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  • 61. Miranda, A.I
    et al.
    Martins, Helena
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Valente, J.
    Amorim, Jorge Humberto
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Borrego, C.
    Tavares, R.
    Samson, R.
    del Amo, R.A.
    Case Studies: Modeling the Atmospheric Benefits of Urban Greening2017Inngår i: The Urban Forest - Cultivating Green Infrastructure for People and the Environment / [ed] D. Pearlmutter, C. Calfapietra, R. Samson, L. O'Brien, S.K. Ostoić, G. Sanesi, R.A. del Amo, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 89-99Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62. Baldacchini, Chiara
    et al.
    Castanheiro, Ana
    Maghakyan, Nairuhi
    Sgrigna, Gregorio
    Verhelst, Jolien
    Alonso, Rocio
    Amorim, Jorge Humberto
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bellan, Patrick
    Bojovic, Danijela Dunisijevic
    Breuste, Juergen
    Buhler, Oliver
    Cantar, Ilie C.
    Carinanos, Paloma
    Carriero, Giulia
    Churkina, Galina
    Dinca, Lucian
    Esposito, Raffaela
    Gawronski, Stanislaw W.
    Kern, Maren
    Le Thiec, Didier
    Moretti, Marco
    Ningal, Tine
    Rantzoudi, Eleni C.
    Sinjur, Iztok
    Stojanova, Biljana
    Urosevic, Mira Anicic
    Velikova, Violeta
    Zivojinovic, Ivana
    Sahakyan, Lilit
    Calfapietra, Carlo
    Samson, Roeland
    How Does the Amount and Composition of PM Deposited on Platanus acerifolia Leaves Change Across Different Cities in Europe?2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 1147-1156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 63. Karlsson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl
    Pleijel, Hakan
    Past, present and future concentrations of ground-level ozone and potential impacts on ecosystems and human health in northern Europe2017Inngår i: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 576, s. 22-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 64. Kulshrestha, Monika J.
    et al.
    Singh, Ruchi
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Ambient and Episodic Levels of Metals in PM10 Aerosols and Their Source Apportionment in Central Delhi, India2016Inngår i: JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS TOXIC AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE, ISSN 2153-5493, Vol. 20, nr 4, artikkel-id UNSP A4014002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65. Grote, Ruediger
    et al.
    Samson, Roeland
    Alonso, Rocio
    Amorim, Jorge Humberto
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Carinanos, Paloma
    Churkina, Galina
    Fares, Silvano
    Le Thiec, Didier
    Niinemets, Ulo
    Mikkelsen, Teis Norgaard
    Paoletti, Elena
    Tiwary, Abhishek
    Calfapietra, Carlo
    Functional traits of urban trees: air pollution mitigation potential2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, nr 10, s. 543-550Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66. Soares, Joana
    et al.
    Sofiev, Mikhail
    Geels, Camilla
    Christensen, Jens H.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Impact of climate change on the production and transport of sea salt aerosol on European seas2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 16, nr 20, s. 13081-13104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 67.
    Amorim, Jorge Humberto
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Valente, J.
    Cascao, P.
    Ribeiro, L. M.
    Viegas, D. X.
    Ottmar, R.
    Miranda, A. I.
    Near-source grid-based measurement of CO and PM2.5 concentration during a full-scale fire experiment in southern European shrubland2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 145, s. 19-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 68.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Alpfjord, Helene
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    PODY-beräkningar med MATCH Sverigesystemet2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har utvecklat ett programpaket som möjliggör PODY beräkningar i MATCH Sverigesystemet. Rapporten ger en kortfattad introduktion till PODY och går igenom implementeringen i MATCH-systemet.

    Resultat för receptorerna generic crops (POD3gen-CR) och generic deciduous trees (POD1gen-DT) presenteras för åren 2013-2015 och jämförs med motsvarande data från EMEP-modellen. POD3gen-CR uppvisar stor år-till-år variation och MATCH-resultaten är tydligt högre än motsvarande uppskattningar av EMEP-modellen. POD1gen-DT varierar mindre från år till år och resultaten från MATCH och EMEP-modellen överensstämmer bättre.

    PODY presenteras tillsammans med övriga ozonmått på SMHI:s miljöövervakningssida (www.smhi.se/klimatdata/miljo/atmosfarskemi) med start från miljöövervakningsåret 2013.

  • 69. Watson, Laura
    et al.
    Lacressonniere, Gwendoline
    Gauss, Michael
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Josse, Beatrice
    Marecal, Virginie
    Nyiri, Agnes
    Sobolowski, Stefan
    Siour, Guillaume
    Szopa, Sophie
    Vautard, Robert
    Impact of emissions and+2 degrees C climate change upon future ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 142, s. 271-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 70.
    Kahnert, Michael
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Nousiainen, Timo
    Markkanen, Johannes
    Morphological models for inhomogeneous particles: Light scattering by aerosols, cometary dust, and living cells2016Inngår i: Light Scattering Reviews, Volume 11: Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer / [ed] Kokhanovsky, Alexander, Berlin: Springer , 2016, 2, s. 299-337Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71. Mahmood, Rashed
    et al.
    von Salzen, Knut
    Flanner, Mark
    Sand, Maria
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Wang, Hailong
    Huang, Lin
    Seasonality of global and Arctic black carbon processes in the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme models2016Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 121, nr 12, s. 7100-7116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 72. Silver, Jeremy D.
    et al.
    Christensen, Jesper H.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Rayner, Peter J.
    Brandt, Jorgen
    Multi-species chemical data assimilation with the Danish Eulerian hemispheric model: system description and verification2016Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 261-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 73. Ots, Riinu
    et al.
    Young, Dominique E.
    Vieno, Massimo
    Xu, Lu
    Dunmore, Rachel E.
    Allan, James D.
    Coe, Hugh
    Williams, Leah R.
    Herndon, Scott C.
    Ng, Nga L.
    Hamilton, Jacqueline F.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Di Marco, Chiara
    Nemitz, Eiko
    Mackenzie, Ian A.
    Kuenen, Jeroen J. P.
    Green, David C.
    Reis, Stefan
    Heal, Mathew R.
    Simulating secondary organic aerosol from missing diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound emissions during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 6453-6473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present high-resolution (5aEuro-kmaEuro-aEuro parts per thousand x aEuro-5aEuro-km) atmospheric chemical transport model (ACTM) simulations of the impact of newly estimated traffic-related emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation over the UK for 2012. Our simulations include additional diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions derived directly from comprehensive field measurements at an urban background site in London during the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. Our IVOC emissions are added proportionally to VOC emissions, as opposed to proportionally to primary organic aerosol (POA) as has been done by previous ACTM studies seeking to simulate the effects of these missing emissions. Modelled concentrations are evaluated against hourly and daily measurements of organic aerosol (OA) components derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements also made during the ClearfLo campaign at three sites in the London area. According to the model simulations, diesel-related IVOCs can explain on average aEuro parts per thousand aEuro-30aEuro-% of the annual SOA in and around London. Furthermore, the 90th percentile of modelled daily SOA concentrations for the whole year is 3.8aEuro-A mu gaEuro-m(-3), constituting a notable addition to total particulate matter. More measurements of these precursors (currently not included in official emissions inventories) is recommended. During the period of concurrent measurements, SOA concentrations at the Detling rural background location east of London were greater than at the central London location. The model shows that this was caused by an intense pollution plume with a strong gradient of imported SOA passing over the rural location. This demonstrates the value of modelling for supporting the interpretation of measurements taken at different sites or for short durations.

  • 74.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations for scattering by non-spherical particles: A tutorial review2016Inngår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 178, s. 22-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical solution methods for electromagnetic scattering by non-spherical particles comprise a variety of different techniques, which can be traced back to different assumptions and solution strategies applied to the macroscopic Maxwell equations. One can distinguish between time- and frequency-domain methods; further, one can divide numerical techniques into finite-difference methods (which are based on approximating the differential operators), separation-of-variables methods (which are based on expanding the solution in a complete set of functions, thus approximating the fields), and volume integral-equation methods (which are usually solved by discretisation of the target volume and invoking the long-wave approximation in each volume cell). While existing reviews of the topic often tend to have a target audience of program developers and expert users, this tutorial review is intended to accommodate the needs of practitioners as well as novices to the field. The required conciseness is achieved by limiting the presentation to a selection of illustrative methods, and by omitting many technical details that are not essential at a first exposure to the subject. On the other hand, the theoretical basis of numerical methods is explained with little compromises in mathematical rigour; the rationale is that a good grasp of numerical light scattering methods is best achieved by understanding their foundation in Maxwell's theory. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 75. Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Coupling aerosol optics to the MATCH (v5.5.0) chemical transport model and the SALSA (v1) aerosol microphysics module2016Inngår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 1803-1826Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new aerosol-optics model is implemented in which realistic morphologies and mixing states are assumed, especially for black carbon particles. The model includes both external and internal mixing of all chemical species, it treats externally mixed black carbon as fractal aggregates, and it accounts for inhomogeneous internal mixing of black carbon by use of a novel "core-grey-shell" model. Simulated results of aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical depth, backscattering coefficients and the Angstrom exponent, as well as radiative fluxes are computed with the new optics model and compared with results from an older optics-model version that treats all particles as externally mixed homogeneous spheres. The results show that using a more detailed description of particle morphology and mixing state impacts the aerosol optical properties to a degree of the same order of magnitude as the effects of aerosol-microphysical processes. For instance, the aerosol optical depth computed for two cases in 2007 shows a relative difference between the two optics models that varies over the European region between 28 and 18 %, while the differences caused by the inclusion or omission of the aerosol-microphysical processes range from 50 to 37 %. This is an important finding, suggesting that a simple optics model coupled to a chemical transport model can introduce considerable errors affecting radiative fluxes in chemistry-climate models, compromising comparisons of model results with remote sensing observations of aerosols, and impeding the assimilation of satellite products for aerosols into chemical-transport models.

  • 76. Lacressonniere, Gwendoline
    et al.
    Foret, Gilles
    Beekmann, Matthias
    Siour, Guillaume
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gauss, Michael
    Watson, Laura
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Colette, Augustin
    Josse, Beatrice
    Marecal, Virginie
    Nyiri, Agnes
    Vautard, Robert
    Impacts of regional climate change on air quality projections and associated uncertainties2016Inngår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 136, nr 2, s. 309-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 77. Markakis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Valari, Myrto
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Lacressonniere, Gwendoline
    Vautard, Robert
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 1877-1894Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine-and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to 5% for Paris and 2% for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between 5 and 10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3% depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15% for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20% for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NO x emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5% in Paris. Climate and not emission change appears to be the most influential factor for maximum ozone concentration over the city of Paris, which may be particularly interesting from a health impact perspective.

  • 78. Borrego, C.
    et al.
    Amorim, Jorge Humberto
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Tchepel, O.
    Dias, D.
    Rafael, S.
    Sa, E.
    Pimentel, C.
    Fontes, T.
    Fernandes, P.
    Pereira, S. R.
    Bandeira, J. M.
    Coelho, M. C.
    Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 131, s. 341-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 79. Sand, M.
    et al.
    Berntsen, T. K.
    von Salzen, K.
    Flanner, M. G.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Victor, D. G.
    Response of Arctic temperature to changes in emissions of short-lived climate forcers2016Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 286-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing scientific(1,2) and political(3,4) interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased at twice the global rate, largely as a result of ice-albedo and temperature feedbacks(5-8). Although deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs; refs 9,10). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly than for mitigation of CO2 and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality(11). This Letter is one of the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCFs emissions, taking into account black carbon (BC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone (O-3), and their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. This study extends the scope of previous works(2,12) by including more detailed calculations of Arctic radiative forcing and quantifying the Arctic temperature response. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations owing to the large absolute amount of emissions. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. Astringent, but technically feasible mitigation scenario for SLCFs, phased in from 2015 to 2030, could cut warming by 0.2 (+/- 0.17) K in 2050.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Arvelius, Johan
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Verbova, Marina
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Torstensson, Martin
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Identifiering av potentiella riskområden för höga halter av benso(a)pyren Nationell kartering av emissioner och halter av B(a)P från vedeldning i småhusområden2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien är en kartläggning och screening av emissioner och halter av benso(a)pyren (B(a)P) i Sverige. Syftet är att identifiera potentiella riskområden för överskridande av miljökvalitetsnormen (MKN). Ett övervägande bidrag till haltnivåerna till B(a)P är emissioner från den småskaliga vedeldningen, varför studien går ut på att beräkna och fördela emissionerna från uppvärmning av småhus. Metodiken består översiktligt av tre delar; beräkning av kommunvisa emissioner av B(a)P i Sverige, fördelning av dessa årsemissioner inom kommunerna på ett raster om 1 km × 1 km samt beräkning av årsmedelhalter utifrån detta emissionsraster. För att beräkna kommunvisa årsemissioner av B(a)P utnyttjas statistik från MSB över antalet eldstäder, modellerade värden på småhusens energibehov från ENLOSS, antaganden om eldvanor och emissionsfaktorer per typ av eldstad. De kommunvisa emissionerna fördelas sedan inom kommunen i ett grid om 1 km × 1 km utgående från antal kvadratmeter boyta småhus per km2 från fastighetsregistret. För pannor används dessutom tätortsvis statistik från Energimarknadsinspektionen över antal anslutna småhus till fjärrvärmenät, som vi enligt egen fördelning applicerar tätortsvis. Slutligen beräknas årsmedelhalter av B(a)P utifrån emissionsrastret på 1 km × 1 km utgående från linjära samband mellan emissioner och halter från tidigare genomförda lokalskaliga spridningsberäkningar med SIMAIR-ved i Västerbottenprojektet. Huvudslutsatserna från studien är följande: • De högsta årsemissionerna av B(a)P från vedpannor, som står för i särklass högst emission per enhet och därmed har störst påverkan på den lokala luftkvaliteten, beräknas för Skellefteå (18 200 g år–1) följt av Örnsköldsvik (13 600 g år–1), Gotland (13 500 g år–1), Sundsvall (12 900 g år–1) och Hudiksvall (12 300 g år–1). • Utifrån ett linjärt antagande mellan emissioner och halter fås kommunvisa årsmedelhalter av B(a)P 2012 på 0.03 – 1.03 ng m–3 för haltmåttet kartans högsta värde (KHV). Motsvarande värden för kartans ytmedelvärde (KYM) är 0.01 – 0.25 ng m–3. • Beräkningarna indikerar att det föreligger risk för överskridande av MKN (>1.0 ng m–3) i vissa enskilda gridrutor i tätorterna Sollefteå och Laholm (avseende årsmedelhalt av B(a)P uttryckt som KHV). Höga årsmedelhalter (>0.8 ng m–3) fås även för Kramfors, Säffle, Arvidsjaur, Boden, Skellefteå och Trollhättan. Detta är kommuner med en stor andel vedpannor i förhållande till lokaleldstäder. • Merparten (273 av 290) av kommunerna i Sverige har haltnivåer (KHV) högre än miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk luft (>0.1 ng m–3). Här är påverkan även betydande för utsläpp från trivseleldning med lokaleldstäder. • Studien ska ses som en översiktlig kartläggning och screening av emissioner och halter av B(a)P från småskaliga vedeldningen. Beräkningarna kan anses representera ett ”worst case”. • Den i särklass största osäkerheten vad gäller indata är statistiken från MSB över antalet eldstäder per kommun, samt hur eldstäderna fördelas mellan olika kommuner i gemensamma räddningstjänstområden. Detaljeringsgraden av underlaget samt klassificeringen av eldstäderna kan variera betydligt mellan olika kommuner/räddningstjänstförbund. För kommuner som enligt beräkningarna har haltnivåer som överskrider eller är nära att överskrida MKN rekommenderas, i ett första steg, att en noggrannare granskning/inventering görs av indata som används i beräkningarna, i synnerhet antalet eldstäder. In this report methods and results are presented from downscaling of about 40 climate

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