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  • 51. Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    et al.
    Hansen, Anne L.
    Hojberg, Anker L.
    Olesen, Jorgen E.
    Hashemi, Fatemeh
    Wachniew, Przemyslaw
    Worman, Anders
    Bartosova, Alena
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Stelljes, Nico
    Chubarenko, Boris
    Spatially differentiated regulation: Can it save the Baltic Sea from excessive N-loads?2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 1278-1289Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52. Rosenberg, R
    et al.
    Elmgren, R
    Fleischer, S
    Jonsson, P
    Persson, G
    Dahlin, Hans
    SMHI.
    MARINE EUTROPHICATION CASE-STUDIES IN SWEDEN1990In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Rummukainen, Markku
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Persson, Gunn
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Rodhe, J
    Tjernstrom, M
    The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM: A review2004In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 33, no 4-5, p. 176-182Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM, was a 6.5-year national research network for regional climate modeling, regional climate change projections and hydrological impact assessment and information to a wide range of stakeholders. Most of the program activities focussed on the regional climate system of Northern Europe. This led to the establishment of an advanced, coupled atmosphere-ocean-hydrology regional climate model system, a suite of regional climate change projections and progress on relevant data and process studies. These were, in turn, used for information and educational purposes, as a starting point for impact analyses on different societal sectors and provided contributions also to international climate research.

  • 54. Ruoho-Airola, Tuija
    et al.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Savchuk, Oleg P.
    Parviainen, Maija
    Tarvainen, Virpi
    Atmospheric Nutrient Input to the Baltic Sea from 1850 to 2006: A Reconstruction from Modeling Results and Historical Data2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 549-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a consistent basin-wise monthly time series of the atmospheric nutrient load to the Baltic Sea during 1850-2006 was compiled. Due to the lack of a long time series (1850-1960) of nutrient deposition to the Baltic Sea, the data set was compiled by combining a time series of deposition data at the Baltic Nest Institute from 1970 to 2006, published historical monitoring data and deposition estimates, as well as recent modeled Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) emission estimates. The procedure for nitrogen compounds included estimation of the deposition in a few intermediate reference years, linear interpolation between them, and the decomposition of annual deposition into a seasonal deposition pattern. As no reliable monitoring results were found for the atmospheric deposition of phosphorus during the early period of our study, we used published estimates for the temporal and spatial pattern of the phosphorus load.

  • 55. Solberg, S
    et al.
    Derwent, R G
    Hov, O
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Lindskog, A
    European abatement of surface ozone in a global perspective2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU's programme Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) is presently revising the policy on air quality which will lead to the adoption of a thematic strategy on air pollution under the Sixth Environmental Action Programme by mid-2005. For the abatement of surface ozone it is becoming evident that processes outside European control will be crucial for meeting long-term aims and air quality guidelines in Europe in the future. Measurements and modelling results indicate that there is a strong link between climate change and surface ozone. A warmer and dryer European climate is very likely to lead to increased ozone concentrations. Furthermore, increased anthropogenic emissions in developing economies in Asia are likely to raise the hemispheric background level of ozone. A significant increase in the background concentration of ozone has been observed at several sites in Northern Europe although the underlying causes are not settled. The photochemical formation of tropospheric ozone from increased concentrations of methane and CO may also lead to a higher ozone level on a global scale. Gradually, these effects may outweigh the effect of the reduced European ozone precursor emissions. This calls for a global or hemispheric perspective in the revision of the European air quality policy for ozone.

  • 56. Soomere, Tarmo
    et al.
    Doos, Kristofer
    Lehmann, Andreas
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Murawski, Jens
    Myrberg, Kai
    Stanev, Emil
    The Potential of Current- and Wind-Driven Transport for Environmental Management of the Baltic Sea2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 94-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever increasing impact of the marine industry and transport on vulnerable sea areas puts the marine environment under exceptional pressure and calls for inspired methods for mitigating the impact of the related risks. We describe a method for preventive reduction of remote environmental risks caused by the shipping and maritime industry that are transported by surface currents and wind impact to the coasts. This method is based on characterizing systematically the damaging potential of the offshore areas in terms of potential transport to vulnerable regions of an oil spill or other pollution that has occurred in a particular area. The resulting maps of probabilities of pollution to be transported to the nearshore and the time it takes for the pollution to reach the nearshore are used to design environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea.

  • 57. Tonderski, K S
    et al.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Modeling the impact of potential wetlands on phosphorus retention in a Swedish catchment2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 544-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In southern Sweden, wetlands are constructed to remove nitrogen (N) in agricultural catchments. The possible effects of such wetlands on riverine phosphorus (P) were also estimated using input-output data from three well-monitored wetlands. This was done to formulate a simple model for removal of P that is dependent on inflow characteristics. Next, the N- and P-reducing effects of wetlands were modeled on a catchment scale (1900 km 2) using the HBV-NP model and various assumptions about the wetland area and location. All three wetlands functioned as sinks for total P (tot-P) and for total suspended solids (TSS) with a removal of 10% to 31% and 28% to 50%, respectively. Mean P-removal rates of 17-49 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) were well simulated with the model. Catchment scale simulations indicated that wetlands were more efficient (in percentage of load) as traps for P than for N and that this may motivate the construction of wetlands for P removal far upstream from the catchment outlet.

  • 58. Turner, David R.
    et al.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Gallego-Urrea, Julian Alberto
    Claremar, Bjorn
    Hassellov, Ida-Maja
    Omstedt, Anders
    Rutgersson, Anna
    The potential future contribution of shipping to acidification of the Baltic Sea2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 368-378Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 59. Winterdahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Moldan, Filip
    Bishop, Kevin
    Riparian Zone Influence on Stream Water Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations at the Swedish Integrated Monitoring Sites2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 920-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term variability in stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations is controlled by hydrology, climate and atmospheric deposition. Using the Riparian flow-concentration Integration Model (RIM), we evaluated factors controlling stream water DOC in the Swedish Integrated Monitoring (IM) catchments by separating out hydrological effects on stream DOC dynamics. Model residuals were correlated with climate and deposition-related drivers. DOC was most strongly correlated to water flow in the northern catchment (Gammtratten). The southern Aneboda and Kindla catchments had pronounced seasonal DOC signals, which correlated weakly to flow. DOC concentrations at GAyenrdsjon increased, potentially in response to declining acid deposition. Soil temperature correlated strongly with model residuals at all sites. Incorporating soil temperature in RIM improved model performance substantially (20-62% lower median absolute error). According to the simulations, the RIM conceptualization of riparian processes explains between 36% (Kindla) and 61% (Aneboda) of the DOC dynamics at the IM sites.

  • 60. WULFF, F
    et al.
    STIGEBRANDT, A
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    NUTRIENT DYNAMICS OF THE BALTIC SEA1990In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
12 51 - 60 of 60
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