post-processing tool on relative humidity and wind speed were studied in addition to the primary variables precipitation and temperature. Finally, the Canadian Fire Weather Index system was used to evaluate the influence of changing meteorological conditions on the moisture content in fuel layers and the fire-spread risk. The forest fire risk results using DBS are proven to better reflect risk using observations than that using raw climate outputs. For future periods, southern Sweden is likely to have a higher fire risk than today, whereas northern Sweden will have a lower risk of forest fire.

  • 719. Yin, Yunxing
    et al.
    Jiang, Sanyuan
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Yang, Xiaoying
    Liu, Qun
    Yuan, Jin
    Yao, Mingxing
    He, Yi
    Luo, Xingzhang
    Zheng, Zheng
    Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality for Agricultural Lands with Crop Rotation in China by Using a HYPE Model2016Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many water quality models have been successfully used worldwide to predict nutrient losses from anthropogenically impacted catchments, but hydrological and nutrient simulations with limited data are difficult considering the transfer of model parameters and complication of model calibration and validation. This study aims: (i) to assess the performance capabilities of a new and relatively more advantageous model, namely, Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE), that simulates stream flow and nutrient load in agricultural areas by using a multi-site and multi-objective parameter calibration method and (ii) to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations and loads with crop rotation by using the model for the first time. A parameter estimation tool (PEST) was used to calibrate parameters. Results show that the parameters related to the effective soil porosity were highly sensitive to hydrological modeling. N balance was largely controlled by soil denitrification processes. P balance was influenced by the sedimentation rate and production/decay of P in rivers and lakes. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variations of discharge and TN/TP relatively well in both calibration (2006-2008) and validation (2009-2010) periods. Among the obtained data, the lowest Nash-Suttclife efficiency of discharge, daily TN load, and daily TP load were 0.74, 0.51, and 0.54, respectively. The seasonal variations of daily TN concentrations in the entire simulation period were insufficient, indicated that crop rotation changed the timing and amount of N output. Monthly TN and TP simulation yields revealed that nutrient outputs were abundant in summer in terms of the corresponding discharge. The area-weighted TN and TP load annual yields in five years showed that nutrient loads were extremely high along Hong and Ru rivers, especially in agricultural lands.

  • 720.
    Zachrisson, Gun
    SMHI.
    Svåra islossningar i Torneälven: Förslag till skadeförebyggande åtgärder1989Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    BakgrundEfter den svåra islossningen i Torneälven 1984 inleddes diskussioner om möjliga åtgärder för att minska skadeverkningama av svåra islossningar i framtiden. Ett förslag till treårsprojekt lades fram av SMHI och Vatten- och miljöstyrelsen (VMS) gemensamt (se figur 1.1). Syftet var att ta fram ett åtgärdsprogram omfattande dels ett prognos- och varningssystem för vårflod och issituation, dels förslag till skadeförebyggande tekniska åtgärder. Projektet startade formellt våren 1986 sedan medel för den svenska delen av arbetet  tällts till förfogande av Civildepartementet. From 1987/88 har Statens Räddningsverk svarat för finansieringen av de svenska insatserna. Den finska delen av projektet har bedrivits inom ramen för Vatten- och miljöstyrelsens ordinarie verksamhet. Resultaten av verksamheten under de gångna tre åren presenteras i föreliggande förslag till åtgärdsprogram.

  • 721. Zandersen, Marianne
    et al.
    Hyytiainen, Kari
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Bauer, Barbara
    Haapasaari, Paivi E.
    Olesen, Jorgen Eivind
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Fridell, Erik
    Pihlainen, Sampo
    Le Tissier, Martin D. A.
    Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa
    Van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    Shared socio-economic pathways extended for the Baltic Sea: exploring long-term environmental problems2019Ingår i: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 1073-1086Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 722. Zhang, Linus
    et al.
    Gustafsson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Editorial: 'The Nordic Hydrology Model' - Linking science and practice2016Ingår i: HYDROLOGY RESEARCH, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 671-671Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 723. Zhang, X N
    et al.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    A comparative study of a Swedish and a Chinese hydrological model1996Ingår i: WATER RESOURCES BULLETIN, ISSN 0043-1370, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 985-994Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a large number of conceptual hydrological models available today. It is not easy to immediately identify the similarities and differences between the different models. The Swedish HBV model and the Chinese Xinanjiang model are two examples of conceptual, semi-distributed, rainfall-runoff models. The Xinanjiang model was designed for use in humid and semi-humid regions, with no routine for the snowmelt runoff, whereas the snow routine is an important part of the HBV model in many applications. The model structures of the two models may be described in four routines, compared in this paper. The integral structures of them are similar, but there are some differences, especially in the runoff production routine. The physical significance and physical definitions of some model parameters were analyzed. Both models were tested in two basins. Both models gave similar results, and both models performed well in the application. The similarity of the results obtained by different model structures leads to the following two conclusions. First, more effort should probably be spent on the improvement of input data quality and coverage than on the development of more detailed model structures only. Second, inference about basin behavior and characteristics from the values of calibrated model parameters must be made with great caution.

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