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  • 351.
    Foltescu, Valentin
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Häggmark, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Jämförelse mellan observationer och fält med griddad klimatologisk information1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents results obtained during an intercomparison exercise. At present at SMHI there are a number of systems for anlyzing surface parameters. The aim of this study is to compare some of the analyzed fields (precipitation, temperature and pressure) with observations. Considerable attention is devoted to precipitation. The outcome of the study is:

    • information on the differences between point observations and the spatially averaged information in the fields of precipiation. The discrepancies are explicitly calculated and presented for confidence intervals.
    • insights in the use of analyzed parameters as opposed to observations for a gridbased climatology.
    • way of deterrnining observation outliers
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  • 352.
    Rummukainen, Markku
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Räisänen, Jouni
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Ullerstig, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Bringfelt, Björn
    SMHI.
    Hansson, Ulf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    RCA - Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric climate model: model description and results from the first multi-year simulation1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first version of the Rossby Centre regional climate model (RCA) has now been developed. The RCA model is based on a parallel coding of the operational weather forecast model HIRLAM. Some modifications have been done on the model formulation, especially in its surface/snow/soil scheme, in an attempt to include the regional and local scale climate-modifying forcing up to time scales of several years. The physical parameterization choices in HIRLAM and in RCA are discussed in some detail. One of the notable features in RCA is that the regional sea ice climate, as well as ice on the numerous lakes in the region, has been included in a crude, but time-efficient fashion. It appears that realistic modeling of the sea/lake ice is most important for modeling the regional climate in the Nordic region.

    The RCA model has been run fora ten-year period, focusing on the Nordic region, using results from a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. In this first multi-year simulation, the regional resolution was 44 km.  Several results are illustrated from this regional simulation and they are compared to the driving global model data, to analyzed observations and to Swedish station data for the 1961-90 period. The apparent model development needs are also discussed briefly.

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  • 353.
    Persson, Thomas
    SMHI.
    Solar irradiance modelling using satellite retrieved cloudiness: A pilot study1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate measurements of incoming solar radiation at the Earth' s surface are made by present ground based networks. The data are of high quality and high  sampling frequency but there is a lack of spatial coverage. Areas of great interest may not have any observations at all. Since clouds are the major modulators of solar radiation, the possibility to use satellite retrieved  cloudiness as a basis for irradiance calculations has been investigated.

    Data from the cloud classification model SCANDIA, which utilises NOAA AVHRR data as input, have been analysed and the influence of SCANDIA classed clouds on incoming solar radiation at the ground has been approximately quantified. Hourly mean values of global irradiance, measured at the twelve stations in the solar radiation network of SMHI, were taken as reference data.

    Derived cloud transmittances are relatively close to those found by others using manually observed and classified clouds. In this study satellite data from only one month (April 1995) have been analysed. To determine mean cloud transmittances of high accuracy far more data (from >1 year) have to be used.

    In spite of the division into subgroups of cloud classes made by SCANDIA, it is shown that individual cloud transmittances for one and the same cloud class scatter a lot. Therefore it is difficult to accurately calculate solar irradiances, representative for short time intervals (>1 hour), with only cloud transmittances (and solar elevation) as input data. Though, for modelling accumulated solar irradiance during longer time intervals (days or months), satellite derived cloudiness is thought to be very valuable information.

    It is also shown that for accurate calculations of global irradiance under clear skies, additional information about atmospheric turbidity and water vapour content is urgently needed.

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  • 354.
    Josefsson, Weine
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Karlsson, Jan-Erik
    SMHI.
    Measurements of total ozone 1994-19961997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the quality control, quality assurance and measurements of total ozone at Norrköping and Vindeln during the period 1994-1996. To ensure the quality and link the observations closely to the other ozone data participation in intercomparisons and intemational campaigns are noted. The Dobson #30 instrument was at Arosa in 1995 and showed good agreement with the reference Dobson instrument. The Brewer #006 was compared to the travelling reference Brewer #017 in 1996. Major changes in the measurements and instruments are discussed. In particular the introduction of the new instrument Brewer #128, which was compared to Brewer #017 twice in 1996. The first intercomparison pointed on the need of a change of the calibration whilst the second one was in agreement with the previous one. The new instrument seem to be more sensitive to the environment than the old one is. During the campaign at lzaifa it was noted that the photomultiplier of this instrument went saturated measuring in the UV- A. Fortunately, this will not affect the measurements of the total ozone.

    During these three years the ozone-layer has shown many periods of considerable depletion. Now the effects from the Pinatubo eruption has ceased and the sometimes thin layer of ozone can not be attributed to the eventual effects of the volcanic eruption. The extreme deficits of ozone in 1996 and also the down-ward trend, about -8% per decade, in the long-term data presentation are easily seen in the graphs. There will soon be 10 years of almost uninterrupted data available at Norrköping. During winter and spring the observations are delivered almost daily to a European centre in Thessaloniki, Greece, where data are collected. Daily maps are produced showing the total ozone for the northern hemisphere.

    The introduction of a Web-site for total ozone (under http://www.smhi.se) has made measurements almost real-time available for a lot of people. It can be viewed as graphs or transferred by ftp. There is also some pages with information as well as some links to related sites. In particular, this is useful for public, media and decision-makers.

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  • 355.
    Häggmark, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ivarsson, Karl-Ivar
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Olofsson, Per-Olof
    Militära Vädertjänsten.
    MESAN Mesoskalig Analys1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work being done in developing the MESAN system for analyzing surface parameters and clouds. The following parameters are being analyzed:- 2 meter temperature,- precipitation in mm water for 1, 3, 12 and 12 hours accumulation time, and for new snow-cover in cm,- wind speed and direction and gust speed at 10 meter elevation,- visibility,- relative humidity,- total cloud cover,- amount and low clouds,- significant cloud base,- probability of observing significant cloud base,- higt of cloud top,- depth of snow cover, and- sea surface temperature.Hirlam data are normally used as first guess fields. Observatons are taken from synop, metar, Swedish climate stations, satellites, radars and automatic stations. Much work has been devoted to minimizing systematic errors in observations and investigating structure functions of first guess errors.The analys method used is optimal interpolation.

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  • 356.
    Funquist, Lennart
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Ljungemyr, Patrik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Validation of HIROMB during 1995-961997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IROMB (High Resolution Operational Model of the Baltic Sea) is the result of a combined effort between BSH (Bundesamt för Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie) and SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In its present form, the model is a modified version of the BSH operational model (Kleine, 1994) with identical boundaries to the North Atlantic. The cooperation started in summer 1994 when the model was set up at SMHI. The first operational runs started in the sumrner 1995 and since then the model has been running daily except fora limited number of periods when there were no meteorological input from the HIRLAM (atmospheric) model available because of computer problems. During the first months, some occasions with stability problems occurred, leading toa restart from the climatological fields.

    This report presents results from a continous verification exercise, where model results are compared to observations of water level, surface temperature, currents, ice thickness and salinity and temperature profiles. The times series data are taken from the period September-November 1996 while the ice thickness data are from November and December 1996 and the sea surface temperature data are taken from August, November and December 1996.

    For a detailed description of the model, the reader is referred to a forthcoming report by Funkquist and Kleine.

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  • 357.
    Lindell, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Ericsson, Lars O.
    SMHI.
    Sanner, Håkan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Göransson, Karin
    SMHI.
    Integrated Hydrological Monitoring and Forecasting System for the Vistula River Basin1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a technical description on the project Integrated Hydrological Monitoring and Forecasting System for the Vistula River Basin. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological lnstitute in Nonköping, Sweden, (hereinafter called SMHI) and Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Warsaw, Poland, (hereinafter called IMWM) has fulfilled and co-operated in this project. SMHI have as consultants been responsible for design and development of the Vistula River Monitoring and Forecasting System, for on-the-job training and education in Windows programming and development as well as in set-up, calibration and applications of the HBV-model. IMWM responsibilities has been to provide the project with hydrometeorological data and information on land use for the calibration activities and to supply the project with the hydrodynamic model in use at the polish institute. IMWM has been deeply involved in the design and development of the Vistula River Monitoring and Forecasting System and bad the main responsibility in the HBV-model calibration activities.

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  • 358.
    Rummukainen, Markku
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Methods for statistical downscaling of GCM simulations1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to study the change of climate due to increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As GCMs operate on !arge spatial scales, and, furthermore, as the GCM-simulated temporal resolution corresponds to monthly averages at best, the usefulness of GCM data in impact studies and other applications is limited. The present-day free troposphere is modeled relatively well by the coarse GCMs, whereas local or even regional characteristics in surface or near-surface climate variables, their variability and the likelihood of extreme events cannot be obtained directly from GCMs. The same is likely true in the case of climate change experiments with GCMs. The results from GCMs can be superimposed on climatological local­ scale time series or interpreted in some other way in order to address the needs of impact studies. This is known as "downscaling" of GCM simulations. In this survey, five different downscaling methods are introduced. These are the conventional, the statistical, the stochastic, the dynamical and the composite methods. Only the statistical and, to a lesser extent, the stochastic approaches are discussed in detail. This survey is a planning document in the SWECLIM program.

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  • 359.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Grahn, Gun
    SMHI.
    Roos, Elisabet
    SMHI.
    Sjöö, Allan
    SMHI.
    Modellerad kvävetransport, retention och källfördelning för södra Sverige1997Report (Other academic)
  • 360.
    Robertson, Lennart
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    MATCH - Meso-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry modelling system: Basic transport mode/ description and control experiments with 222Rn1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A limited area, off-line, Eulerian atmospheric transport model has been developed. The model is based on a terrain following vertical coordinate and a mass conserving, positive definite advection scheme, with small phase and amplitude errors. The objective has been to develop a flexible, all purpose off- line model. The model includes modules for emission input, vertical turbulent diffusion and deposition processes. The model can handle an arbitrary number of chemical components and provides a framework for inclusion of modules describing physical and chemical transformation processes between different components. Idealized test cases as well as simulation of the atmospheric distribution of 222Rn demonstrates the ability of the model to meet the requirements of mass conservation and positiveness and to produce realistic simulations of a simple atmospheric tracer.

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  • 361.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Cloud classifications with the SCANDIA model1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cloud classification model SCANDIA (SMHI Cloud ANalysis model using DIgital AVHRR data) is described in this report. SCANDIA is based on multispectral processing of NOAA AVHRR imagery where cloud and surface analyses are produced in real-time for use in operational weather forecasting. Also other applications are described, e.g. compilation of cloud climatologies, estimation of snow area coverage and validation of cloud forecasts from numerical weather prediction models.

    Two different versions of the SCANDIA model are discussed. The first version was introduced in 1988 and the model structure is explained in detail. Model strengths and weaknesses are described by using comparisons with observed cloudiness from ordinary surface weather observations (SYNOP). Also the feedback response from operational weather forecasters is discussed. The second version was introduced in 1994, now operating on a larger area covering the major parts of northem Europe. Necessary modifications for operating on larger scales are described and new features for the identification and highlighting of situations with serious limitations of classification results are demonstrated.

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  • 362.
    Persson, Christer
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ullerstig, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Model calculations of dispersion of lindane over Europe: Pilot study with comparisons to easurements around the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot project is presented, where the dispersion model MATCH is tested for studies of dispersion and deposition of lindane (y-HCH) over Europe. Comparisons between rough model calculations and long-term measurements at stations around the Baltic Sea indicate a positive correlation both for concentration in air and for wet deposition, but the model results are a factor of 3-10 larger than the measurements. The MATCH model simulations seem to agree better with observations from the Swedish West-coast and North Sea areas. Since the model calculations in this pilot project are performed in a very simplified way we cannot exclude that uncertainties in our calculations can cause the detected differences. However, we think that also emission data, especially for Sweden and Finland, and the respresentativity of measurements should be investigated further in a future study.

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  • 363.
    Persson, Christer
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ullerstig, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The Swedish Precipitation Chemistry Network: Studies in network design usting the MATCH modelling system and statistical methods1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the Swedish Precipitation Chemistry Network has been examined thoroughly, including investigations into the representativeness of stations as well as into possibilities of time trend analysis. A suggestion of a new optimized network design is given.

    Using the MATCH modelling system, which has been developed as a tool for air pollution assessment studies, it has been possible to evaluate different hypothetical precipitation chemistry networks over Sweden. There is a clear indication from the different model experiments, focused on sulphur and nitrogen, that a proposed future reduction of the number of Swedish precipitation chemistry stations by about one third only has a small effect on the obtained annual and monthly wet deposition pattern over Sweden. Long-term changes in wet deposition can still be followed using this less dense station network. Comparisons with independent measurements indicate that errors in the MATCH system estirnates for sulphur and nitrogen are of the same size as for parallel measurements as long as the MATCH system has a sufficient number of high quality precipitation chernistry stations available for the region.

    A study of former results on wet deposition, using multivariate analysis, has clearly indicated that the base-cation deposition exhibits larger local variations than is the case for sulphur and nitrogen. Modelling of base-cation deposition is however not included in this study. The suggested reduction of the precipitation network is thus characterized by some caution, partly due to the base-cation deposition not being thoroughly investigated. Care has been taken not to diminish future possibilities in mapping base-cation deposition over Sweden.

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  • 364.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ullerstig, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Air pollution Assessment Study Using the MATCH Modelling System: Application to sulfur and nitrogen compounds over Sweden 19941996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The MATCH (Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry) model has been developed as a tool for air pollution assessment studies on different geographical scales. The MATCH system is based on an Eulerian atmospheric transport model, including physical and chemical processes governing sources, atmospheric transport and sinks of oxidised sulphur and oxidised and reduced nitrogen. With the MATCH system, air pollution contributions from different source types like traffic, industry, shipping, farming etc. can be obtained. Using a combination of air and precipitation chemistry measurements and the MATCH dispersion model, the contribution of air pollution and deposition from long-range transport can be quantified in the model region. The calculations for the year 1994 show that the Swedish import was 5.5 times larger than the export for sulphur and 4.4 times larger for reduced nitrogen, while the Swedish import of oxidised nitrogen only exceeded the export by 10%.

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  • 365.
    Josefsson, Weine
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Five years of solar UV-radiation monitoring in Sweden1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A network of five stations measuring the solar UV-radiation has been operated for about five years. Data are presented as plotted time-series of monthly and yearly values for the sites. A general climatology can be deduced from these data. Daily and hourly maximum values are shown for each month as indicators of the potential extreme exposure levets. The !arge amma! variation at high  latitudes is easily seen in the data set. This illustrates the importance of rhe  solar  elevation  on  the leve! of the UV-irradiance. Influence of cloud variation and of larger changes in ozone is also detectable. A few examples of the daily variation also show the strong solar elevation dependence of  the  UV-irradiance.

    The quantity and unit of the  UV-radiation in this presentation  is CIE-weightecl  irradiance expressed  as MED (minimum erythemal dose), where one MED equals 210 Jm-2 values have been re- computed to refer to the international intercomparison of broad-band  meters  in Helsinki in 1995.  In the following named  WMO-STUK 1995 scale.

    As will be seen there are many sources of error and detailed studies are prevented by the !arge uncertainty connected with these data, Due to the short period of the record and the low accuracy no attempt  to study trends is done.

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  • 366.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Modelling of anthropogenic sulfur deposition to the African and South American continents1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification problems in developing countries are expected to become more prevalent in the coming decades. Assessments of means of abatement strategies are likely to become of vital interest. This paper presents some preliminary results of modelling of acidic deposition due to anthropogenic emissions of sulfur in Africa and South America, using emission data for 1987. The calculations indicate that the anthropogenic perturbation of the sulfur deposition exceeds 100 mg S m-2yr-1 for southern Africa, areas around the Red Sea, Caribbean Islands, northernmost South America, central Andes, and the eastern parts of Brazil and Argentina. Substantial areas around the major source regions receive more than 250 mg S m-2yr-1. Even higher values are calculated for areas surrounding large cities as Carracas, Lima, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Pretoria and around the borderline between Zaire and Zambia.

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  • 367.
    Josefsson, Weine
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Solar UV-radiation monitoring 19961996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of solar UV-racliation in a small Sweclish network are presented for 1996. this report can be regarded as a supplement to a previous report, Josefsson (l996) where the results of the previous five years were reported, and where details not presented in this small repor! can be found. The quantity ancl unit of the UV-radiation in this presentation is CIE-weighted irradiance expressed as MED (minimum erythemal dose), where one MED equals 210 Jm-2. The values have been recomputed to refer to the international intercomparison of broad-band meters at Helsinki in 1995. In the following referred to as the WMO-STUK 1995 scale.Although, the stratospheric ozone was severely depleted during the early parts of 1996, the yearly UV radiation recorded was slightly less than in previous years. This was mainly due to the very cloudy months of May, June and July.

    By combining the UV-record with concurrent records of the total ozone a small study of the anticorrelation of these two atmospheric parameters is illustrated. There are many sources of error and detailed studies are prevented by the !arge uncertainty connected with these data of UV-irradiance. Due to the short period of the record and the low accuracy no attempt to study trends is done.

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  • 368.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hillgren, Robert
    SMHI, Core Services.
    SMHIs undersökningar utanför Forsmark 19951996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättning för 1995 års kontrollprogram har varit att kontinuerligt bevaka temperaturen i vertikal S i skärgårdsområdet.

    Kylvatten har släppts via reservutskovet vid olika tillfällen under sammanlagt 5 månader. Största delen av utsläppen har skett under andra halvåret. Detta pga problem med rensningen av fiskspärren vid Biotestsjöns utlopp. För 1994 rådde liknande förhållanden.

    Effekten av kylvatten från reservutskovet och en vann inledning på hösten ("brittsommar") medförde att den hittills högsta månadsmedeltemperaturen för oktober noterades (vertikal S på 1 m djup 11.82°C). Årsmedeltemperaturen (april-nov) under 1995 låg 1 °C över medelvärdet för perioden 1977-94 (april-nov ). Motsvarande siffra för 1994 var 1. 7°C.

    1995 års temperaturöverskott uppstod framförallt under augusti-september- oktober. I  november ökade vattenutbytet med det utanförliggande havsområdet och någon ackumulering av kylvatten kunde inte registreras.

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  • 369.
    Larsson, Sara
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Lidén, Rikard
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Stationstäthet och hydrologiska prognoser1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten basins in the north of Sweden, where the hydrological model system, HBV- HMS, has been set up, were studied. The effects on the hydrological model if an approximate 20% decrease in meteorological stations occurs were studied as well as the possibility to reduce an eventual decline in model efficiency through recalibration of the model parameters. Also, an addition of stations was investigated. The results indicated that the mean reduction in model efficiency due to an approximate 20% decrease in station density was small. If the most representative stations were removed the model performance, however, decreased significantly. When a recalibration was allowed the decline in model accuracy was reduced considerably. An addition of meteorological stations gave a minor improvement in model efficiency. No significant relationships between the basin characteristics and the model sensitivity due to a change in the station network, were found.

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  • 370.
    Lindell, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sanner, Håkan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nikolushkina, Irena
    SMHI.
    Stikute, Inita
    SMHI.
    Application of the integrated hydrological modelling system IHMS-HBV to pilot basin in Latvia1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes calibration and application of the IHMS-HBV model on daily time step to Lielupe River basin in Latvia. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrologicalnstitute (SMHI) have as consultant been responsible for the set-up, calibration, training and delivery of the Integrated Hydrological Model System with the HBV-model (IHMSHBV). The Swedish Board for Investment and Technical Support (BITS) financed the project. The training and transfer of technology were addressed to the Latvia Hydrometeorological Agency (LHMA)

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  • 371.
    Lindell, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Sanner, Håkan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Reihan, Alvina
    SMHI.
    Vedom, Rimma
    Application of the integrated hydrological modelling system IHMS-HBV to pilot basin in Estonia1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes calibration and application of the IHMS-HBV model on a daily time step to Kasari River basin in Estonia. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) have as consultant been responsible for the set-up, calibration, training and delivery of the Integrated Hydrological Model System with the HBV-model (IHMSHBV). The Swedish Board for lnvestment and Technical Support (BITS) financed the project. The training and transfer of technology were addressed to the Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (EMHI).

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  • 372.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Svenskt sjöregister. 2 delar: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1996Report (Other academic)
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  • 373.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Sedimenttransport i svenska vattendrag exempel från 1967-19941996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Sedimenttransport i svenska vattendrag exempel från 1967-1994" är framtagen inom Analysenheten på Affärsområde Samhälle vid SMHI.

    Många års mätning inom sedimenttransportnätet ligger till grunden för denna bearbetning.

    Månads- och årsvärden på halter och transporter finns bearbetade och lagrade för alla stationer. Dessa kan beställas från SMHI. I denna rapport redovisas delar av detta material.

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  • 374.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Avrinningen från Sverige till omgivande hav1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A data base of monthly runoff to seas around Sweden is created. This report presents long term, seasonal and spatial variations for the period 1930 - 1990. Runoff calculation are based on measurments, wich cover 86% of the land area and on estmate by proportioning against nearby reference station for the remaining 14%. The calculations are made for 265 land areas.

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  • 375.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Avrinningsområden i Sverige. Del 4. Vattendrag till Västerhavet: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grunden för allt hydrologiskt arbete är kännedom om läge och storlek för Sveriges vattensystem och däri ingående sjöar och vattendrag. SMHI har samlat sådana uppgifter i Svenskt Vattenarkiv (SVAR). Inom SVAR har hittills bland annat publicerats ett sjöregister, ett vattendragsregister, ett register över befintliga sjökartor och sjöuppgifter samt de svenska huvudvattendragens namn och mynningspunkter.

    En mycket viktig uppgift är arealen för avrinningsområdet på olika platser i vattendragssystemen. Uppgifter om avrinningsområdens storlek är tex nödvändiga för vattenplanering och vid beräkning av vattenföring för vattendrag, där observationer saknas.

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  • 376.
    Lindström, Göran
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Johansson, Barbro
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Magnus
    SMHI.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    HBV-96 – En areellt fördelad modell för vattenkrafthydrologin1996Report (Other academic)
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  • 377.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hillgren, Robert
    SMHI, Core Services.
    SMHIs undersökningar utanför Forsmark 19941995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kraftverkets drift under 1994 kan betraktas som normal med avseende på kylvattenflöde och värme.

    Kylvatten från Fl och F2 har släppts via reservutskovet under 5 månader. Detta på grund av problem med rensningen av fiskspärren vid biotestsjöns utlopp. Den sammantagna effekten av kylvatten från reservutskovet och en värmebölja medförde att den hittills högsta uppmätta temperaturen i vertikal S, 25.2°C noterades den 2 augusti. Årsmedeltemperaturen (april - november) under 1994 i vertikal S på 1 m djup låg 1.7 °C över medelvärdet för perioden 1977 - 1993 (april - november).

    1994 års temperaturöverskott uppstod framförallt under sommaren, under senhösten ökade vattenutbytet med det utanförliggande havsområdet och någon ackumulering av kylvatten kunde inte registreras.

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  • 378.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19941995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    apporten innehåller resultat från mätningar runt den svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 1994. Mätningarna utförs veckovis i kustnära stationer, samt månadsvis i stationer belägna längre ut från kusten. De första mätningarna startades 1969 i Landsortsdjupet och Ålands hav och har successivt utökats. Totalt är 18 fartyg engagerade idag.

    De parametrar som mäts är temperatur, salthalt, syrgashalt, totalfosfor, fosfatfosfor, totalkväve, nitratkväve samt i förekommande fall svavelväte. På enstaka stationer mäts även kisel. Siktdjup och meteorologiska data noteras vid varje mättillfälle. En automatisk vattenprovtagare på fyren Farstugrunden samlar vattenprover en gång/vecka.

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  • 379.
    Westring, Gustaf
    SMHI.
    Isförhållanden utmed Sveriges kust: Isstatistik från svenska farleder och farvatten under normalperioderna 1931-60 och 1961-901995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgående ifrån isstatistik från svenska farleder och farvatten under normalperioderna 1931-60 och 1961-90 (kapitel 2) har isförhållandena utmed Sveriges kust beskrivits i ord och bild (kapitel 3).

    Någon enklare och meningsfull klassificering av farleder och farvatten har ej kunnat uppnås eftersom isförhållandenas mönster är alltför komplicerat, diffust eller allmängiltigt (kapitel 4). Följande iakttagelser kunde dock göras:

    1. Bottenviken och Norra Kvarken skiljer sig från övriga kustvatten i ett väsentligt avseende - där förekommer is varje år, i de innersta delarna av skärgården såväl som de yttersta vid gränsen till öppet hav.

    2. Kustvattnen mellan Norra Kvarken och Hanöbukten har helt olika iskaraktär, men det är främst utmed denna sträcka som förändringarna sker gradvis, nästan linjärt.

    3. Isförhållandena utmed Hanöbukten, södra Skånekusten och hela Västkusten är inte homogena men de är likartade.

    4. Gotlands kustvatten utgör i många fall undantag från generella trender och skillnaderna mellan ost- och västkust är ofta stora. Detta torde, i alla fall delvis, bero på att ostkusten är långgrund och västkusten brant.

    5. I Öresund och Kalmarsund varierar isförhållandena kraftigt över relativt korta sträckor, nästan lika snabbt som i delar av skärgårdsområdena.  

    Vid jämförelser och analyser av normalperiodernas isstatistik samt annan klimatinformation har det visat sig att isförhållandena i svenska kustvatten har försvårats under perioden 1931-90 och att detta i hög grad sammanhänger med en sänkning av lufttemperaturen i Sverige. Under normalperioden 1961-90 var därför medellängden på isvintrarna fem dagar längre än under normalperioden 1931-60, en ökning med cirka 9 % på 30 år. 

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  • 380.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Kvävetransport till Slätbaken från Söderköpingsåns avrinningsområde1995Report (Other academic)
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  • 381.
    Johansson, Barbro
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sjödin, Nils
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Chikwanha, Remigio
    Merka, Joseph
    Assessment of surface water resources in the Manyame catchment - Zimbabwe1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is on the Manyame Water Resources Assessment for Development Project. The aim of the project was to establish an improved hydrological network in the catchment, a mathematical model of its hydrological regime and a hydrological forecasting system for the preparation of river and flood or  drought forecasts.

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  • 382.
    Omstedt, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Nyberg, Leif
    SMHI.
    A coupled ice-ocean model supporting winter navigation in the Baltic Sea: Part 2. Thermodynamics and meteorological coupling1995Report (Other academic)
  • 383.
    Häggström, Martin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Snökartering i svenska fjällområdet med NOAA-satellitbilder1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av arbetsgruppen för hydrologiskt utvecklingsarbete (HUVA) inom Vattenregleringsföretagens Samarbetsorgan (V ASO) har SMID undersökt  värdet av den information om snötäckningsgrad som kan erhållas från de meteorologiska NOAA-satelliterna. Syftet med undersökningen har varit att finna ut om förutsättningar finns att använda satellitbildsmaterial för att bestämma den kvarvarande tillrinningen från snötäcket under avsmältningsfasen och främst då i dess slutskede. Om satellitbilder visar sig användbara för ändamålet skulle de t. ex. kunna utnyttjas för att uppdatera snömagasinet i de modeller som används för att beräkna tillrinningen till vattenkraftens regleringsmagasin och dänned erhålla bättre tillrinningsprognoser.

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  • 384.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Vattenföring i Sverige. Del 2. Vattendrag till Bottenhavet: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig uppgift för SMHI är att ge information om vattenföringen i Sveriges vattendrag. "Vattenföringen i Sveriges floder" utkom 1954. Den sammanställdes av Ragnar Melin och innehöll uppgifter tom år 1950. En nyutgåva, "Vattenföring i Sverige", publicerades 1979. Den innehåller minst 10 år långa mätserier för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1975 samt för vissa tidigare nedlagda stationer. Denna utgåva innehåller vattenföringsuppgifter t o m 1990 för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1990 och som har en mätserie på minst 10 år.

    SMHI publicerar denna gång "Vattenföring i Sverige" i fyra delar. Indelningen av Sverige är densamma som i "Arealer för avrinningsområden", som samtidigt är under utgivning. De olika delarna omfattar

    Del 1 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenvikenDel 2 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenhavetDel 3 vattendrag som mynnar i Egentliga ÖstersjönDel 4 vattendrag som mynnar i Västerhavet ( Öresund, Kattegatt, Skagerrak).

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  • 385.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Vattenföring i Sverige. Del 1. Vattendrag till Bottenviken: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig uppgift för SMHI är att ge information om vattenföringen i Sveriges vattendrag. "Vattenföringen i Sveriges floder" utkom 1954. Den sammanställdes av Ragnar Melin och innehöll uppgifter tom är 1950. En ny utgåva, "Vattenföring i Sverige", publicerades 1979. Den innehåller minst 10 år långa mätserier för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1975 samt för vissa tidigare nedlagda stationer.

    Denna utgåva innehåller vattenföringsuppgifter t o m 1990 för de vattenföringsstationer som var i drift 1990 och som har en mätserie på minst 10 år.

    SMHI publicerar denna gäng "Vattenföring i Sverige" i fyra delar. Indelningen av Sverige är densamma som i "Arealer för avrinningsområden", som samtidigt är under utgivning. De olika delarna omfattarDel 1 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenvikenDel 2 vattendrag som mynnar i BottenhavetDel 3 vattendrag som mynnar i Egentliga ÖstersjönDel 4 vattendrag som mynnar i Västerhavet ( Öresund, Kattegatt, Skagerrak).

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  • 386.
    Kanth, Malin
    SMHI.
    Hydrokemi i fältforskningsområden1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    FFO isa program for hydrological and hydrochcmical measurements in small watercourses.There were 20 research basins, of which SMHI was rcsponsible for 19, connected to the FFOprogram.In 1995 the measuring in 17 of these research basins was endcdIn this report a presentation is given of t.he monthly rnean concentration ovcr the measuringperiod of conductivity for 19 stations, seasonal variation of all measurcd suhstances in four ofthc stations and discharge calculations for the same stations.The hydrochemistry in a watercourse depends on the climate, the topography, the rock, thecarth deposit and the vegetation. The scasonal variation of the conccntration follows theseasonal variation of thc runoff with a miniumum during the spring tlood and a maximum whenthcre is less runoff. The mean discharge of ions for the period 1984 to 1993 is grcater than forthe period 1969 to 1975. The increase is rnost likcly due to three factors: change of analysismethod, higher runoff and the human activity.

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  • 387.
    Evremar, Åsa
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Svenskt dammregister. Norra Sverige: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten över Sveriges dammbyggnader är resultatet av många års arbete. 1977 tillsatte chefen för Jordbruksdepartementet en arbetsgrupp vars uppgift var att "undersöka omfattningen av och formerna för en inventering av landets dammbyggnader samt att pröva behovet av ett register över dammbyggnader".  Arbetet resulterade 1987 i en rapport från Jordbruksdepartementet (Ds Jo 1978:9) där arbetsgruppen kom fram till att kunskapen om landets dammar var otillfredsställande och att en landsomfattande damminventering krävdes. Man utarbetade ett protokoll som skulle användas av Länsstyrelsen vid denna inventering. Man ansåg att det trots kostnaderna var motiverat ur samhällsekonomisk synvinkel med både en damminventering och ett nationellt dataregister över dammar för att förhindra dammolyckor och översvämningar. Länsstyrelserna uppdrogs i början av 1980-talet att utföra damminventeringar, vilket alla utom Gotlands län och Göteborgs och Bohus län har gjort. Inom dessa län saknas dammar av betydelse ur säkerhetssynpunkt (Länsstyrelsen i Göteborg och Bohuslän 1990; K-Å. Sjöborg, 1990).SMHI fick i regeringens proposition 1988/89: 116 i uppdrag att undersöka hur ett statligt register över Sveriges dammar borde byggas upp. Åren 1985-1988 kom uppgifter om ett stort antal dammar i Norrland in till SMHI i samband med översyn av regleringsdammars avbördningskapacitet. På eget initiativ genomförde SMHI en försöksverksamhet att lagra vissa uppgifter för ett antal stora dammar i ett dataregister. Försöksmaterialet togs från Norrland samt från damminventeringarna i Uppsala län och Kopparbergs län (SMHI,1989).I januari J 994 startade det huvudsakliga arbetet på SMHI med att lägga in data i dammregistret med utgångspunkt från länsstyrelsernas damminventeringsprotokoll. Protokollen har kopierats och arkiverats på SMHI. En viss kontroll av uppgifternas rimlighet har gjorts innan de lagts in i registret. Länsstyrelserna har sedan erhållit en diskett med den del av dammregistret som berör respektive län.

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  • 388.
    Koucheki, Behzad
    SMHI.
    Älvtemperaturers varianter i Sverige under en tioårsperiod1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs älvtemperaturens rums- och  tidsvariation.  Dessutom  beskrivs utprovning av olika modeller för sambandet mellan vattentemperatur och  meteorologiska och/eller hydrologiska variabler. Jämförelser  mellan  olika  modellansatser  genomförs  genom test  på  oberoende observationsperiod.

    Kallaste älvtemperaturen under den studerande perioden (1977-86) uppvisar Luleälven med årsmedeltemperaturen 4,4 grader, medan Mörrumsån har den varmaste  årsmedeltemperaturen med 8,6 grader.  Vattentemperaturen sjunker från söder  till norr och från kusten  till inlandet.

    Korrelationer skattas mellan 46 stationers vattentemperaturer (månadsmedelvärden). För korrelationsberäkningama har endast stationer med avrinningsområde mindre än 10000 km2 utnyttjats. Resultaten visar på starkt beroende mellan stationerna, dock med svagt avtagande med avståndet. Orsaken är likheterna i säsongsvariationen över hela landet. Motsvarande analys genomförs på dygnsvärden för ett urval bland de 46 stationerna.

    Säsongsvariationerna hos älvtemperaturen under åren är likartade. Under 6 månader, mellan november till april, har vattentemperaturerqa sina  lägsta  månadsmedelvärden,  dvs  mellan knappt noll till en grader. I juli eller augusti uppnår temperaturen toppen. Hur länge kalla och varma tider varar, beror på var stationen är belägen. Avrinningsområdets storlek och andel sjö inom avrinningsområdet syns inte ha stor betydelse i detta  sammanhang.  Däremot  finns samband mellan temperaturvariationen amplitud och avståndet uppströms från mätstationen till större sjö.

    I rapporten anges modeller avseende simulering av dygnsvärde för vattentemperatur. Vattentemperaturens variationer beskrivs med hjälp av lufttemperatur och/eller information om säsongsvariation. Vattenföring har använts som oberoende  variabel  men har ej varit signifikant för  beskrivningen  av vattentemperaturens variationer.

    Olika modeller har anpassats till observationer från tio stationer, befintliga i tio vattendrag över hela landet. Användning av säsongsvariabel i modellen har varit väsentlig för uppnående av god prestanda. Säsongsvariabel i modellen har bestämts  med  hjälp av  tio  års  månadsmedelvärden för vattentemperaturen, alternativt genom användning av så kallade dummyvariabler. Två modellvarianter, båda innehållande säsongsvariabel, har gett över 95%  förklarad  variation  vid test mot oberoende  period  av dygnsvärden.

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  • 389.
    Köuts, Tarmo
    et al.
    Estonian Met. And Hyd. Inst. Marine Res..
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Observations of water exchange, currents, sea levels and nutrients in the Gulf of Riga1995Report (Other academic)
  • 390.
    Tiderman, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Sänkta och torrlagda sjöar: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1995Report (Other academic)
  • 391.
    Sundby, Mikael
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Lidén, Rikard
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Sjödin, Nils
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Rodriguez, Helmer
    Aranibar, Enrique
    ENDE Empresa Nacional de Electricidad.
    Hydrometeorological Monitoring and Modelling for Water Resources Development and Hydropower Optimisation in Bolivia1995Report (Other academic)
  • 392.
    Funquist, Lennart
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kleine, Eckhard
    SMHI.
    Application of the BSH model to Kattegat and Skagerrak1995Report (Other academic)
  • 393.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Satellite-estimated cloudiness from NOAA AVHRR data in the Nordic are during 19931994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to estimate monthly cloud conditions (total fractional cloud cover) from multispectral satellite data is described. The operational cloud classification scheme SCANDIA (the SMHI Cloud ANalysis model using DIgital AVHRR data), based on high resolution imagery from the polar orbiting NOAA satellites, is used to produce monthly cloud frequencies for all months of 1993. The annual mean is computed and the diurnal variation of cloudiness is investigated for June and December. Cloud analyses are made for an area covering the Nordic countries with a horizontal resolution of four km

    Comparisons with existing surface observations show very good agreement, especially in the summer half of the year. some problems are indicated in the winter season when a minor underestimation of cloudiness is noticed. The underestimation is mainly due to the non-separability of low-level water clouds from cloud-free areas at very low sun elevations. Despite these problems, general cloud patterns are well described also in cold winter situations. Improvements of the method are discussed and an enlargement of the analysis area is envisaged.

    The method is proposed as a valuable tool for local and regional monitoring of the cloud climatology. Comparisons with forecasted cloudiness from atmospheric models are suggested as well as special studies of cloud conditions in the Polar areas.

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  • 394.
    Persson, Christer
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Regional spridningsmodell för Göteborgs och Bohus, Hallands och Älvsborgs län: Regional luftmiljöanalys för år 19911994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    MATCH-Västkusten is a dispersion model for the three counties of Göteborg-Bohus, Hallandand Älvsborg on the Swedish west-coast. MATCH stands for "Mesoscale Atmospheric Transportand CHemistry model" and is an Eulerian atmospheric dispersion model, including physicaland chemical processes goveming sources, atmospheric transport and sinks of oxidizedsulphur and oxidized and reduced nitrogen.U sing the MATCH-Västkusten system, air pollution contributions from diff erent source typeslike traffic, industry, shipping, farming etc. can be obtained. Using a combination of air andprecipitation chemistry measurements and the MATCH-Västkusten model, also the contributionof air pollution and deposition from long range transport can be quantified in the model region.In the report, many results from the air pollution assessment studies for the year 1991 arepresented. As examples of result can be mentioned that the sources within the west-coastregion account for a substantial fraction of the total NO2-concentration, while the deposition ofsulphur and nitrogen is dominated by the long range transport. Detailed values of the differentcontributions are given in the report.

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  • 395.
    Fredriksson, Ulf
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    En jämförelse mellan automatiska och manuella fältmätningar av temperatur och nederbörd1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Temperatur och nederbörd är viktiga parametrar inom meteorologi och hydrologi. När SMHI började att planera omstrukturering av sitt meteorologiska observationsnät bedömdes det värdefullt att jämföra hur väl automatiska mätningar gjorda med modem mätteknik, stämmer överens med manuella mätningar av temperatur och nederbörd.

    Under perioden september 1993 till och med mars 1994 har manuella avläsningar av temperatur och nederbörd gjorts parallelt med automatiska mätningar på mätområdet vid SMIIl i Norrköping. De manuella mätningarna har utförts av personal från observationskontrollgruppen på enheten för observationer.

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  • 396.
    Laurin, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Alexandersson, Hans
    SMHI.
    Några huvuddrag i det svenska temperatur-klimatet 1961-19901994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatet i Sverige har tidigare beskrivits i olika rapporter, se referenslistan. För den senaste normalperioden 1961-1990 har tidigare publicerats normalvärden (ref. nr 1.). För en allsidigare beskrivning av vårt klimat än vad enbart medelvärden kan ge har vi nu gjort en del andra typer av bearbetningar av temperaturdata.

    Bearbetningarna har gjorts inom Analysenheten på affärsområde Samhälle vid SMHI. Gruppen för Analys och Kartläggning arbetar med framtagning av övergripande sammanställningar över bland annat det svenska klimatet.

    Kartorna i rapporten är av översiktlig natur för att belysa regionala skillnader i olika parametrar. Kartorna lämpar sig därför inte för detaljanalys. Lokalt kan avvikande värden förekomma, speciellt i områden med stora höjdskillnader. På en del håll, framför allt i Norrland, ligger väderstationerna ofta i dalgångar. Värdena är då representativa för dalgången och inte för omgivande höjdpartier.

    Dataunderlaget till rapporten bygger på en omfattande mätinsats av observatörer spridda över hela landet, vilka läst av sina instrument dag efter dag, år efter år, och skickat in sina uppgifter till SMHI. Här har data sedan kontrollerats och lagrats i stora databaser av SMHis personal.

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  • 397.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19921994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller resultat från mätningar runt den svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 1992. Mätningarna utförs veckovis i kustnära stationer, samt månadsvis i stationer belägna längre ut från kusten. De första mätningarna startades 1969 i Landsortsdjupet och Ålands hav och har successivt utökats. Totalt är 20 fartyg engagerade idag.

    De parametrar som mäts är temperatur, salthalt, syrgashalt, totalfosfor, fosfatfosfor, totalkväve, nitratkväve samt i förekommande fall svavelväte . På enstaka stationer mäts även kisel. Siktdjup och meteorologiska data noteras vid varje mättillfälle. Mätningar från isbrytare har utförts i Bottenviken och Bottenhavet. En automatisk vattenprovtagare på fyren Farstugrunden samlar vattenprover en gång/vecka.

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  • 398.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hillgren, Robert
    SMHI, Core Services.
    SMHIs undersökningar utanför Forsmark 19931994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1993 års kontrollprogram har haft som målsättning att:

    - kontinuerligt bevaka temperaturen i vertikal S i skärgårdsområdet

    - kontrollera vattenområdet vid F3:s kylvattenkanal (tidigare läckaget).

    Kraftverkets drift under 1993 kan betraktas som normal med avseende på kylvattenflöde och värme.

    Reservutskovet har använts i drygt 1 månad. Under 1990 och 1991 var motsvarande tid cirka 6 månader. Att perioden varit så mycket längre under de två åren har berott på att Kustlaboratoriet i Öregrund bedrivit ett försök att skapa möjligheter för en förbättrad fiskreproduktion.

    Kommentarer:

    * Temperaturen ligger på en fortsatt normal nivå genom att reservutskovet   utnyttjats betydligt mindre under 1992.

    * Det fanns inga spår av det tidigare läckaget utanför F3:s kylvattenkanal.

    Statististiskt sett var årsmedeltemperaturen (april - november) under -93 i vertikal Spå 1 m djup 0.l8°C under medelvärdet för perioden 1977-92.

    För 1991 och 1990 låg årsmedeltemp. 2.2°C resp l.8°C över medelvärdet, samt för 1992 låg årsmedeltemp. 0.23°C över medelvärdet.

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  • 399.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19931994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller resultat från mätningar runt den svenska kusten  med kustbevakningens fartyg 1993. Mätningarna utförs veckovis i kustnära stationer, samt månadsvis i stationer belägna längre ut från kusten. De första mätningarna startades 1969 i Landsortsdjupet och Ålands hav och har successivt utökats. Totalt är 20 fartyg engagerade idag.

    De parametrar som mäts är temperatur, salthalt, syrgashalt, totalfosfor, fosfatfosfor, totalkväve, nitratkväve samt i förekommande fall svavelväte. På enstaka stationer mäts även kisel. Siktdjup och meteorologiska data noteras vid varje mättillfälle. En automatisk vattenprovtagare på fyren Farstugrunden samlar vattenprover en gång/vecka.

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  • 400.
    Evremar, Åsa
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Avdunstningens höjdberoende i svenska fjällområden bestämd ur vattenbalans och med modellering1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evapotranspiration, one of the main parts of the waterbalance, is not well known in theSwedish mountains. The evapotranspiration is difficult to measure reliably and measurementsare only rarely done. To predict the available water quantity for hydro power generation or forthe risks for darnaging high flows, it is important to know the water balance in the mountains.Since many of the driving variables of the evapotranspiration are dependent on the altitude, itwas investigated in this work if the variation of evaporation in the mountains could beapproximated in simple functional form. The aim of this work was to make clear if theevaporation in the Swedish mountains has a dependence on the altitude and to investigate ifsuch a possible dependence could be used to improve the HBV-111odel. This was done bycalculating the evapotranspiration as a residual in the water balance equation for a number ofhigh-altitude drainage basins in the river Ljusnan, the river Indalsälven and the river Luleälven.The calculations were done with longtime mean values from the years 1961-90. The altitudedependence was calculated by linear regression. The result was inserted in the HBV-model as acorrection factor in the calculation of the evapotranspiration. It was also tested if anyimprovements in the model could be achieved by introducing an altitude dependence of thevariables in the Priestley-Taylor formula. In this case, evapotranspiration was calculated with adaily resolution. Simulations with the HBV-model were performed for the drainage basinsLjusnedal, Torrön and Kultsjön. Evaporation calculated as a water balance residual, decreased24 mm/100 m and year for the river Ljusnan, 54 mm/100 m and year for the river Indalsälvenand 48 mm/ 100 m and year for the river Luleälven. The result of the calculation in the riverLuleälven was condensation in a number of areas. This was probably caused by too fewraingauges in the area. The explained variance <luring simulations with the HBV-modelincreased in the area of Kultsjön if a dependence on the altitude was inserted. The explainedvariance however decreased for the areas of Torrön and Ljusnedal. lf a dependence on thealtitude of the evapotranspiration was inserted in the model the spring flood decreased fasterand the peaks of the water discharge were higher <luring summer. The model produced worseresults if the standard version sirnulated a spring flood that was too short and the dischargepeaks <luring summer that were too high. The Priestley-Taylors formula led toa calculatedevapotranspiration in the model that decreased with 40 mm/100 m per year in the drainge basinof Torrön and 23 mm/100 m per year of the drainage basin of Kultsjön. The conclusions of thiswork was that the evapotranspiration in the Swedish mountains decreases with about 30 mm/100 m per year and that knowledge may irnprove the HBV-model in some cases.

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