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  • 51. Wang, Zifa
    et al.
    Xie, Fuying
    Sakurai, T.
    Ueda, H.
    Han, Zhiwei
    Carmichael, G. R.
    Streets, D.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Holloway, T.
    Hayami, H.
    Kajino, M.
    Thongboonchoo, N.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Park, S. U.
    Fung, C.
    Chang, A.
    Sartelet, K.
    Amann, M.
    MICS-Asia II: Model inter-comparison and evaluation of acid deposition2008Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. 3528-3542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of chemical deposition of eight regional chemical models used in Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) II. Monthly-mean depositions of chemical species simulated by these models, including dry deposition of SO(2), HNO(3), NH(3), Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium and wet deposition of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), have been provided for four periods (March, July, December 2001 and March 2002) in this work. Observations at 37 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) are compared with SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) wet deposition model results. Significant correlations appeared between the observation and computed ensemble mean of participant models. Also, differences among modeled sulfur and nitrogen dry depositions have been studied at the EANET sites. Based on the analysis of acid deposition for various species from different models, total depositions of sulfur (SO(2) and sulfate) and nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) have been evaluated as the ensemble mean of the eight models. In general, all models capture the observed spatial distribution' of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, although the absolute values may differ from measurements. High deposition often occurs in eastern China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia. The magnitude of model bias is quite large for many of the models. In examining the reasons for model-measurement disagreement, we find that differences in chemical processes, deposition parameterization, and modeled precipitation are the main reasons for large model disparities. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 52. Watson, Laura
    et al.
    Lacressonniere, Gwendoline
    Gauss, Michael
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Josse, Beatrice
    Marecal, Virginie
    Nyiri, Agnes
    Sobolowski, Stefan
    Siour, Guillaume
    Szopa, Sophie
    Vautard, Robert
    Impact of emissions and+2 degrees C climate change upon future ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe2016Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 142, s. 271-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 53. Watson, Laura
    et al.
    Lacressonniere, Gwendoline
    Gauss, Michael
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Josse, Beatrice
    Marecal, Virginie
    Nyiri, Agnes
    Sobolowski, Stefan
    Siour, Guillaume
    Vautard, Robert
    The impact of meteorological forcings on gas phase air pollutants over Europe2015Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 119, s. 240-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of meteorological forcings on gas phase air pollutants (ozone and nitrogen dioxide) over Europe was studied using four offline chemistry transport models (CTMs) as part of the IMPACT2C project. This study uses long (20- and 30-year) simulations to evaluate the present-day performance of the CTMs, which is a necessary first step before undertaking any analysis of future air quality impacts. Two sets of meteorological forcings were used for each model: reanalysis of past observation data (ERA-Interim) and Global Climate Model (GCM) output. The results for the simulations forced by reanalysis data were assessed in relation to AirBase v7 measurement data, and it was determined that all four models slightly overpredict annual O-3 values (mean biases range between 0.7 and 6.6 ppb) and three out of the four models underpredict observed annual NO2 (mean biases range between -3.1 and -5.2 ppb). The simulations forced by climate models result in spatially averaged monthly concentrations of O-3 that are generally between 0 and 5 ppb higher than the values obtained from simulations forced by reanalysis data; therefore it was concluded that the use of climate models introduces an additional bias to the results, but this bias tends not to be significant in the majority of cases. The bias in O-3 results appears to be correlated mainly to differences in temperature and boundary layer height between the two types of simulations, whereas the less significant bias in NO2 is negatively correlated to temperature and boundary layer height. It is also clear that the selection of chemical boundary conditions is an important factor in determining the variability of O-3 model results. These results will be used as a baseline for the interpretation of future work, which will include an analysis of future climate scenarios upon European air quality. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 54. Zunckel, M
    et al.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Tyson, P D
    Rodhe, H
    Modelled transport and deposition of sulphur over Southern Africa2000Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 34, nr 17, s. 2797-2808Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient SO2 concentrations and atmospheric deposition of sulphur resulting from emissions on the industrialised highveld region of South Africa are estimated using the multi-scale atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH) modelling system, developed at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), and compared with an inferential model driven by measured input quantities. Modelled SO, concentrations on the central highveld mostly range between 10 and 50 ppb, exceeding 50 ppb in source areas. Dry deposition rates for sulphur exhibit a similar spatial pattern to the ambient SO2 concentrations and both are consistent with synoptic-scale transport patterns. Maximum dry deposition rates for sulphur of more than 10 kg S ha(-1) a(-1) occur over the central highveld with a well-defined gradient decreasing away from the source region. Despite the significant differences in modelling approaches, the estimates of dry deposition provided by MATCH are in reasonable agreement with those of the inferential model. The maximum modelled wet deposition rates occur over the South African highveld and its periphery and range between 1 and 5 kg S ha(-1) a(-1) and compare favourably with measurements from an acid rain network. Wet deposition generally exceed dry deposition on the highveld and the adjacent areas except in the central highveld source region. Over the drier western half of South Africa MATCH-modelled dry and wet deposition rates are again similar and are less that 1 kg S ha(-1) a(-1). Wet deposition exceeds dry in the higher rainfall regions along the south and east coasts of South Africa. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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