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  • 351. Toledano, C.
    et al.
    Cachorro, V. E.
    Gausa, M.
    Stebel, K.
    Aaltonen, V.
    Berjon, A.
    Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.
    de Frutos, A. M.
    Bennouna, Y.
    Blindheim, S.
    Myhre, C. L.
    Zibordi, G.
    Wehrli, C.
    Kratzer, S.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Carlund, Thomas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    de Leeuw, G.
    Herber, A.
    Torres, B.
    Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard2012Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 52, s. 18-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and transport patterns. This work evaluates data from operational sites with sun photometer measurements belonging either to national or international networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) and programs conducted in Scandinavia and Svalbard. We enumerate a list of sites, measurement type and periods together with observed aerosol properties. An evaluation and analysis of aerosol data was carried out with a review of previous results as well. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (AE) are the current parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first evaluation of aerosol properties. AOD (500 nm) ranges from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites (Ny-Alesund: 0.09; Andenes: 0.10; Sodankyla: 0.08), and it is somewhat higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols show larger mean size (AE = 1.2 at Andenes) than in Finland, with continental climate (AE = 1.5 at Sodankyla). Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters derived from inversion of sun/sky radiances were also investigated. This work makes special emphasis in the joint and collaborative effort of the various groups from different countries involved in this study. Part of the measurements presented here were involved in the IPY projects Polar-AOD and POLARCAT. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 352. Tuomi, Laura
    et al.
    Kanarik, Hedi
    Bjorkqvist, Jan-Victor
    Marjamaa, Riikka
    Vainio, Jouni
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Kahma, Kimmo K.
    Impact of Ice Data Quality and Treatment on Wave Hindcast Statistics in Seasonally Ice-Covered Seas2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 7, artikel-id UNSP 166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 353. Turner, David R.
    et al.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Gallego-Urrea, Julian Alberto
    Claremar, Bjorn
    Hassellov, Ida-Maja
    Omstedt, Anders
    Rutgersson, Anna
    The potential future contribution of shipping to acidification of the Baltic Sea2018Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 368-378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 354. Vali, Germo
    et al.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Elken, Jueri
    Simulated halocline variability in the Baltic Sea and its impact on hypoxia during 1961-20072013Ingår i: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, ISSN 2169-9275, Vol. 118, nr 12, s. 6982-7000Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Salinity and halocline depth variations in the Baltic Sea during 1961-2007 are studied using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model. Significant interannual and interdecadal variations in the halocline depth are found, together with distinct periods characterized either by shallow (1970-1975) or deep halocline (1990-1995). The model simulation indicates that the mean top layer salinity in the Baltic Sea is mainly controlled by the accumulated river runoff, while the mean below halocline salinity in the Baltic proper (which comprises Bornholm and Gotland basins) is more dependent on the low-pass filtered zonal wind stress, with cutoff period of 4 years, henceforth called the mean zonal wind stress. The halocline depth and stratification strength in the Baltic Sea are significantly affected by the mean zonal wind stress, while the impact of runoff is smaller. The ventilation of the halocline from bottom layers is stronger during the shallow and from surface layers during the deep halocline period. Due to changes in ventilation variations in halocline depth systematically affect bottom oxygen concentrations on seasonal and decadal, but not on interannual time scales. For instance, a deeper halocline reduces hypoxic (oxygen concentration in bottom water below 2 mL/L) and anoxic (anoxic conditions in bottom water) areas and increases the bottom oxygen concentrations in the Gulf of Finland but decreases them in the deeper parts of the Baltic proper. Model results suggest that due to undersampling during 1961-2007 mean hypoxic and anoxic areas calculated from observed profiles are underestimated by 41% and 43%, respectively.

  • 355. Van Pham, Trang
    et al.
    Brauch, Jennifer
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Frueh, Barbara
    Ahrens, Bodo
    New coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice system COSMO-CLM/NEMO: assessing air temperature sensitivity over the North and Baltic Seas2014Ingår i: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 167-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a newly established coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice system with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM and the ocean-sea-ice model NEMO for the North and Baltic Seas. These two models are linked via the OASIS3 coupler. Experiments with the new coupled system and with the stand-alone COSMO-CLM model forced by ERA-Interim re-analysis data over the period from 1985 to 1994 for the CORDEX Europe domain are carried out. The evaluation results of the coupled system show 2-m temperature biases in the range from -2.5 to 3 K. Simulated 2-m temperatures are generally colder in the coupled than in the uncoupled system, and temperature differences vary by season and space. The coupled model shows an improvement compared with the stand-alone COSMO-CLM in terms of simulating 2-m temperature. The difference in 2-m temperature between the two experiments are explained as downwind cooling by the colder North and Baltic Seas in the coupled system.

  • 356. von Schuckmann, Karina
    et al.
    Le Traon, Pierre-Yves
    Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Balmaseda, Magdalena
    Breivik, Lars-Anders
    Brewin, Robert J. W.
    Bricaud, Clement
    Drevillon, Marie
    Drillet, Yann
    Dubois, Clotilde
    Embury, Owen
    Etienne, Hélène
    Sotillo, Marcos García
    Garric, Gilles
    Gasparin, Florent
    Gutknecht, Elodie
    Guinehut, Stéphanie
    Hernandez, Fabrice
    Juza,, Melanie
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Korres, Gerasimos
    Legeais, Jean-François
    Levier, Bruno
    Lien, Vidar S.
    Morrow, Rosemary
    Notarstefano, Giulio
    Parent, Laurent
    Pascual, Álvaro
    PérezGómez, Begoña
    Perruche, Coralie
    Pinardi, Nadia
    Pisano, Andrea
    Poulain, Pierre-Marie
    Pujol, Isabelle M.
    Raj, Roshin P.
    Raudsepp, Urmas
    Roquet, Hervé
    Samuelsen, Annette
    Sathyendranath, Shubha
    She, Jun
    Simoncelli, Simona
    Cosimo, Solidoro
    Tinker, Jonathan
    Tintoré, Joaquín
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Ablain, Michael
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Bonaduce, Antonio
    Clementi, Emanuela
    Cossarini, Gianpiero
    Dagneaux, Quentin
    Desportes, Charles
    Dye, Stephen
    Fratianni, Claudia
    Good, Simon
    Greiner, Eric
    Gourrion, Jerome
    Hamon, Mathieu
    Holt, Jason
    Hyder, Pat
    Kennedy, John
    ManzanoMuñoz, Fernando
    Melet, Angélique
    Meyssignac, Benoit
    Mulet, Sandrine
    Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno
    O´Dea, Enda
    Olason, Einar
    Paulmier, Aurélien
    Pérez-González, Irene
    Reid, Rebecca
    Racault, Marie-Fanny
    Raitsos, Dionysios E.
    Ramos,, Antonio
    Sykes, Peter
    Szekely, Tanguy
    Verbrugge, Nathalie
    The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service Ocean State Report2017Ingår i: Journal of operational oceanography. Publisher: The Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology, ISSN 1755-876X, E-ISSN 1755-8778, Vol. 9, nr Sup.2, s. 235-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 357. Vuorinen, Ilppo
    et al.
    Hanninen, Jari
    Rajasilta, Marjut
    Laine, Paivi
    Eklund, Jan
    Montesino-Pouzols, Federico
    Corona, Francesco
    Junker, Karin
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dippner, Joachim W.
    Scenario simulations of future salinity and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea and adjacent North Sea areas - Implications for environmental monitoring (vol 50, pg 196, 2015)2015Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 53, s. 294-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 358. Vuorinen, Ilppo
    et al.
    Hanninen, Jari
    Rajasilta, Marjut
    Laine, Paivi
    Eklund, Jan
    Montesino-Pouzols, Federico
    Corona, Francesco
    Junker, Karin
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dippner, Joachim W.
    Scenario simulations of future salinity and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea and adjacent North Sea areas-implications for environmental monitoring2015Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 50, s. 196-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial ecological changes occurred in the 1970s in the Northern Baltic during a temporary period of low salinity (S). This period was preceded by an episodic increase in the rainfall over the Baltic Sea Watershed area. Several climate models, both global and regional, project an increase in the runoff of the Northern latitudes due to proceeding climate change. The aim of this study is to model, firstly, the effects on Baltic Sea salinity of increased runoff due to projected global change and, secondly, the effects of salinity change on the distribution of marine species. The results suggest a critical shift in the S range 5-7, which is a threshold for both freshwater and marine species distributions and diversity. We discuss several topics emphasizing future monitoring, modelling, and fisheries research. Environmental monitoring and modelling are investigated because the developing alternative ecosystems do not necessarily show the same relations to environment quality factors as the retiring ones. An important corollary is that the observed and modelled S changes considered together with species' ranges indicate what may appear under a future climate. Consequences could include a shift in distribution areas of marine benthic foundation species and some 40-50 other species, affiliated to these. This change would extend over hundreds of kilometres, in the Baltic Sea and the adjacent North Sea areas. Potential cascading effects, in coastal ecology, fish ecology and fisheries would be extensive, and point out the necessity to develop further the "ecosystem approach in the environmental monitoring". (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 359.
    Väli, Germo
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Elken, Jüri
    Marine Systems Institute at Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Simulated variations of the Baltic Sea halocline during 1961-20072012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Variationer i Östersjöns salthalt och haloklindjup under perioden 1961-2007 har studerats med hjälp av Rossby Centre Ocean Model. De största trenderna i måndadsmedelvärdet av medelsalthalten i de översta 15 m hittades i Rigabukten samt i egentliga Östersjön. I de nordligaste delarna av Östersjön kunde ej någon signifikant trend påvisas. Perioden 1970-1975 uppvisade en grund haloklin, emedan en djup haloklin kunde identifieras under perioden 1990-1995. Skillnaden i djup mellan de båda perioderna var över 15 m i egentliga Östersjön. Modellsimuleringarna antyder att medelytsalthalten i Östersjön är rumsligt styrd av den ackumulerade flodtillrinningen, medan salthalten under haloklinen i egentliga Östersjön styrs av den zonala medelvinden och den absoluta vindhastigheten. Den zonala vindhastighetens påverkan på det genomsnittliga haloklindjupet i egentliga Östersjön är måttlig och flodtillrinningens påverkan är låg.

  • 360. Walve, J
    et al.
    Höglander, H
    Andersson, A
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Karlsson, C
    Johansen, Marie
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Phytoplankton in coastal waters2016Ingår i: Ecological Assessment of Swedish Water Bodies; development, harmonisation and integration of biological indicators.: Final report of the research programme WATERS. Deliverable 1.1-4, WATERS report no 2016:10. Havsmiljöinstitutet, Sweden, 95-106., 2016Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 361. Wang, Jia
    et al.
    Kwok, Ron
    Saucier, F. J.
    Hutchings, J
    Ikeda, M
    Hibler III, W
    Haapala, J
    Coon, M.D.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eicken, H
    Tanaka, N
    Prentki, D
    Johnsson, W
    Working toward improved small‐scale sea ice‐ocean modeling in the Arctic seas2003Ingår i: EOS: Transactions, ISSN 0096-3941, E-ISSN 2324-9250, Vol. 84, nr 34, s. 325-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 362.
    Wang, Shiyu
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Development and evaluation of a new regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model in the North Sea and Baltic Sea2015Ingår i: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 67, artikel-id 24284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new regional coupled model system for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is developed, which is composed of the regional setup of ocean model NEMO, the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4, the sea ice model LIM3 and the river routing model CaMa-Flood. The performance of this coupled model system is assessed using a simulation forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data at the lateral boundaries during the period 1979-2010. Compared to observations, this coupled model system can realistically simulate the present climate. Since the active coupling area covers the North Sea and Baltic Sea only, the impact of the ocean on the atmosphere over Europe is small. However, we found some local, statistically significant impacts on surface parameters like 2m air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST). A precipitation-SST correlation analysis indicates that both coupled and uncoupled models can reproduce the air-sea relationship reasonably well. However, the coupled simulation gives slightly better correlations even when all seasons are taken into account. The seasonal correlation analysis shows that the air-sea interaction has a strong seasonal dependence. Strongest discrepancies between the coupled and the uncoupled simulations occur during summer. Due to lack of air-sea interaction, in the Baltic Sea in the uncoupled atmosphere-standalone run the correlation between precipitation and SST is too small compared to observations, whereas the coupled run is more realistic. Further, the correlation analysis between heat flux components and SST tendency suggests that the coupled model has a stronger correlation. Our analyses show that this coupled model system is stable and suitable for different climate change studies.

  • 363. Weigel, Benjamin
    et al.
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Snickars, Martin
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Long-term progression and drivers of coastal zoobenthos in a changing system2015Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 528, s. 141-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal zones are facing climate-driven change coupled with escalating eutrophication. With increasing shifts in hydrographic conditions during the past few decades, a focal task is to understand how environmental drivers affect zoobenthic communities, which play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning. By using long-term data, spanning 40 yr (1973 to 2013) in the northern Baltic Sea, we showed a disparity in zoobenthic responses with pronounced changes in community composition and a trend towards decreased biomass in sheltered areas, while biomasses increased in exposed areas of the coastal zone. We used generalized additive modeling to show that bottom oxygen saturation, sea surface temperature and organic load of the sediments were the main environmental drivers behind contrasting patterns in biomass progression. Oxygen saturation alone explained over one third of the deviation in the biomass developments in sheltered areas, while exposed areas were mainly limited by organic content of the sediments. We analyzed high-resolution climate-scenario simulations, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios for the Baltic Sea region in combination with different nutrient load scenarios, for the end of the 21st century. The scenario outcomes showed negative trends in bottom oxygen concentrations throughout the coastal and archipelago zone along with overall increasing temperatures and primary production, and decreasing salinity. Our results suggest that these projected future conditions will strengthen the observed pattern in decreasing zoobenthic production in the immediate coastal zones. Moreover, the potential intensification of unfavorable conditions ex-panding seaward may lead to an expansion of biomass loss to more exposed sites.

  • 364. Wells, Mark L.
    et al.
    Trainer, Vera L.
    Smayda, Theodore J.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Trick, Charles G.
    Kudela, Raphael M.
    Ishikawa, Akira
    Bernard, Stewart
    Wulff, Angela
    Anderson, Donald M.
    Cochlan, William P.
    Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future2015Ingår i: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 49, s. 68-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change pressures will influence marine planktonic systems globally, and it is conceivable that harmful algal blooms may increase in frequency and severity. These pressures will be manifest as alterations in temperature, stratification, light, ocean acidification, precipitation-induced nutrient inputs, and grazing, but absence of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms driving harmful algal blooms frustrates most hope of forecasting their future prevalence. Summarized here is the consensus of a recent workshop held to address what currently is known and not known about the environmental conditions that favor initiation and maintenance of harmful algal blooms. There is expectation that harmful algal bloom (HAB) geographical domains should expand in some cases, as will seasonal windows of opportunity for harmful algal blooms at higher latitudes. Nonetheless there is only basic information to speculate upon which regions or habitats HAB species may be the most resilient or susceptible. Moreover, current research strategies are not well suited to inform these fundamental linkages. There is a critical absence of tenable hypotheses for how climate pressures mechanistically affect HAB species, and the lack of uniform experimental protocols limits the quantitative cross-investigation comparisons essential to advancement. A HAB "best practices" manual would help foster more uniform research strategies and protocols, and selection of a small target list of model HAB species or isolates for study would greatly promote the accumulation of knowledge. Despite the need to focus on keystone species, more studies need to address strain variability within species, their responses under multifactorial conditions, and the retrospective analyses of long-term plankton and cyst core data; research topics that are departures from the norm. Examples of some fundamental unknowns include how larger and more frequent extreme weather events may break down natural biogeographic barriers, how stratification may enhance or diminish HAB events, how trace nutrients (metals, vitamins) influence cell toxicity, and how grazing pressures may leverage, or mitigate HAB development. There is an absence of high quality time-series data in most regions currently experiencing HAB outbreaks, and little if any data from regions expected to develop HAB events in the future. A subset of observer sites is recommended to help develop stronger linkages among global, national, and regional climate change and HAB observation programs, providing fundamental datasets for investigating global changes in the prevalence of harmful algal blooms. Forecasting changes in HAB patterns over the next few decades will depend critically upon considering harmful algal blooms within the competitive context of plankton communities, and linking these insights to ecosystem, oceanographic and climate models. From a broader perspective, the nexus of HAB science and the social sciences of harmful algal blooms is inadequate and prevents quantitative assessment of impacts of future HAB changes on human wellbeing. These and other fundamental changes in HAB research will be necessary if HAB science is to obtain compelling evidence that climate change has caused alterations in HAB distributions, prevalence or character, and to develop the theoretical, experimental, and empirical evidence explaining the mechanisms underpinning these ecological shifts. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 365. Wells, M.L
    et al.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Harmful Algal Blooms in a Changing Ocean2018Ingår i: Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, Ecological Studies, vol. 232: Presents the key research areas of the international GEOHAB programme / [ed] Glibert, P.M., Berdalet, E., Burford, M.A., Pitcher, G.C., Zhou, M. (Eds.), Springer International Publishing , 2018, 1, s. 77-90Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 366.
    Wesslander, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Johansson, Johannes
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Linders, Johanna
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Nexelius, Nils
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound - OSPAR ASSESSMENT 20162017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish OSPAR waters were assessed by applying the OSPAR Common Procedure for the time period 2006 – 2014. The Swedish parts of Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound constitute the outer part of the transition zone between the estuarine Baltic Sea and the oceanic North Sea and were investigated for nutrients, chlorophyll-a,oxygen, macrophytes, phytoplankton and zoobenthos. The conclusion from the overall assessment of the Swedish OSPAR waters was that only Skagerrak open sea could be classified as a Non-Problem Area and all other assessment units were classified as Problem Areas.  Atmospheric input of nitrogen significantly decreased in both Skagerrak and Kattegat and the land based input of total nutrients also decreased in Skagerrak, Kattegat as well as the Sound. However, the short-term trend of nitrogen input to the Sound was positive. Skagerrak is governed by trans-boundary transports from the North Sea of mainly nitrogen but also phosphorus. Kattegat receives trans-boundary nutrients from both the Baltic Sea through the Sound and from Skagerrak and transports nutrients towards the coast and the western part of the basin.  Overall, concentrations of DIN, DIP, TN and chlorophyll-a decreased in most areas, however, no significant trends were found for DIP. Increasing concentrations were found in silicate, POC and TP. The Secchi depth increased in most areas. Oxygen deficiency was mainly a problem in the fjords and the Kattegat open sea.  In Skagerrak coastal waters winter nutrients were only elevated in the fjords. Concentrations of DIN generally decreased significantly and there were tendencies of decreasing DIP. This pattern was also supported by the total nitrogen while total phosphorus increased. Secchi depth was improving and there was a significant positive trend of increasing depths. However, zoobenthos were still in bad condition and phytoplankton indicator species were often elevated. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were generally decreasing but still elevated in the inner coastal waters. There were also problems with algal toxins such as DST (Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin) and PST (Paralystic Shellfish Toxin) infections in the area. According to the OSPAR classification scheme, a unit with no evident increased nutrient enrichment can be classified as a Problem Area but the cause might be due to trans-boundary transport from adjacent areas. In the open area of Kattegat there were still problems with oxygen deficiency, especially in the southern parts, even though the trend was significantly positive for the assessment period 2006 – 2014. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a and DIN decreased significantly, however, DIN levels were still generally elevated, especially in the southern parts of Kattegat while DIP was closer to the assessment level. In Kattegat coastal waters winter nutrients were elevated in all assessment units, except from the inner coastal waters, even though there was a general pattern of decreasing going trends. Chlorophyll-a was mainly elevated in the Sound and the estuaries. Secchi depth is generally improving and a significant increase was seen in the Sound. Also in Kattegat, zoobenthos were in bad condition and phytoplankton indicator species were often elevated. 

  • 367. Winsor, P
    et al.
    Rodhe, J
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Baltic Sea ocean climate: an analysis of 100 yr of hydrographic data with focus on the freshwater budget2001Ingår i: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 18, nr 1-2, s. 5-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea climate is analysed based upon long-term oceanographic measurements. The objective of the work is to study the natural variability of present day climate with focus on the freshwater budget. The results are designed to be used for validation of climate models and for discrimination of the significance of modelled climate change scenarios. Almost 100 yr of observations are used in the study, including data for river runoff, water exchange through the Danish Straits (as calculated from river runoff and from sea level data from the Kattegat), salinity data from the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, and oxygen content in the deep Baltic Sea. The analyses illustrate that freshwater supply to the Baltic shows large variations on time scales up to several decades. The long-term variations in freshwater storage are closely correlated to accumulated changes in river runoff. This indicates strong positive feedback between the amount of outflowing surface water from the Baltic Sea and the salinity of the inflowing Kattegat water. One implication of the study is that climate control simulations must cover several decades, probably up to 100 yr in order to capture the natural variability of present day climate. Also, models designed to study climate change for the Baltic Sea probably need to start integrating from the present day.

  • 368. WULFF, F
    et al.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    LONG-TERM, SEASONAL AND SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND SILICATE IN THE BALTIC - AN OVERVIEW1988Ingår i: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 19-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 369. WULFF, F
    et al.
    STIGEBRANDT, A
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    NUTRIENT DYNAMICS OF THE BALTIC SEA1990Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 126-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 370.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    A model sensitivity study for the sea-air exchange of methane in the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean2014Ingår i: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 66, artikel-id 24174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ocean's sinks and sources determine the concentration of methane in the water column and by that regulating the emission of methane to the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate how sensitive the sea-air exchange of methane is to increasing/decreasing sinks and sources as well as changes of different drivers with a time-dependent biogeochemical budget model for one of the shallow shelf sea in the Siberian Arctic, the Laptev Sea. The applied changes are: increased air temperature, river discharge, wind, atmospheric methane, concentration of nutrients in the river runoff or flux of methane from the sediment. Furthermore, simulations are performed to examine how the large range in observations for methane concentration in the Lena River as well as the rate of oxidation affects the net sea-air exchange. In addition, a simulation with five of these changes applied together was carried out to simulate expected climate change at the end of this century. The result indicates that none of the simulations changed the seawater to becoming a net sink for atmospheric methane and all simulations except three increased the outgassing to the atmosphere. The three exceptions were: doubling the atmospheric methane, decreasing the rivers' concentration of methane and increasing the oxidation rate where the latter is one of the key mechanisms controlling emission of methane to the atmosphere.

  • 371.
    Wåhlström, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Impact of increasing inflow of warm Atlantic water on the sea-air exchange of carbon dioxide and methane in the Laptev Sea2016Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 121, nr 7, s. 1867-1883Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 372.
    Wåhlström, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Evaluation of open sea boundary conditions for the coastal zone. A model study in the northern part of the Baltic Proper.2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljötillståndet i Sveriges kustvatten är starkt kopplat till tillståndet i det öppna havet på grund av det stora vattenutbytet mellan dessa. Det är därför viktigt att modeller utvecklade för kustzonens vatten har drivning från utsjön av god kvalitet med bra täckning i tid och rum samt med information om de variabler som krävs.

    För att beräkna vattenkvalitén i kustnära vatten har SMHI utvecklat en modell kallad kustzonsmodellen (SCM). Den drivs för närvarande från öppna havet av resultatfiler från en en-dimensionell modell som med hjälp av observationer har korrigerat och förbättrat modellresultaten. Tyvärr är dessa observationer undermåliga i tid och rum, och saknar nödvändiga variabler för att få bra drivning av SCM modellen. Dessa mätstationer ligger också längre ut i öppna havet och kan därför underskatta variabiliteten närmare kusten för de olika parametrarna. Dessa problem löses delvis med den en-dimensionella modellen som beräknar alla de variabler som är nödvändiga i SCM. Dock är dessa resultat inte användbara om man vill undersöka en historisk period eller framtida klimatförändringar i kustzonen. På grund av dessa tillkortakommanden undersöker vi i denna studie om det är möjligt att istället ersätta dagens drivning från öppna havet med resultat från en tre-dimensionell, kopplad fysisk och biogeokemisk modell för Östersjön som drivning för SCM, framförallt för att undersöka de två ovan nämnda perioder.

    I denna studie har sju känslighetsexperiment utförts i en pilotstudie för Norra Östersjön, inklusive Stockholms skärgård. De sju känslighetsexperimenten utfördes för att utvärdera olika metoder att extrahera resultat-filer från den tre-dimensionella modellen RCO-SCOBI med avsikt att användas som drivning för SCM. RCO-SCOBI är en modell för Östersjön med hög horisontell och vertikal upplösning av de variabler som krävs. Resultaten för både de fysiska och biogeokemiska processerna från de olika testen undersöktes och utvärderades mot observationer i kustzonen med hjälp av en statistisk metod.

    Slutsaten från dessa test är att resultatfiler från RCO-SCOBI är tillämpbara som utsjödrivning för SCM. Den bästa metoden är att extrahera en djupprofil per variabel för varje ytterbassäng i SCM i en punkt 10 nautiska mil österut och 10 nautiska mil söderut i egentliga Östersjön eller norrut i Bottenhavet för varje ytterbassäng i SCM.

  • 373. Zandersen, Marianne
    et al.
    Hyytiainen, Kari
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Bauer, Barbara
    Haapasaari, Paivi E.
    Olesen, Jorgen Eivind
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Fridell, Erik
    Pihlainen, Sampo
    Le Tissier, Martin D. A.
    Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa
    Van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    Shared socio-economic pathways extended for the Baltic Sea: exploring long-term environmental problems2019Ingår i: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 1073-1086Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 374. Zhang, Daoxi
    et al.
    Lavender, Samantha
    Muller, Jan-Peter
    Walton, David
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Kronsell, Johan
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Determination of phytoplankton abundances (Chlorophyll-a) in the optically complex inland water - The Baltic Sea2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 601, s. 1060-1074Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
5678 351 - 374 av 374
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