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  • 61.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Johansson, Johannes
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Linders, Johanna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mohlin, Malin
    SMHI.
    Willstrand Wranne, Anna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Distribution of cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea2017In: Marine and Fresh-Water Harmful Algae. / [ed] Proenca, L. A. O. and Hallegraeff, G., International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2017, p. 100-103Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Algblomningar - en utmaning för miljöövervakning och forskning2017In: Västerhavet, ISSN 1104-3458, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Förödande algblomning drabbar hela Västerhavets ekosystem2017In: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 77-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kraftfulla alggifter bromsar musselodlingens framväxt2017In: Havet 1988 / [ed] Svedäng H, Svärd M, Johansen Lilja T, Lundberg F, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 86-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Arneborg, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lensu, Mikko
    Ljungman, Olof
    Mattsson, Johan
    Oil drift modeling in pack ice - Sensitivity to oil-in-ice parameters2017In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 144, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66. Ho-Hagemann, Ha Thi Minh
    et al.
    Groger, Matthias
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Rockel, Burkhardt
    Zahn, Matthias
    Geyer, Beate
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Effects of air-sea coupling over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on simulated summer precipitation over Central Europe2017In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 49, no 11-12, p. 3851-3876Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lindqvist, Stina
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Bartoli, Marco
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Burska, Dorota
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hellemann, Dana
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hietanen, Susanna
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hulth, Stefan
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janas, Urszula
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Kendzierska, Halina
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Pryputniewicz-Flis, Dorota
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Voss, Maren
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Zilius, Mindaugas
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Linking process rates with modellingdata and ecosystem characteristics2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is related to the BONUS project “Nutrient Cocktails in COAstal zones of the Baltic Sea” alias COCOA. The aim of BONUS COCOA is to investigate physical, biogeochemical and biological processes in a combined and coordinated fashion to improve the understanding of the interaction of these processes on the removal of nutrients along the land-sea interface. The report is especially related to BONUS COCOA WP 6 in which the main objective is extrapolation of results from the BONUS COCOA learning sites to coastal sites around the Baltic Sea in general. Specific objectives of this deliverable (D6.4) were to connect observed process rates with modelling data and ecosystem characteristics.

    In the report we made statistical analyses of observations from BONUS COCOA study sites together with results from the Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM). Eight structural variables (water depth, temperature, salinity, bottom water concentrations of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate and phosphate, as well as nitrogen content in sediment) were found common to both the experimentally determined and the model data sets. The observed process rate evaluated in this report was denitrification. In addition regressions were tested between observed denitrification rates and several structural variables (latitude, longitude, depth, light, temperature, salinity, grain class, porosity, loss of ignition, sediment organic carbon, total nitrogen content in the sediment,  sediment carbon/nitrogen-ratio, sediment chlorphyll-a as well as bottom water concentrations of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate, and dissolved inorganic  phosphorus and silicate) for pooled data from all learning sites.

    The statistical results showed that experimentally determined multivariate data set from the shallow, illuminated stations was mainly found to be similar to the multivariate data set produced by the SCM model. Generally, no strong correlations of simple relations between observed denitrification and available structural variables were found for data collected from all the learning sites. We found some non-significant correlation between denitrification rates and bottom water dissolved inorganic phosphorous and dissolved silica but the reason behind the correlations is not clear.

    We also developed and evaluated a theory to relate process rates to monitoring data and nutrient retention. The theoretical analysis included nutrient retention due to denitrification as well as burial of phosphorus and nitrogen. The theory of nutrient retention showed good correlations with model results. It was found that area-specific nitrogen and phosphorus retention capacity in a sub-basin depend much on mean water depth, water residence time, basin area and the mean nutrient concentrations in the active sediment layer and in the water column.

  • 68.
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hieronymus, Jenny
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Sea level modelling in the Baltic and the North Sea: The respective role of different parts of the forcing2017In: Ocean Modelling, ISSN 1463-5003, E-ISSN 1463-5011, Vol. 118, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69. Bjork, Goran
    et al.
    Nordberg, Kjell
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Bornmalm, Lennart
    Harland, Rex
    Robijn, Ardo
    Odalen, Malin
    Seasonal oxygen depletion in a shallow sill fjord on the Swedish west coast2017In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 175, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Saraiva, Sofia
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Fernandes, L.
    van der Meer, J.
    Neves, R.
    Kooijman, S. A. L. M.
    The role of bivalves in the Balgzand: First steps on an integrated modelling approach2017In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 359, p. 34-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71. Ikauniece, Anda
    et al.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kalnina, Laimdota
    Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 195, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Pemberton, Per
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Löptien, Ulrike
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Haapala, Jari
    Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 3105-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73. Hall, Per O. J.
    et al.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Dale, Andrew W.
    Hylén, Astrid
    Kononets, Mikhail
    Nilsson, Madeleine
    Sommer, Stefan
    van de Velde, Sebastiaan
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Influence of Natural Oxygenation of Baltic Proper Deep Water on Benthic Recycling and Removal of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Silicon and Carbon2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, no 27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74. Sommer, Stefan
    et al.
    Clemens, David
    Yücel, Mustafa
    Pfannkuche, Olaf
    Hall, Per O. J.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Schulz-Vogt, Heide N.
    Dale, Andrew W .
    Major Bottom Water Ventilation Events Do Not Significantly Reduce Basin-Wide Benthic N and P Release in the Eastern Gotland Basin (Baltic Sea)2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 77-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75. Zhang, Daoxi
    et al.
    Lavender, Samantha
    Muller, Jan-Peter
    Walton, David
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kronsell, Johan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Determination of phytoplankton abundances (Chlorophyll-a) in the optically complex inland water - The Baltic Sea2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 601, p. 1060-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Impact of accelerated future global mean sea level rise on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea2017In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 49, no 1-2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77. Paetsch, Johannes
    et al.
    Burchard, Hans
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Graewe, Ulf
    Gröger, Matthias
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Mathis, Moritz
    Kapitza, Hartmut
    Bersch, Manfred
    Moll, Andreas
    Pohlmann, Thomas
    Su, Jian
    Ho-Hagemann, Ha T. M.
    Schulz, Achim
    Elizalde, Alberto
    Eden, Carsten
    An evaluation of the North Sea circulation in global and regional models relevant for ecosystem simulations2017In: Ocean Modelling, ISSN 1463-5003, E-ISSN 1463-5011, Vol. 116, p. 70-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Arneborg, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Jansson, Par
    Staalstrom, Andre
    Broström, Göran
    Tidal Energy Loss, Internal Tide Radiation, and Local Dissipation for Two-Layer Tidal Flow over a Sill2017In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1521-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Höglund, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Ice conditions for maritime traffic in the Baltic Sea in future climate2017In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 22, p. 245-265Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Wesslander, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Johansson, Johannes
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Linders, Johanna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nexelius, Nils
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound - OSPAR ASSESSMENT 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish OSPAR waters were assessed by applying the OSPAR Common Procedure for the time period 2006 – 2014. The Swedish parts of Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound constitute the outer part of the transition zone between the estuarine Baltic Sea and the oceanic North Sea and were investigated for nutrients, chlorophyll-a,oxygen, macrophytes, phytoplankton and zoobenthos. The conclusion from the overall assessment of the Swedish OSPAR waters was that only Skagerrak open sea could be classified as a Non-Problem Area and all other assessment units were classified as Problem Areas.  Atmospheric input of nitrogen significantly decreased in both Skagerrak and Kattegat and the land based input of total nutrients also decreased in Skagerrak, Kattegat as well as the Sound. However, the short-term trend of nitrogen input to the Sound was positive. Skagerrak is governed by trans-boundary transports from the North Sea of mainly nitrogen but also phosphorus. Kattegat receives trans-boundary nutrients from both the Baltic Sea through the Sound and from Skagerrak and transports nutrients towards the coast and the western part of the basin.  Overall, concentrations of DIN, DIP, TN and chlorophyll-a decreased in most areas, however, no significant trends were found for DIP. Increasing concentrations were found in silicate, POC and TP. The Secchi depth increased in most areas. Oxygen deficiency was mainly a problem in the fjords and the Kattegat open sea.  In Skagerrak coastal waters winter nutrients were only elevated in the fjords. Concentrations of DIN generally decreased significantly and there were tendencies of decreasing DIP. This pattern was also supported by the total nitrogen while total phosphorus increased. Secchi depth was improving and there was a significant positive trend of increasing depths. However, zoobenthos were still in bad condition and phytoplankton indicator species were often elevated. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were generally decreasing but still elevated in the inner coastal waters. There were also problems with algal toxins such as DST (Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin) and PST (Paralystic Shellfish Toxin) infections in the area. According to the OSPAR classification scheme, a unit with no evident increased nutrient enrichment can be classified as a Problem Area but the cause might be due to trans-boundary transport from adjacent areas. In the open area of Kattegat there were still problems with oxygen deficiency, especially in the southern parts, even though the trend was significantly positive for the assessment period 2006 – 2014. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a and DIN decreased significantly, however, DIN levels were still generally elevated, especially in the southern parts of Kattegat while DIP was closer to the assessment level. In Kattegat coastal waters winter nutrients were elevated in all assessment units, except from the inner coastal waters, even though there was a general pattern of decreasing going trends. Chlorophyll-a was mainly elevated in the Sound and the estuaries. Secchi depth is generally improving and a significant increase was seen in the Sound. Also in Kattegat, zoobenthos were in bad condition and phytoplankton indicator species were often elevated. 

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