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  • 151. Ceola, S.
    et al.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Baratti, E.
    Bloeschl, G.
    Capell, Réne
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Castellarin, A.
    Freer, J.
    Han, D.
    Hrachowitz, M.
    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hutton, C.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Montanari, A.
    Nijzink, R.
    Parajka, J.
    Toth, E.
    Viglione, A.
    Wagener, T.
    Virtual laboratories: new opportunities for collaborative water science2015Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 2101-2117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproducibility and repeatability of experiments are the fundamental prerequisites that allow researchers to validate results and share hydrological knowledge, experience and expertise in the light of global water management problems. Virtual laboratories offer new opportunities to enable these prerequisites since they allow experimenters to share data, tools and pre-defined experimental procedures (i.e. protocols). Here we present the outcomes of a first collaborative numerical experiment undertaken by five different international research groups in a virtual laboratory to address the key issues of reproducibility and repeatability. Moving from the definition of accurate and detailed experimental protocols, a rainfall-runoff model was independently applied to 15 European catchments by the research groups and model results were collectively examined through a web-based discussion. We found that a detailed modelling protocol was crucial to ensure the comparability and reproducibility of the proposed experiment across groups. Our results suggest that sharing comprehensive and precise protocols and running the experiments within a controlled environment (e.g. virtual laboratory) is as fundamental as sharing data and tools for ensuring experiment repeatability and reproducibility across the broad scientific community and thus advancing hydrology in a more coherent way.

  • 152. Conley, Daniel J.
    et al.
    Bjorck, Svante
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Destouni, Georgia
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Hietanen, Susanna
    Kortekaas, Marloes
    Kuosa, Harri
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Mueller-Karulis, Baerbel
    Nordberg, Kjell
    Norkko, Alf
    Nuernberg, Gertrud
    Pitkanen, Heikki
    Rabalais, Nancy N.
    Rosenberg, Rutger
    Savchuk, Oleg P.
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Voss, Maren
    Wulff, Fredrik
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Hypoxia-Related Processes in the Baltic Sea2009Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 3412-3420Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia, a growing worldwide problem, has been intermittently present in the modern Baltic Sea since its formation ca. 8000 cal. yr BP. However, both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia have increased with anthropogenic eutrophication due to nutrient inputs. Physical processes, which control stratification and the renewal of oxygen in bottom waters, are important constraints on the formation and maintenance of hypoxia. Climate controlled inflows of saline water from the North Sea through the Danish Straits is a critical controlling factor governing the spatial extent and duration of hypoxia. Hypoxia regulates the biogeochemical cycles of both phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the water column and sediments. Significant amounts of P are currently released from sediments, an order of magnitude larger than anthropogenic inputs. The Baltic Sea is unique for coastal marine ecosystems experiencing N losses in hypoxic waters below the halocline. Although benthic communities in the Baltic Sea are naturally constrained by salinity gradients, hypoxia has resulted in habitat loss over vast areas and the elimination of benthic fauna, and has severely disrupted benthic food webs. Nutrient load reductions are needed to reduce the extent, severity, and effects of hypoxia.

  • 153. Conley, Daniel J.
    et al.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Aigars, Juris
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Eremina, Tatjana
    Haahti, Britt-Marie
    Humborg, Christoph
    Jonsson, Per
    Kotta, Jonne
    Lannegren, Christer
    Larsson, Ulf
    Maximov, Alexey
    Medina, Miguel Rodriguez
    Lysiak-Pastuszak, Elzbieta
    Remeikaite-Nikiene, Nijole
    Walve, Jakob
    Wilhelms, Sunhild
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Hypoxia Is Increasing in the Coastal Zone of the Baltic Sea2011Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 16, s. 6777-6783Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia is a well-described phenomenon in the offshore waters of the Baltic Sea with both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia known to have increased due to anthropogenic eutrophication, however, an unknown amount of hypoxia is present in the coastal zone. Here we report on the widespread unprecedented occurrence of hypoxia across the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. We have identified 115 sites that have experienced hypoxia during the period 1955-2009 increasing the global total to ca. 500 sites, with the Baltic Sea coastal zone containing over 20% of all known sites worldwide. Most sites experienced episodic hypoxia, which is a precursor to development of seasonal hypoxia. The Baltic Sea coastal zone displays an alarming trend with hypoxia steadily increasing with time since the 1950s effecting nutrient biogeochemical processes, ecosystem services, and coastal habitat.

  • 154.
    Crochemore, Louise
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Isberg, Kristina
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pimentel, Rafael
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pineda, L.
    SMHI.
    Hasan, Abdulghani
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lessons learnt from checking the quality of openly accessible river flow data worldwide2019Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, nr 64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 155.
    Crochemore, Louise
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Ramos, Maria-Helena
    Pappenberger, Florian
    Bias correcting precipitation forecasts to improve the skill of seasonal streamflow forecasts2016Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 20, nr 9, s. 3601-3618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 156.
    Crochemore, Louise
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Ramos, Maria-Helena
    Pappenberger, Florian
    Perrin, Charles
    Seasonal streamflow forecasting by conditioning climatology with precipitation indices2017Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 1573-1591Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 157. Dahl, M
    et al.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Comparison of four models simulating phosphorus dynamics in Lake Vanern, Sweden2004Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 1153-1163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares four water quality models applied to Lake Vanern, Sweden. The comparison is focused on phosphorus, the primary limiting nutrient in Lake Vanern. Two of the models, FYRISA and HBV-NP, are simple and were developed as parts of catchment models. Two other models, called LEEDS and MOM are more comprehensive lake models. The models were calibrated using data from the period 1985-1992 and validated using data from the period 1993-2000. The fit to calibration data is similar for the FYRISA, HBV-NP, and LEEDS models, and slightly worse for the BIOLA model. All models fit the validation data almost as well as the calibration data. The models behaviour was tested in two representative scenarios. An increase of emissions by 40% from a pulp and paper mill has a negligible effect on the water quality, while a decrease in phosphorus load by 14% (accomplished by better waste-water treatment in rural households) gives a considerable decrease in phosphorus concentration in the lake. Still, the results of the scenarios vary between the models.

  • 158. Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Behrens, Thorsten
    Seibert, Jan
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Test of statistical means for the extrapolation of soil depth point information using overlays of spatial environmental data and bootstrapping techniques2009Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 23, nr 21, s. 3017-3029Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological modelling depends highly on the accuracy and uncertainty of model input parameters such as soil properties. Since most of these data are field Surveyed, geostatistical techniques Such as kriging, classification and regression trees or more sophisticated soil-landscape models need to be applied to interpolate point information to the area. Most of the existing interpolation techniques require a random or regular distribution of points Within the study area but are not adequate to satisfactorily interpolate soil catena or transect data. The soil landscape model presented in this study is predicting soil information from transect or catena point data using a statistical mean (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic mean) to calculate the soil information based on class means of merged spatial explanatory variables. A data set of 226 soil depth measurements covering a range of 0-6.5 m was used to test the model. The point data were sampled along four transects in the Stubbetorp catchment, SE-Sweden. We overlaid a geomorphology map (8 classes) with digital elevation model-derived topographic index maps (2-9 classes) to estimate the range of error the model produces with changing sample size and input maps. The accuracy of the soil depth predictions was estimated with the root mean square error (RMSE) based oil a testing and training data set. RMSE ranged generally between 0.73 and 0.83 m +/- 0.013 m depending on the amount of classes the merged layers had, but were smallest for a map combination with a low number of classes predicted with the harmonic mean (RMSE = 0.46 m). The results show that the prediction accuracy of this method depends oil the number of point values in the sample, the value range of the measured attribute and the initial correlations between point values and explanatory variables, but suggests that the model approach is in general scale invariant. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 159.
    Danelsson, Håkan
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Lindkvist, Torbjörn
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Sjökarte- och sjöuppgifter: Register 19871987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid upprättandet av sjöregistret utgick SMHI från den aktuella topografiska kartan och tog i grundversionen med alla blå ytor större än 0.01 kmdvs 1 ha (1 ha= 100x100 m). Detta innebär att även tjärnar, gölar, vissa dammar mm är medtagna i sjöregistret. Det kan också innebära att vissa vattenytor idag är helt igenvuxna och egentligen bör betecknas som våtmark. En annan oklar gränsdragning är övergången mellan sjö och vattendrag som sammanhänger med inlopps- och utloppssektioner samt genomströmning.Många svenska sjöar är reglerade och i flera fall består nuvarande regleringsmagasin av flera sjöar. Dessa magasin är medtagna i sjöregistret.Sjösänkningsföretagen under 1800-talet och början av 1900-talet har på flera håll drastiskt minskat antalet sjöar. Genom naturliga processer sker också hela tiden förändringar av sjöarna. lgenväxning minskar sjöytan, många torvmarker har varit sjöar, sedimentation och erosion förändrar strand och bottenförhållanden, landhöjningen skapar nya sjöar osv.Av detta följer att antalet sjöar aldrig kan bli någon exakt siffra. I sjöregistret finns idag 54 000 sjöar.

  • 160. Danielssen, D S
    et al.
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Hernroth, L
    Ostrowski, M
    Svendsen, E
    Talpsepp, L
    Oceanographic variability in the Skagerrak and Northern Kattegat, May-June, 19901997Ingår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 753-773Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Skagerrak Experiment (SKAGEX), was a large, international, ICES-supported joint venture, carried out in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area on four different surveys in the period 1990-1991. It involved some 20 institutes and, at times, up to 17 research vessels. The main aim of the Experiment was to identify and quantify the different water masses entering and leaving the Skagerrak area and their variation over lime. It also aimed to investigate the mechanisms that drive the circulation and to study their effects on biological processes. The aim was to be attained mostly through extensive synoptic observations. This paper focuses on the variability in physical, chemical and biological parameters during the first part of SKAGEX, 24 May-20 June 1990. During the first half of the period of investigation, the main outflow from the Skagerrak, represented by the Norwegian Coastal Current, was barotropic with daily mean velocities varying from 10-40 cm s(-1). During the second half a clear baroclinic current component developed, giving rise to near surface velocities of up to 100 cm s(-1). A pronounced feature in the Skagerrak during the study was the counter-clockwise circulation of the Norwegian Coastal Current at times of strong northwesterly winds. During such conditions this surface water reached as far as the Danish coast south of 57 degrees N and upwelling along the Norwegian coast was also found. During northerly winds upwelling also occurred along the Swedish coast. The nutrient-rich Jutland Coastal Water, originating from the German Eight, was never found to reach the inner part of the Skagerrak during this first part of SKAGEX. It was partly blocked or diluted by other water-masses. A large ''ridge'' of nutrient-rich Atlantic water was found in the central Skagerrak throughout the investigation. It is shown that this elongated ''ridge'' was associated with the deepest (>500 m) area of the Skagerrak. Within this area, high subsurface chlorophyll concentrations were always found and, due to the persistence of the supply of nutrients, it is concluded that this phenomenon could be one of the main reasons for the high productivity of the Skagerrak. (C) 1997 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  • 161. Danielsson, A.
    et al.
    Jönsson, Anette
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Resuspension patterns in the Baltic proper2007Ingår i: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 257-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Waves induce resuspension of surface sediments and contribute to the long-term mobilisation of particulate matter from erosion to accumulation bottoms. This has a major impact on the nutrient cycle in shallow seas by enhancing degradation, microbial production and recycling. The Baltic Sea represents such an area. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial and temporal resuspension patterns in the Baltic Sea. To estimate the bottom friction velocity, modelled wave data are used in combination with data on grain size. This new data set is compared to a resuspension threshold of friction velocity to estimate the events of resuspension. The variation in bottom friction velocity, resuspension frequency and duration are related to wind climate, fetch, water depth and sediment type. Substantial resuspension can be found down to 40-60 m, with durations from one day to as much as two weeks. The highest winds in the area are highly anisotropic with a dominance of S-SW-W winds and the highest resuspension frequencies are found along the shallow eastern coasts. A seasonal pattern is observed with relatively high friction velocities and high resuspension frequencies during winter. There is also a variation depending on grain size, where sediments with fine and medium sand have a considerably higher percentage of resuspension events than bottoms with other dominant grain sizes. Five sub-areas are identified, characterised by different sediment types, resuspension and wind characteristics. If, in the future, wind speed increases as predicted, resuspension of sediments will also increase with effects on the nutrient cycle. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 162. De Lavenne, Alban
    et al.
    Cudennec, C.
    Assessment of freshwater discharge into a coastal bay through multi-basin ensemble hydrological modelling2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 669, s. 812-820Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 163. Deng, Junjie
    et al.
    Harff, Jan
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    A method for assessing the coastline recession due to the sea level rise by assuming stationary wind-wave climate2015Ingår i: OCEANOLOGICAL AND HYDROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES, ISSN 1730-413X, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 362-380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The method introduced in this study for future projection of coastline changes hits the vital need of communicating the potential climate change impact on the coast in the 21th century. A quantitative method called the Dynamic Equilibrium Shore Model (DESM) has been developed to hindcast historical sediment mass budgets and to reconstruct a paleo Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The forward mode of the DESM model relies on paleo-scenarios reconstructed by the DESM model assuming stationary wind-wave climate. A linear relationship between the sea level, coastline changes and sediment budget is formulated and proven by the least square regression method. In addition to its forward prediction of coastline changes, this linear relationship can also estimate the sediment budget by using the information on the coastline and relative sea level changes. Wind climate change is examined based on regional climate model data. Our projections for the end of the 21st century suggest that the wind and wave climates in the southern Baltic Sea may not change compared to present conditions and that the investigated coastline along the Pomeranian Bay may retreat from 10 to 100 m depending on the location and on the sea level rise which was assumed to be in the range of 0.12 to 0.24 m.

  • 164.
    Dieterich, Christian
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Wang, Shiyu
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Groger, Matthias
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Klein, Birgit
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Liu, Ye
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Surface Heat Budget over the North Sea in Climate Change Simulations2019Ingår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id 272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 165. Dietze, H.
    et al.
    Löptien, Ulrike
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Revisiting "nutrient trapping" in global coupled biogeochemical ocean circulation models2013Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 265-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze an extensive set of global coupled biogeochemical ocean circulation models. The focus is on the equatorial Pacific. In all simulations, which are consistent with observed standing stocks of relevant biogeochemical species at the surface, we find spuriously enhanced (reduced) macronutrient (oxygen) concentrations in the deep eastern equatorial Pacific. This modeling problem, apparently endemic to global coupled biogeochemical ocean circulation models, was coined " nutrient trapping" by Najjar et al. (1992). In contrast to Aumont et al. (1999), we argue that " nutrient trapping" is still a persistent problem, even in eddy-permitting models and, further, that the scale of the problem retards model projections of nitrogen cycling. In line with previous work, our results indicate that a deficient circulation is at the core of the problem rather than an admittedly poor quantitative understanding of biogeochemical cycles. More specifically, we present indications that " nutrient trapping" in models is a result of a spuriously damped Equatorial Intermediate (zonal) Current System and Equatorial Deep Jets-phenomenon which await a comprehensive understanding and have, to date, not been successfully simulated.

  • 166.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Andersson, Jafet
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Using flow signatures and catchment similarities to evaluate the E-HYPE multi-basin model across Europe2016Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 255-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open data make it possible to set up multi-basin models for large domains across environmental, climate and administrative boundaries. This study presents new methods for evaluating a number of aspects of multi-basin model performance, while exploring the performance of the E-HYPE_v2.1 model for several evaluation criteria in 181 independent river gauges across the European continent. Embedded model assumptions on dominant flow generating mechanisms are analysed by correlating physiographical characteristics to the flow regime. The results indicate that the model captures the spatial variability of flow and is therefore suitable for predictions in ungauged basins. The model shows good performance of long-term means and seasonality, while short-term daily variability is less well represented, especially for Mediterranean and mountainous areas. Major identified shortcomings refer to the resolution of precipitation patterns, aquifer exchanges, water extractions and regulation. This will guide the work with the next model version for which improvements in input data, processes and calibration have been identified to potentially contribute most to improved model performance. [GRAPHICS]

  • 167.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Greuell, Wouter
    Andersson, Jafet
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gerten, Dieter
    Pisacane, Giovanna
    Roudier, Philippe
    Ludwig, Fulco
    Impacts of climate change on European hydrology at 1.5, 2 and 3 degrees mean global warming above preindustrial level2017Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 143, nr 1-2, s. 13-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 168.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Greuell, Wouter
    Andersson, Jafet
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gerten, Dieter
    Pisacane, Giovanna
    Roudier, Philippe
    Ludwig, Fulco
    Impacts of climate change on European hydrology at 1.5, 2 and 3 degrees mean global warming above preindustrial level (vol 143, pg 13, 2017)2017Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 143, nr 3-4, s. 535-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 169.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Larson, M.
    Hanson, H.
    A numerical model of coastal overwash2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Maritime Engineering, ISSN 1741-7597, E-ISSN 1751-7737, Vol. 162, nr 3, s. 105-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Overwash, the flow of water and sediment over the crest of a beach, contributes to flooding and the deposition of sand landward of the beach crest. Washover, the sand deposited by overwash, contributes to the sediment budget and migration of barrier islands. The ability to predict the occurrence, location, and thickness of overwash deposits is important for coastal residents, coastal town planners, environmental planners, and engineers alike. In this study, a numerical model that simulates the sediment transport and one-dimensional barrier profile change caused by overwash was developed. The magnitude of overwash and the morphology of washovers are dependent on the overwash regime. New formulae are developed to estimate the sediment transport rate over the beach crest for both run-up overwash, using ballistics theory, and inundation overwash, treating flow over the crest as weir flow. Two-dimensional flow is described on the back barrier by considering the continuity of a block of water at steady state, taking into account lateral spreading, friction, and infiltration. The model is tested against 26 different beach profile sets from several different locations, and several different storms, exhibiting a variety of initial morphologies. The model is capable of reproducing varying overwash morphology responses including dune crest erosion, dune destruction, barrier rollback, the thinning of a washover deposit on the backbarrier, and overwash over a multiple dune system.

  • 170.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Isberg, Kristina
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    A validation of river routing networks for catchment modelling from small to large scales2013Ingår i: HYDROLOGY RESEARCH, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 917-925Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Underpinning all hydrological simulations is an estimate of the catchment area upstream of a point of interest. Locally, the delineation of a catchment and estimation of its area is usually done using fine scale maps and local knowledge, but for large-scale hydrological modelling, particularly continental and global scale modelling, this level of detailed data analysis is not practical. For large-scale hydrological modelling, remotely sensed and hydrologically conditioned river routing networks, such as HYDROlk and HydroSHEDS, are often used. This study evaluates the accuracy of the accumulated upstream area in each gridpoint given by the networks. This is useful for evaluating the ability of these data sets to delineate catchments of varying scale for use in hydrological models. It is shown that the higher resolution HydroSHEDS data set gives better results than the HYDROlk data set and that accuracy decreases with decreasing basin scale. In ungauged basins, or where other local catchment area data are not available, the validation made in this study can be used to indicate the likelihood of correctly delineating catchments of different scales using these river routing networks.

  • 171.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Yang, Wei
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Dahne, Joel
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    River discharge to the Baltic Sea in a future climate2014Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 122, nr 1-2, s. 157-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on new projections of discharge to the Baltic Sea given possible realisations of future climate and uncertainties regarding these projections. A high-resolution, pan-Baltic application of the Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model was used to make transient simulations of discharge to the Baltic Sea for a mini-ensemble of climate projections representing two high emissions scenarios. The biases in precipitation and temperature adherent to climate models were adjusted using a Distribution Based Scaling (DBS) approach. As well as the climate projection uncertainty, this study considers uncertainties in the bias-correction and hydrological modelling. While the results indicate that the cumulative discharge to the Baltic Sea for 2071 to 2100, as compared to 1971 to 2000, is likely to increase, the uncertainties quantified from the hydrological model and the bias-correction method show that even with a state-of-the-art methodology, the combined uncertainties from the climate model, bias-correction and impact model make it difficult to draw conclusions about the magnitude of change. It is therefore urged that as well as climate model and scenario uncertainty, the uncertainties in the bias-correction methodology and the impact model are also taken into account when conducting climate change impact studies.

  • 172.
    Edman, Moa
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Nutrient Retention in the Swedish Coastal Zone2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, artikel-id UNSP 415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 173.
    Edström, Magnus
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Rystam, Pia
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    FFO - Stationsnät för fältforskningsområden 19941994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    l denna rapport redovisas en sammanställning över de olika klimat- och ytvattendata som finns för SMHl:s FFO stationer. För varje station redovisas under vilka tidsperioder det finns data. FFO står för fältforskningsområde och är ett program för hydrologiska och hydrokemiska mätningar i små vattendrag.I mitten av 1960-talet startades inom Unesco den Internationella Hydrologiska Dekaden (IHD). Sverige deltog med omfattande undersökningar i sju så kallade representativa områden. Ett nordiskt expertmöte i Uppsala 1975 resulterade i det då nya begreppetfältforskningsområde (FFO). Ett FFO skall uppfylla vissa minimikrav ifråga om insamling av hydrologiska basdata, fysiologisk och klimatologisk beskrivning av området samt det hydrologiska materialets tillgänglighet.Ett fälforskningsområde skall vara 1.200 km2 stort och homogent med avseende på regimmönster, topografi, jordart och vegetation. Urvalet görs med utgångspunkt från naturgeografisk regionsindelning av Norden och hydrologisk regimindelning. Minimikrav på mätprogram är följande: vattenföring, nederbörd, snötaxering, lufttemperatur, luftfuktighet, vind och hydrokemi.Observationer i fåltforskningsområden har skett genom flera institutioners försorg: SMHI, KTH, LTH, CTH och Stockholms Universitet har medverkat. Från 1980/1981 har SMHI haft ansvaret för FFO-verksamheten. Äldre mätresultat har samlats in från de tidigare representativa områden som behållits som FFO. Nuvarande stationsnät omfattar 20 områden.Till en början var avsikten med FFO-programmet att endast titta på vattenomsättningen i olika representativa områden. Efter hand har även de kemiska kvalitetsaspekterna blivit mera intressanta och kommit med i bilden. Med denna sammanställning hoppas vi att det ska bli lättare att ta ett samlat grepp över all den information som faktiskt finns för våra olika FFO . Det  kommer också bli lättare att nå ut till olika intressenter av data.

  • 174. Eero, Margit
    et al.
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    MacKenzie, Brian R.
    Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?2016Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 649-660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 175. Eggert, B.
    et al.
    Berg, Peter
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Haerter, J. O.
    Jacob, D.
    Moseley, C.
    Temporal and spatial scaling impacts on extreme precipitation2015Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. 5957-5971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Convective and stratiform precipitation events have fundamentally different physical causes. Using a radar composite over Germany, this study separates these precipitation types and compares extremes at different spatial and temporal scales, ranging from 1 to 50 km and 5 min to 6 h, respectively. Four main objectives are addressed. First, we investigate extreme precipitation intensities for convective and stratiform precipitation events at different spatial and temporal resolutions to identify type-dependent space and time reduction factors and to analyze regional and seasonal differences over Germany. We find strong differences between the types, with up to 30% higher reduction factors for convective compared to stratiform extremes, exceeding all other observed seasonal and regional differences within one type. Second, we investigate how the differences in reduction factors affect the contribution of each type to extreme events as a whole, again dependent on the scale and the threshold chosen. A clear shift occurs towards more convective extremes at higher resolution or higher percentiles. For horizontal resolutions of current climate model simulations, i.e., similar to 10 km, the temporal resolution of the data as well as the chosen threshold have profound influence on which type of extreme will be statistically dominant. Third, we compare the ratio of area to duration reduction factor for convective and stratiform events and find that convective events have lower effective advection velocities than stratiform events and are therefore more strongly affected by spatial than by temporal aggregation. Finally, we discuss the entire precipitation distribution regarding data aggregation and identify matching pairs of temporal and spatial resolutions where similar distributions are observed. The information is useful for planning observational networks or storing model data at different temporal and spatial scales.

  • 176.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Avrinningsområden i Sverige. Del 1. Vattendrag till Bottenviken: Svenskt Vattenarkiv2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grunden för allt hydrologiskt arbete är kännedom om läge och storlek för Sverigesvattensystem och däri ingående sjöar och vattendrag. SMHI har inom SvensktVattenarkiv (SVAR) byggt upp databaser för sådana uppgifter.En mycket viktig uppgift är arealen för avrinningsområdet på olika platser ivattendragssystemen. Uppgifter om avrinningsområdens storlek är t.ex. nödvändiga förvattenplanering och vid beräkning av vattenföring för vattendrag, där observationersaknas.

  • 177.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Avrinningsområden i Sverige. Del 2: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1998Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grunden för allt hydrologiskt arbete är kännedom om läge och storlek för Sverigesvattensystem och däri ingående sjöar och vattendrag. SMHI har inom SvensktVattenarkiv (SVAR) byggt upp databaser för sådana uppgifter.En mycket viktig uppgift är arealen för avrinningsområdet på olika platser i vattendragssystemen.Uppgifter om avrinningsområdens storlek ärt.ex. nödvändiga för vattenplaneringoch vid beräkning av vattenföring för vattendrag, där observationer saknas.

  • 178.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Avrinningsområden i Sverige. Del 3. Vattendrag till Egentliga Östersjön och Öresund: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grunden för allt hydrologiskt arbete är kännedom om läge och storlek för Sveriges vattensystem och däri ingående sjöar och vattendrag. SMHI har samlat sådana uppgifter i Svenskt Vattenarkiv (SVAR). Inom SVAR har hittills publicerats ett sjöregister, ett vattendragsregister, ett register över befintliga sjökartor och sjöuppgifter samt de svenska huvudvattendragens namn och mynningspunkter.En mycket viktig uppgift är arealen för avrinningsområdet på olika platser i vattendragssystemen. Uppgifter om avrinningsområdens storlek är tex nödvändiga för vattenplanering och vid beräkning av vattenföring för vattendrag, där observationer saknas.

  • 179.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Avrinningsområden i Sverige. Del 4. Vattendrag till Västerhavet: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grunden för allt hydrologiskt arbete är kännedom om läge och storlek för Sveriges vattensystem och däri ingående sjöar och vattendrag. SMHI har samlat sådana uppgifter i Svenskt Vattenarkiv (SVAR). Inom SVAR har hittills bland annat publicerats ett sjöregister, ett vattendragsregister, ett register över befintliga sjökartor och sjöuppgifter samt de svenska huvudvattendragens namn och mynningspunkter.

    En mycket viktig uppgift är arealen för avrinningsområdet på olika platser i vattendragssystemen. Uppgifter om avrinningsområdens storlek är tex nödvändiga för vattenplanering och vid beräkning av vattenföring för vattendrag, där observationer saknas.

  • 180.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lindkvist, Torbjörn
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Milanov, Todor
    SMHI.
    De svenska huvudvattendragens namn och mynningspunkter1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en mycket god vattentillgång. Vi har också utnyttjatdenna tillgång för många ändamål somt ex vattenkraftutbyggnad,dricksvattenförsörjning, transportleder, fiske, utspädning och borttransportav föroreningar mm. I vissa fall har vi utnyttjat vattentillgångenalltför hårt både vad gäller vattnets kvantitet och kvalitet.Det har medfört en omfattande vattenvårdande insats och begränsningari användningen. De sa1t111anlagda kraven på vattenresursenär i vissa fall så stora att konflikter om vattenutnyttjandet uppstått.På senare år har därför kraven på en övergripande vattenplaneringframförts allt starkare.För alla som på något sätt har intressen i det svenska vattensystemetskall kunna konrnunicera krävs att vissa grundläggande uppgifterär entydiga och klart specificerade.SMHI har här en viktig uppgift som central myndighet för hydrologioch oceanografi att föreslå och fastställa dessa grundläggande uppgifter.Arbetet med denna uppgift utförs på SMHI till stor del inom ett samlandeprojekt som benämns Svenskt Vattenarkiv (SVAR).Inom SVAR finns många delar och arbetet sker på lång sikt.I denna rapport presenteras uppgifter som vi har funnit vara väsentligasom ett led i arbetet för entydiga benämningar och avgränsningari det svenska vattensystemen.

  • 181.
    Ehlin, Ulf
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Olsson, Per-Eric
    VASO.
    Utbyggd hydrologisk prognos- och varningstjänst: Rapport från studieresa i USA 1991-04-22--301991Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studieresan gav förutom nya kunskaper om utnyttjade metoder ocharbetssätt samt nya personkontakter följande övergripande intryck.

    • De tekniska resurserna för automatiska mätningar och automatisk datainsamling är betydligt större i USA än i Sverige även sett relation till ländernas storlek och hydrologiska förhållanden.
    • Automatiska observationsstationer bekostade och drivna av kommuner, counties, privata företag och federala myndigheter samordnas i gemensamma observationssystem. Utförda observationer är tillgängliga för alla intressenter kostnadsfritt.
    • De olika intressenterna i en hydrologisk region lagrar vanligen sina data i en gemensam databas som fritt kan utnyttjas. Där inte en sådan gemensam databas finns beklagar man detta och pekar på de svårigheter det medför.
    • Meteor-burst-teknik är ett elegant sätt att samla in hydrologiska och meteorologiska data. Datainsamlingen är oberoende av driftstörningar och prispolitik hos ägaren till andra kommunikationsmedel. För att kostnadsmässigt kunna konkurrera med andra tekniker för dataöverföring erfordras dock ett betydande antal sändarstationer i systemet.
    • Svensk hydrologisk prognosteknik står sig väl vid en jämförelse med amerikansk.
    • Tillgången till datorutrustning för drift och utveckling av hydrologiska prognossystem är större i USA än i Sverige. Man lämnar helt stordatormiljöer och inriktar sig på arbetsstationer.
    • Utvecklingsarbetet under 90-talet inom den meteorologiska och hydrologiska verksamheten i USA inriktar sig bl a på en automatiserad användning av doppler-radar. Enligt vår uppfattning var man på vissa håll alltför optimistisk inför vad som kommer att kunna utföras operationellt med väderradar under 90-talet.
    • Federala och statliga myndigheter, kommuner samt privata företag samarbetar i den hydrologiska prognostjänsten, enligt uppgift utan större friktioner.
    • Utbildningen av meteorologer och hydrologer ges större vikt inför 90-talets hydrologiska tjänst. Speciellt betonas hydrometeorologisk kunskap.
    • I de federala myndigheternas policy ingår att gratis eller enbart till en expeditionskostnad ställa datorprogram m m till andras förfogande.
  • 182.
    Eigenheer, Andrea
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Quadfasel, D
    Seasonal variability of the Bay of Bengal circulation inferred from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry2000Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 105, nr C2, s. 3243-3252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The circulation in the interior of the Bay of Bengal and of its western boundary current, the East Indian Coastal Current, is inferred from historical ship drift data and from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data. The boundary current shows a strong seasonal variability with reversals twice per year that lead the reversal of the local monsoon wind field by several months. On the basis of model simulations it has been suggested that this unusual behavior can be explained by the influence of remotely forced planetary waves. Our data analysis confirms and refines this view by showing the role of topography in the northern bay. We also give an estimate of the relative importance of the different contributions.

  • 183.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Andersen, Per
    Nautsvoll, Lars Johan
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Modelling the dynamics of harmful blooms of Chattonella sp. in the Skagerrak and the Kattegat2011Ingår i: ICES CM 2006/E:12, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation shows observations, satellite images and model results describing the growth and spreading of Chattonella sp. flagellates in the Skagerrak and the Kattegat. Chattonella sp. is a harmful alga that may cause fish kills due to damage of the gills. Calm weather, stable water column stratification, and low turbulence may facilitate the onset of a Chattonella bloom. Results from the three-dimensional hydrodynamical model HIROMB (High Resolution Operational Model for the Baltic Sea) are used as forcing of a transport model that computes vertical and horizontal transports of chemical and biological compounds. A modified version of the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) is used to describe the temporal evolution of the phytoplankton spring blooms in the year 2001 when Chattonella was abundant and 2002 when only small amounts of Chattonella were observed. A comparison with satellite images and cell counts indicates that the model captures the main transport patterns of phytoplankton in the surface layers of the offshore areas. The Chattonella bloom of the model starts in the quite shallow parts of the western Kattegat and in the stratified coastal areas of the northern Skagerrak. The coastal waters near the river Göta Älv of Sweden also indicate a tendency of an increased occurrence of Chattonella. Chattonella is observed in the model during both years but the occurrence of Chattonella is more significant in the year 2001 than in 2002.

  • 184.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Fransner, Filippa
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Modeling Nutrient Transports and Exchanges of Nutrients Between Shallow Regions and the Open Baltic Sea in Present and Future Climate2012Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 586-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper.

  • 185.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Impact of saltwater inflows on phosphorus cycling and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea: a 3D model study2014Ingår i: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 66, artikel-id 23985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of dense saltwater inflows on the phosphorus dynamics in the Baltic Sea is studied from tracer experiments with a three-dimensional physical model. Model simulations showed that the coasts of the North West Gotland Basin and the Gulf of Finland, the Estonian coast in the East Gotland Basin are regions where tracers from below the halocline are primarily lifted up above the halocline. After 1 yr tracers are accumulated at the surface along the Swedish east coast and at the western and southern sides of Gotland. Elevated concentrations are also found east and southeast of Gotland, in the northern Bornholm Basin and in the central parts of the East Gotland Basin. The annual supplies of phosphorus from the deeper waters to the productive surface layers are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the waterborne inputs of phosphorus to the entire Baltic Sea. The model results suggest that regionally the impact of these nutrients may be quite large, and the largest regional increases in surface concentrations are found after large inflows. However, the overall direct impact of major Baltic inflows on the annual uplift of nutrients from below the halocline to the surface waters is small because vertical transports are comparably large also during periods without major inflows. Our model results suggest that phosphorus released from the sediments between 60 and 100 m depth in the East Gotland Basin contributes to the eutrophication, especially in the coastal regions of the eastern Baltic Proper.

  • 186.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Gustafson, B.G
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Neumann, T.
    Savchuk, O. P.
    Evaluation of biogeochemical cycles in an ensemble of three state-of-the-art numerical models of the Baltic Sea2011Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 88, nr 2, s. 267-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three state-of-the-art coupled physical–biogeochemical models, the BAltic sea Long-Term large-Scale Eutrophication Model (BALTSEM), the Ecological Regional Ocean Model (ERGOM), and the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model coupled to the Rossby Centre Ocean circulation model (RCO–SCOBI), are used to calculate changing nutrient and oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea. The models are different in that ERGOM and RCO–SCOBI are three-dimensional (3D) circulation models while BALTSEM resolves the Baltic Sea into 13 dynamically interconnected and horizontally integrated sub-basins. The aim is to assess the simulated long-term dynamics and to discuss the response of the coupled physical–biogeochemical models to changing physical conditions and nutrient loadings during the period 1970–2005. We compared the long-term seasonal and annual statistics of inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen from hindcast simulations with those estimated from observations. We also studied the extension of hypoxic bottom areas covered by waters with O2 b2 ml O2 l −1 and cod reproductive volumes comprising waters with salinity N11 and O2 N2 ml O2 l −1 . The models reproduce much of the nutrient biogeochemical cycling in the Baltic proper. However, biases are larger in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. No model shows outstanding performance in all aspects but instead the ensemble mean results are better than or as good as the results of any of the individual models. Uncertainties are primarily related to differences in the bioavailable fractions of nutrient loadings from land and parameterizations of key processes like sediment fluxes that are presently not well known. Also the uncertainty related to the initialization of the models in the early 1960s influence the modeled biogeochemical cycles during the investigated period. ©

  • 187.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Lindqvist, Stina
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Bartoli, Marco
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Burska, Dorota
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hellemann, Dana
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hietanen, Susanna
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hulth, Stefan
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janas, Urszula
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Kendzierska, Halina
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Pryputniewicz-Flis, Dorota
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Voss, Maren
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Zilius, Mindaugas
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Linking process rates with modellingdata and ecosystem characteristics2017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is related to the BONUS project “Nutrient Cocktails in COAstal zones of the Baltic Sea” alias COCOA. The aim of BONUS COCOA is to investigate physical, biogeochemical and biological processes in a combined and coordinated fashion to improve the understanding of the interaction of these processes on the removal of nutrients along the land-sea interface. The report is especially related to BONUS COCOA WP 6 in which the main objective is extrapolation of results from the BONUS COCOA learning sites to coastal sites around the Baltic Sea in general. Specific objectives of this deliverable (D6.4) were to connect observed process rates with modelling data and ecosystem characteristics.

    In the report we made statistical analyses of observations from BONUS COCOA study sites together with results from the Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM). Eight structural variables (water depth, temperature, salinity, bottom water concentrations of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate and phosphate, as well as nitrogen content in sediment) were found common to both the experimentally determined and the model data sets. The observed process rate evaluated in this report was denitrification. In addition regressions were tested between observed denitrification rates and several structural variables (latitude, longitude, depth, light, temperature, salinity, grain class, porosity, loss of ignition, sediment organic carbon, total nitrogen content in the sediment,  sediment carbon/nitrogen-ratio, sediment chlorphyll-a as well as bottom water concentrations of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate, and dissolved inorganic  phosphorus and silicate) for pooled data from all learning sites.

    The statistical results showed that experimentally determined multivariate data set from the shallow, illuminated stations was mainly found to be similar to the multivariate data set produced by the SCM model. Generally, no strong correlations of simple relations between observed denitrification and available structural variables were found for data collected from all the learning sites. We found some non-significant correlation between denitrification rates and bottom water dissolved inorganic phosphorous and dissolved silica but the reason behind the correlations is not clear.

    We also developed and evaluated a theory to relate process rates to monitoring data and nutrient retention. The theoretical analysis included nutrient retention due to denitrification as well as burial of phosphorus and nitrogen. The theory of nutrient retention showed good correlations with model results. It was found that area-specific nitrogen and phosphorus retention capacity in a sub-basin depend much on mean water depth, water residence time, basin area and the mean nutrient concentrations in the active sediment layer and in the water column.

  • 188.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Martensson, S.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Modeling the impact of reduced sea ice cover in future climate on the Baltic Sea biogeochemistry2013Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 149-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a warming future climate, the sea ice cover is expected to decrease, with very likely large consequences for the marine ecosystem. We investigated the impact of future sea ice retreat on the Baltic Sea biogeochemistry at the end of the century, using an ensemble of regionalized global climate simulations. We found that the spring bloom will start by up to one month earlier and winds and wave-induced resuspension will increase, causing an increased transport of nutrients from the productive coastal zone into the deeper areas. The internal nutrient fluxes do not necessarily increase because they also depend on oxygen and temperature conditions of the bottom water. Winter mixing increases in areas having reduced ice cover and in areas having reduced stratification due to increased freshwater supply. The reduced sea ice cover therefore partly counteracts eutrophication because increased vertical mixing improves oxygen conditions in lower layers. Citation: Eilola, K., S. Martensson, and H. E. M. Meier (2013), Modeling the impact of reduced sea ice cover in future climate on the Baltic Sea biogeochemistry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 149-154, doi:10.1029/2012GL054375.

  • 189.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    On the dynamics of oxygen, phosphorus and cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea; A model study2009Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 75, nr 1-2, s. 163-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen and phosphorus dynamics and cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are discussed using results from the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) coupled to the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO). The high-resolution circulation model is used to simulate the time period from 1902 to 1998 using reconstructed physical forcing and climatological nutrient loads of the late 20th century. The analysis of the results covers the last 30 years of the simulation period. The results emphasize the importance of internal phosphorus and oxygen dynamics, the variability of physical conditions and the natural long-term variability of phosphorus supplies from land on the phosphorus content in the Baltic Sea. These mechanisms play an important role on the variability of available surface layer phosphorus in late winter in the Baltic Sea. The content of cyanobacteria increases with the availability of phosphorus in the surface layers of the Baltic proper and the probability for large cyanobacteria blooms in the model is rapidly increased at higher concentrations of excess dissolved inorganic phosphorus in late winter. The natural increase of phosphorus supplies from land due to increased river runoff since the early 1970s may to a large degree explain the increased phosphorus content in the Baltic proper. Another significant fraction of the increase is explained by the release of phosphorus from increased anoxic areas during the period. These results refer to the long-term variability of the phosphorus cycle. In accordance to earlier publications is the short-term (i.e. interannual) variability of the phosphorus content in the Baltic proper mainly explained by oxygen dependent sediment fluxes. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 190. Eisner, S.
    et al.
    Floerke, M.
    Chamorro, A.
    Daggupati, P.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Huang, J.
    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Koch, H.
    Kalugin, A.
    Krylenko, I.
    Mishra, V.
    Piniewski, M.
    Samaniego, L.
    Seidou, O.
    Wallner, M.
    Krysanova, V.
    An ensemble analysis of climate change impacts on streamflow seasonality across 11 large river basins2017Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 141, nr 3, s. 401-417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 191. Eissler, Y
    et al.
    Sahlsten, Elisabeth
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Quinones, R A
    Effects of virus infection on respiration rates of marine phytoplankton and microplankton communities2003Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 262, s. 71-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible influence of viral infection on respiration rates in marine microbial pelagic communities was assessed by means of 3 experiments on respiration rate with viral concentrate addition on single-species cultures of Mantoniella sp. and Micromonas pusilla and another 3 on natural microplankton communities (organisms < 200 mum) from the Kattegat Sea ((A) over circle stol) and the Baltic Sea. Coastal surface seawater samples were taken during cruises of the RVs 'Ancylus' and 'Argos' during winter and spring 2000. Approximately 50 to 70 l of seawater were concentrated by ultrafiltration. The experiments were started by adding a viral particle concentrate to a container with algae or a natural microplankton community; a control container was kept free of the viral concentrate addition. Oxygen concentration determinations were carried out on each treatment and control to measure respiration rates throughout the incubation period. The in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence was also monitored as an indication of algal infection. The rates of respiration indicated that the addition of the viral particle concentrate affected the respective metabolisms of the Mantoniella sp. and Micromonas pusilla cultures as well as natural microplankton communities. Viral infection decreased the Mantoniella sp. respiration rate (by 96%) and increased the Micromonas pusilla respiration rate (by 235%). Hence, if our results can be extrapolated to nature, then, at least in a bloom situation, the fate of primary production and carbon fluxes could be strongly modulated by viral infection. The addition of a viral particle concentrate to the microplankton community generated complex responses in terms of respiration rates, which increased (by 84%) or remained similar to the controls. Our results suggest that viral infection of microplanktonic organisms could be one of the factors significantly modifying pelagic carbon fluxes.

  • 192.
    Eklund, Anna
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Istjocklek på sjöar - en statistisk bearbetning av SMHIs mätningar1998Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMHI har utfört mätningar av istjocklek på sjöar sedan 1930-talet, men någon   sammanställning av dessa mätningar har tidigare inte gjorts. Delar av materialet har använts i uppdragsverksamhet i samband med kraftverksutbyggnad i älvar och för säsongsvis sammanställning av isläget i SMHis  årsböcker  mellan  1970 och 1980 (SMHI,  1970-1980).

    I denna rapport har en statistisk och geografisk sammanställning gjorts för istjock:leken på sjöar. Analysen är gjord för 34 sjöar i landet med i de flesta fall cirka 40 års mätserier.

    Rapporten är tänkt att användas som ett uppslagsmaterial för dem som arbetar med is på sjöar och närliggande frågor. Den är också ett hjälpmedel vid utformningen av SMHis framtida stationsnät för istjock:lek på sjöar.

  • 193.
    Eklund, Anna
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Snöns vatteninnehåll Modellberäkningar och statistik för Sverige1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Statistik över snötäckets utbredning och snödjup i Sverige finns sammanställt i flera rapporter (varav den senaste är i Sveriges Nationalatlas (SNA), Klimat,sjöar och vattendrag (1995)).Kartsammanställningar av snöns vatteninnehålI för hela Sverige finns däremot endast i form av snölastberäkningar (Eriksson och Taesler 1995) och de bygger på, ett mindre och betydligt glesare underlagsmaterial än snödjupsmätningarna.

    I denna studie har tvä olika modellberäkningar. som är Sverige-täckande, använts för att beräkna och göra statistik över snöns vatteninnehåll i Sverige. De två beräkningssystemen är dels den synoptiska vattenbalansen, där hydrologiska beräkningarna görs för synoptiska stationer utifrån nederbörds-och temperaturmätdata (använd period 1968-1997) och dels Sveriges vattenbalansberäkning för perioden 1961-1990. Båda beräkningssätten grundas på HBV-modellen, som beskriver hur nederbörden ackumuleras som snö vid minusgrader, smälter och rinner genom marken samt bildar avrinning. Den synoptiska vattenbalansheräkningen ger förhållandena vid ca 175 meteorologiska stationer i ett område på ca 400 km2 runt respektive station. Sveriges vattenbalansberäkning ger ett medelvärde för rutor om 625 km2 i enlighet med topografiska kartans indelning.

    Snödjupsmäningar utförs i en punkt, medan modellberäkningarna redovisa förhållandena för större areor. Det är därför svårt att jämföra dem, men ett försök att verifiera modellberäkningarna mot snödjupsmätningar visar att överensstämmelsen för snölagd period var relativt god för beräkningen enligt den synoptiska vattenbalansmetoden. medan den verkar något osäkrare för Sveriges vattenbalans.

    Kartläggningen enligt de synoptiska vattenbalansberäkningarna visar att medianvärdet för vatteninnehållet i snön ligger mellan 10 och 30 mm i södra Sverige, 50 och 150 mm i Norrlands inland och upp mot 400 mm i fjällen. Det maximala vatteninnehället för en 30-årsperiod ligger mellan 50 och 200 mm i södra Sverige, 150 och 250 mm i Norrlands inland samt upp mot som mest 600 och 700 mm i fjällen. Vill man räkna om vatteninnehållet till snölast på marken gäller att 1 mm vatten på 1myta motsvarar 1 l eller 1 kg vatten.

  • 194.
    Eklund, Anna
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Lindroth, Anders
    SMHI.
    Vinteravdunstning i HBV-modellen - jämförelse med mätdata2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avdunstningen är den del i vattenbalansen som är minst känd på grund av att den är svår att mäta. Minst studerad är avdunstningen vintertid. I denna studie har avdunstningsmätningarfrån Norunda, norr om Uppsala, använts för de fem vintrarna 1994/1995 till 1998/1999. Mätningarna har utförts inom NOPEX-projektet (Northern Hemisphere Climate-processes Land-surface Experiment). Den beräknade avdunstningen i HBV-modellen har jämförts med dessa mätningar för att få en uppfattning om den modellberäknade avdunstningens kvalitet. För beräkning av avdunstningen i HBV-modellen används främst två olika metoder, dels avdunstning beräknad med Penmans formel, dels temperaturberoende avdunstning enligt Thornthwaites metod. En rad olika varianter av dessa båda metoder har testats i simuleringar med HBV-modellen, t.ex. avdunstningsberäkningar med och utan interceptionsmagasin.

    Den uppmätta avdunstningens storlek och variation är i stort sett likartad under de olika vintrarna trots att vintrarna haft mycket olika karaktär. De fyra första vintrarna var avdunstningens dygnsmedelvärde från oktober till mars mellan 0,20 och 0,24 mm. Det sker en betydande avdunstning även vid tillfällen då marken är snötäckt, i medeltal 0, 15 mm/dygn.

    Tidigare har man antagit att HBV-modellen underskattar avdunstningen under vintern. Man har i modellberäkningarna tvingats att korrigera snönederbörden med en faktor ner till 0, 7 för att få vattenbalansen att stämma. De jämförelser som här gjorts mellan uppmätt och beräknad avdunstning visar dock att man i de flesta fall i detta område inte gör någon underskattning av vinteravdunstningen. Av de metoder som idag används för att beräkna avdunstning ger Penman-ETF bättre resultat än Thornthwaitemetoden. Införandet av ett interceptionsmagasin till Penman-ETF-simuleringen ger en förbättring av vinteravdunstningen.

    Det är svårt att göra några generella förändringar av avdunstningsberäkningarna i HBVmodellen baserat på denna studie, eftersom de slutsatser som dragits vid denna undersökning endast gäller för vinterperioden i Norunda. Nya rutiner för avdunstningsberäkningarna bör även grundas på studier av avdunstningen under övrig tid av året, det vill säga den period då avdunstningen har betydligt större inverkan på vattenbalansen. Visst samband har påvisats mellan avdunstningen vintertid och ångtrycksdeficit. Försök bör göras att inkludera denna variabel i avdunstningsberäkningarna i HBV-modellen.

  • 195.
    Elenius, Maria
    et al.
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Skurtveit, Elin
    Yarushina, Viktoriya
    Baig, Irfan
    Sundal, Anja
    Wangen, Magnus
    Landschulze, Karin
    Kaufmann, Roland
    Choi, Jung Chan
    Hellevang, Helge
    Podladchikov, Yuri
    Aavatsmark, Ivar
    Gasda, Sarah E.
    Assessment of CO2 storage capacity based on sparse data: Skade Formation2018Ingår i: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 79, s. 252-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 196. Emerton, Rebecca E.
    et al.
    Stephens, Elisabeth M.
    Pappenberger, Florian
    Pagano, Thomas C.
    Weerts, Albrecht H.
    Wood, Andy W.
    Salamon, Peter
    Brown, James D.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Baugh, Calum A.
    Cloke, Hannah L.
    Continental and global scale flood forecasting systems2016Ingår i: WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-WATER, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 391-418Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Floods are the most frequent of natural disasters, affecting millions of people across the globe every year. The anticipation and forecasting of floods at the global scale is crucial to preparing for severe events and providing early awareness where local flood models and warning services may not exist. As numerical weather prediction models continue to improve, operational centers are increasingly using their meteorological output to drive hydrological models, creating hydrometeorological systems capable of forecasting river flow and flood events at much longer lead times than has previously been possible. Furthermore, developments in, for example, modelling capabilities, data, and resources in recent years have made it possible to produce global scale flood forecasting systems. In this paper, the current state of operational large-scale flood forecasting is discussed, including probabilistic forecasting of floods using ensemble prediction systems. Six state-of-the-art operational large-scale flood forecasting systems are reviewed, describing similarities and differences in their approaches to forecasting floods at the global and continental scale. Operational systems currently have the capability to produce coarse-scale discharge forecasts in the medium-range and disseminate forecasts and, in some cases, early warning products in real time across the globe, in support of national forecasting capabilities. With improvements in seasonal weather forecasting, future advances may include more seamless hydrological forecasting at the global scale alongside a move towards multi-model forecasts and grand ensemble techniques, responding to the requirement of developing multi-hazard early warning systems for disaster risk reduction. (C) 2016 The Authors. WIREs Water published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 197. ENGQVIST, A
    et al.
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    WATER EXCHANGE AND DENSITY STRUCTURE IN A MULTIBASIN ESTUARY1992Ingår i: Continental Shelf Research, ISSN 0278-4343, E-ISSN 1873-6955, Vol. 12, nr 9, s. 1003-1026Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model of the Himmerfjard estuary. divided into four basins. has been formulated and validated against measured data for 1986. The structure of each sub-basin is assumed to be horizontally homogeneous with vertical mean velocities based upon in- and outflows from adjacent basins and freshwater supply to each basin. The horizontal water exchange is formulated as a quasi-stationary Bernioulli flow, driven by horizontal pressure gradients over the sounds and instantaneously interleaved at a neutral buoyancy level. Thc salinity and temperature profiles measured outside the mouth of the estuary serve as forcing, as do the water level changes, the freshwater run-off and the local wind. Inherent in the model assumptions of the horizontal exchange over the sounds is that only a fraction, alpha, of the pressure gradient is used to accelerate each stratum. Variation of the alpha-value shows that the best statistical fit is found for alpha = 0.15 when compared with water exchange estimates based on measurements in one of the internal sounds tor almost an entire month. Using this alpha-value, in combination with standard mixing parameters and hypsographical data, the model satisfactorily captures the major features of the salinity and temperature-profiles development for the year 1986. This is substantiated by statistical analysis of the salinity profiles in the sub-basins for which different measures of similarity between simulated and measured data give the best fit for the same alpha-value as above.

  • 198. Enmar, Linda
    et al.
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lake, Irene
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Comments on "Is the Faroe Bank Channel Overflow Hydraulically Controlled?''2009Ingår i: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 1534-1538Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper Girton et al., due to what appears to be a misunderstanding, stated that a critical-flow analysis of the deep-water transport through the Faroe Bank Channel had been undertaken by Lake et al. on the basis of rotating hydraulic theory for a channel of parabolic cross section. In fact, this quoted investigation dealt with a rectangular passage. In the present comment it is demonstrated how the use of parabolic bathymetry leads to significant improvements of the Froude number results.

  • 199. Enmar, Linda
    et al.
    Lake, Irene
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Sigray, Peter
    A note on ADCP-based indirect observations of turbulence2016Ingår i: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 21, nr 1-2, s. 44-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A 70-day data set from bottom-mounted ADCPs on the two sides of the Faroe-Bank Channel was analysed using the recorded flow variance and echo intensity in the deeper reaches of the passage as proxies for turbulence. A consistent picture emerged, not least since the data losses (which were ascribed to turbulence-induced activation of the fish-elimination option in the ADCP software) could be shown to co-vary with the internal M-2 tide affecting the vertical shear, which in turn proved to be correlated with the flow variance.

  • 200. Enmar, Linda
    et al.
    Lake, Irene
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Sigray, Peter
    A note on ADCP-based indirect observations of turbulence2016Ingår i: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 21, nr 1-2, s. 44-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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