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  • 701.
    Lundqvist, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Udin, Ingemar
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ice accretion on ships with special emphasis on Baltic conditions1977Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the middle of the 1960-ties, ice accretion reports have been collected from ships travelling in the Baltic. The data from these reports have been processed and the relation between ice accretion and meteorological and oceanographic parameters have been studied. The investigation comprises merchant vessels of a size typical for the Baltic. This report presents the results from the icing campaign. It contains a general description, including factors causing icing, the freezing process etc. Results from other investigations have been studied and comparisons made. Forecasting of ice accretion is discussed and the method now used at SMHI is described. Finally some comments are given on how to avoid or decrease the ice accretion.

  • 702.
    Collins, William.G.
    SMHI.
    A parameterization model for calculation of vertical fluxes of momentum due to terrain induced gravity waves1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various sources of informatio n indicate vertic al fluxes of mountain induced wave momentum to be on the order of several tenths of a Pascal over mountaineous terrain . The implied wind tendencies in layers of wave absorption in typical situations are several meters per second per day . On the basis of the size of this probable effect , a parameterization model has been developed to calculate t h e momentum fluxes within the framework of a large- scale numerical weather prediction model. The calculation model assumes a continuous linear wind profile as well as constant stability within each layer . The hydrostatic assumption is made for the total motion . The vertical velocities and resultant vertical momenturn fluxes are caused by the air being forced over the topography . For this mode l , the individual spectral elements of the terrain height are not important . Rather , an integral ov er the elements is used as the forcing function which determines the momen - turn flux magnitude . This forcing function must be determine-d as a function of horizontal direction for each largescale grid box . Sample calculations are given which illustrate the results possible from the parameterization model .

  • 703.
    Nyberg, Anders
    SMHI.
    On transport of sulphur over the North Atlantic1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sulphur content in the precipitation collected 1 on ocean weather ships in the North Atlantic has been analysed . From these data and from results of trajectory computations it is concluded that considerable amounts of anthropogenic sulphur are transported from North America towards Europe. The dry deposition of sulphur over the Atlantic , except close to the emitting sources, must be very small. The amount of sulphur in the precipitation from air coming from the high pressure area near the Azores is very small and thus one can say that the normal value of natural sulphur in precipitation cannot be much larger than 0.1 mg/1.

  • 704.
    Holmström, Ingemar
    SMHI.
    Optimization of atmospheric models1976Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying variational methods toa mathematical model of the atmosphere an entirely new type of equations for forecasting atmospheric parameters is derived. The method also defines vertical eigenfunctions to the model. In a simplified case some of the eigenfunctions are compared with empirically obtained data and conclusions are drawn regarding the validity of some of the approximations in the mathematical model.

  • 705.
    Moen, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    A multi-level quasi-geostrophic model for short range weather predictions1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A quite generally formulated multilevel quasi-geostrophic medel with possibilities to include second order terms in the vorticity equation is derived. The model includes friction, topography, latent heat and sensible heat. The treatment of the variable boundary conditions, smoothing and ellipticity control is described.

  • 706.
    Thompson, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Udin, Ingemar
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Sea surface temperatures in waters surrounding Sweden1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the sub-projects within the sea ice research programme carried out at SMHI deals with the thermodynamics of the sea and the ice. In these studies the sea surface temperature plays a fundamental r ole. During the latest years considerable efforts have been made in order to obtain more temperature observations, in particular from the open sea. Various vessels have been equipped with new instruments, the collection of observations improved, the sea surface temperature distribution analyzed every second day and all information stored in digital form.

    The instruments are discribed and their specifications given in the report. Various observational methods are compared and examples of sea surface temperature analyses for the period July 1973 - July 1974  illustrating yearly variations, tendency to circulation patterns, coastal effects, up-welling etc. are given.

  • 707.
    Bodin, Svante
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Development on an unsteady atmospheric boundary layer model1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To serve as an aid in preparing lecal ferecasts as well as landing ferecasts at airports, a develepment ef an atmospheric boundary layer model has been started at SMHI. The model is going to use large scale wind, temperature and moisture predictions from a numerical weather prediction model as variable boundary conditions. Instead ef using the ordinary Ekman boundary layer equations an approach due te L N Gutman (1969) has been used in deriving a set of one-dimensional boundary layer equations. It is shown that this formulation filters out inertial- diffusive oscillations, which are present in an Ekman boundary layer due to time variation in the geostrephic wind.

    Experiments with variable large scale winds have been done, using a simple dry medel with prescribed variations in the boundary values for wind and temperature. A turbulent exchange coefficient formulation has been used, which is based on Monin & Obukhov´s similarity theory and which uses a mixing length formulation due to Blackadar. For the numerical solution a Crank-Nicolson scheme has been used. The computations show large differences between the steady state and the unsteady state solutions.This is shown in wind hodegraphs as well as in time functions of friction velocity,u* and cross isobar angle. Finally, from two different analytical solutions as well as a finite difference solution of the heat conduction equation, heat fluxes at the earth's surface due to heat conduction in the soil have been computed. These analytical solutions have been compared in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

12131415 701 - 707 of 707
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