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  • 151. Ketzel, Matthias
    et al.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Johansson, Christer
    Duering, Ingo
    Pohjolar, Mia
    Oettl, Dietmar
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Wahlin, Peter
    Lohmeyer, Achim
    Haakana, Mervi
    Berkowicz, Ruwim
    Estimation and validation of PM2.5/PM10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling2007In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 41, no 40, p. 9370-9385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM10 and PM2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130mgkm(-1) for PM10, 30-60mgkm(-1) for PM2.5 and 20-50mgkm(-1) for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German", model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear seasonal variation and reproduces the summer conditions for streets with pronounced seasonal variation. However, the seasonal variation of PM emission factors can be important even for countries not using studded tyres, e.g. in areas with cold weather and snow events using sand and de-icing materials. Here a constant emission factor probably will under-estimate the 90-percentiles and therefore a time varying emission model need to be used or developed for such areas. All emission factor models consistently indicate that a large part (about 50-85% depending on the location) of the total PM10 emissions originates from non-exhaust emissions. This implies that reduction measures for the exhaust part of the vehicle emissions will only have a limited effect on ambient PM10 levels. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 152.
    Kindbom, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Peterson, Kjell
    SMHI.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Roos, Elisabet
    SMHI.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Nationell miljöövervakning av luft- och nederbördskemi 19961998Report (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Kindbom, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Svensson, Annika
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Nationell miljöövervakning av luft- och nederbördskemi 1997, 1998 och 19992001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of the composition of air and precipitation in background areas in Sweden during 1997, 1998 and 1999 are presented in the report. Results from two national networks, EMEP and the Swedish Precipitation Chemistry Network, both run by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, are compiled and evaluated. Included in the presentation are also model calculations of dispersion and deposition of sulphur- and nitrogen compounds over Sweden. The modelling is based on monitoring results from 1997 and the calculations have been made using the MATCH-Sweden modelling system developed by SMHI, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency finances the activities. The monitoring programmes during the three years have included daily sampling of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particle bound sulphate in air at six stations 1997 and five stations 1998 and 1999. Daily measurements of soot, total-nitrate and total-ammonium have been performed at four stations. Monthly sampling of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide has been made at 12 stations 1997 and 1998 and at 13 stations 1999. Ozone concentrations in ground-level air have been monitored at six stations. Measurements of mercury in air have been performed at two stations regarding total gaseous mercury (TGM) and particle bound mercury. The measurements of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air displayed a decreasing gradient from south to north. Generally, the higher concentrations of sulphur dioxide, sulphate, soot and nitrogen dioxide are found during winter, while high levels of ozone are registered during spring or early summer. The remaining compounds show a more uniform concentration during the seasons. The annual averages were comparable to, or lower, than previous years. The highest annual average air concentration of ground-level ozone was, as previous years, registered in Esrange. Ozone levels above 180 μg/m3 were not registered during the period. AOT40 values were on a comparable level with previous years, except for southern Sweden 1998 where AOT40 values were unusually low. Daily sampling of precipitation using a wet-only sampler has been made at one station and weekly sampling at three stations. At nearly 30 stations, monthly sampling using bulk-samplers was carried out. The precipitation samples were analysed with respect to pH, sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. At four stations sampling of precipitation for analysis of heavy metals, total-mercury and methyl-mercury was made. The components in precipitation generally showed a decreasing gradient from south to north. The concentration of sulphate has decreased somewhat compared to previous years. The annual averages of pH showed higher values in northern Sweden than in the south. The pH values were slightly higher throughout the country than in earlier years. The concentrations in precipitation and the deposition of heavy metals and mercury generally showed lower values in northern and higher values in southern Sweden. The MATCH-Sweden model is a three-dimensional Eulerian atmospheric dispersion model, which is used for calculation of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants over Sweden. This model system also includes a method for data assimilation of measured concentrations in air and precipitation. In this report only some few examples of calculated annual mean concentrations and annual deposition maps for 1997 and 1998 are presented for sulphur, oxidised and reduced nitrogen. The MATCH-Sweden model has also been used to estimate air pollution budgets for Sweden for the years 1997 and 1998. The Swedish net import of air pollutants is substantial for sulphur and NHx-nitrogen. The Swedish contribution to deposition over Sweden is about 7 % for sulphur, 11 % for NOx-nitrogen and 20 % for NHxnitrogen. MATCH-Sweden results show somewhat larger deposition values than the EMEP model over Sweden for sulphur and NOx-nitrogen. For NHx-nitrogen the values are much larger, especially in Northern Sweden where the MATCH-Sweden values are 2-3 times larger than the EMEP model.

  • 154.
    Kjellström, Erik
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Holmen, K
    Eneroth, K
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Summertime Siberian CO2 simulations with the regional transport model MATCH: a feasibility study of carbon uptake calculations from EUROSIB data2002In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 834-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogenic surface fluxes Of CO2 over Europe and Siberia are implemented in the regional tracer transport model MATCH. A systematic comparison between simulated and observed CO2 fluxes and mixing ratios is performed for two observational sites in Russia taking into account both surface observations and vertical profiles of meteorological parameters and CO2 in the lowest 3 km from the summer months in 1998. We find that the model is able to represent meteorological parameters as temperature, humidity and planetary boundary layer height consistent with measurements. Further, it is found that the simulated surface CO2 fluxes capture a large part of the observed variability on a diurnal time scale. On a synoptic time scale the agreement between observations and simulation is poorer which leads to a disagreement between time series of observed and simulated CO2 mixing ratios. However, the model is able to realistically simulate the vertical gradient in CO2 in the lowest few kilometres. The vertical variability is studied by means of trajectory analysis together with results from the MATCH model. This analysis clearly illustrates some problems in deducing CO2 fluxes from CO2 mixing ratios measured in single vertical profiles. Studies of the regional variability Of CO2 in the model domain show that there exists no ideal vertical level for detecting the terrestrial signal Of CO2 in the free troposphere. The strongest terrestrial signal is found in the boundary layer above the lowest few hundred metres. Nevertheless, this terrestrial signal is small, and during the simulated period it is not possible to detect relative variations in the surface fluxes smaller than 20%. We conclude that a regional flux cannot be determined from single ground stations or a few vertical profiles, mainly due to synoptic scale variability in transport and in CO2 surface fluxes.

  • 155.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Parameterization of dry deposition in MATCH2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report describes the calculation of dry deposition in the Multi scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry modeling system (MATCH) applied in environmental monitoring studies. For this type of applications dry deposition is parameterized by means of a resistance concept. Modeled dry deposition velocities for different surface types, a variety of meteorological conditions and several chemical species are presented. The deposition’s dependence on the individual partial resistances and their variation with the meteorological conditions are illustrated by means of time-series. The details of the resistance concept are discussed in a pedagogical way in order to both facilitate understanding and to point out different deposition paths.Sensitivity studies have been performed for the laminar sub-layer resistance of particles for which two different settings of resistance values are compared. The importance of SO2 and NO2 uptake by the stomata of plants and the deposition of SO2 to the external parts of plants have also been investigated by means of sensitivity studies. In addition, horizontal maps and monthly mean values of dry deposition velocities based on meteorological data for 1998 are presented.

  • 156.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Karlsson, Per-Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Assessing and improving the Swedish forecast and information capabilities for ground-level ozone2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess and improve the Swedish forecast and information capabilities for ground-level ozone concentrations in ambient air. The assessment is based on a set of archived results from the Swedish operational chemical transport model MATCH and Swedish in-situ measurements of ozone covering the period of May 2008 to November 2010. The evaluation comprises two major activities: The first activity is an analysis of the overall model performance using standard statistical metrics suitable for longer time series. The second evaluation activity comprises in-detail analyses of the specific ozone episodes occurring in Sweden during the study period. In addition, trajectory modelling is used to investigate the meteorological conditions and transport patterns associated with those episodes. The evaluation of the model results shows that the model scores well according to standard evaluation criteria and confirms results of other studies in that the model easily meets the data quality requirements of the EU air quality directive 2008/50/EC. However, from an operational forecasting and information perspective it would be desirable to further improve the prediction of, in particular, high-level ozone episodes. Two different activities in our study are dedicated to the task of improving the forecast and information capabilities: The first activity tests the usefulness of statistical postprocessing of model results using regression techniques. The tests show promising results although the model performance during high-level ozone episodes is not improved. A limitation of our study is the relatively small archive of model data available for calibration andevaluation. Adaptive post-processing methods have not been tested in our study. The second activity aimed to improve ozone forecasting is a high-resolution model run for the year 2010. The higher reso-lution run gives slightly better results than the coarser operational model, which can be attributed to a better resolution of the physiography and thus certain physical and chemical processes. In particular, high-resolution simulations provide a more realisticrepresentation of the spatial ozone variation which is desirable for environmental assessments with a longer time horizon. However, from the perspective of operational ozone forecasting the increase in resolution cannot correct systematic problems such as an under-prediction of ozone if the source of ozone is non-local and the long-range transboundary transport is not correctly described by the European-scale model used as boundaries. Other potential sources of error are incomplete or erroneous emissions, representativeness issues, oversimplifications in the model’s physical or chemical processes, lacking data assimilation and initialization and oversimplifiedboundary conditions. While several of these issues are already addressed in current initiatives such as the EU FP7-project MACC, it is clear that further work will be needed during the coming years. Further work should also be invested in a better exploitation of the international developments within MACC and in the establishment of operational high-resolution air quality forecasts for Sweden, using boundary values from European-scale forecasts provided by theMACC-ensemble of regional air quality models.

  • 157.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Frankenberg, Britt
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Svensson, J
    SMHI.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    ECDS - a Swedish Research Infrastructure for the Open Sharing of Environment and Climate Data2013In: Data Science Journal, ISSN 1683-1470, E-ISSN 1683-1470, no 12, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 158. Klingberg, J.
    et al.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Karlsson, P. E.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Pleijel, H.
    Declining ozone exposure of European vegetation under climate change and reduced precursor emissions2014In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 11, no 19, p. 5269-5283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of changes in ozone precursor emissions as well as climate change on the future ozone exposure of the vegetation in Europe were investigated. The ozone exposure is expressed as AOT40 (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb O-3) as well as PODY (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold Y). A new method is suggested to express how the length of the period during the year when coniferous and evergreen trees are sensitive to ozone might be affected by climate change. Ozone precursor emission changes from the RCP4.5 scenario were combined with climate simulations based on the IPCC SRES A1B scenario and used as input to the Eulerian Chemistry Transport Model MATCH from which projections of ozone concentrations were derived. The ozone exposure of vegetation over Europe expressed as AOT40 was projected to be substantially reduced between the periods 1990-2009 and 2040-2059 to levels which are well below critical levels used for vegetation in the EU directive 2008/50/EC as well as for crops and forests used in the LRTAP convention, despite that the future climate resulted in prolonged yearly ozone sensitive periods. The reduction in AOT40 was mainly driven by the emission reductions, not changes in the climate. For the toxicologically more relevant POD1 index the projected reductions were smaller, but still significant. The values for POD1 for the time period 2040-2059 were not projected to decrease to levels which are below critical levels for forest trees, represented by Norway spruce. This study shows that substantial reductions of ozone precursor emissions have the potential to strongly reduce the future risk for ozone effects on the European vegetation, even if concurrent climate change promotes ozone formation.

  • 159. Klingberg, J.
    et al.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Uddling, J.
    Karlsson, P. E.
    Pleijel, H.
    Ozone risk for vegetation in the future climate of Europe based on stomatal ozone uptake calculations2011In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 160. Kovalets, Ivan V.
    et al.
    Asker, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Khalchenkov, Alexander V.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Lavrova, Tatyana V.
    Atmospheric dispersion of radon around uranium mill tailings of the former Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant in Ukraine2017In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 172, p. 173-190Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 161. Kovalets, Ivan V.
    et al.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Didkivska, Svitlana N.
    Ievdin, Ievgen A.
    Trybushnyi, Dmytro
    Calculation of the far range atmospheric transport of radionuclides after the Fukushima accident with the atmospheric dispersion model MATCH of the JRODOS system2014In: International Journal of Environment and Pollution, ISSN 0957-4352, E-ISSN 1741-5101, Vol. 54, no 2-4, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents estimates of the far-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), obtained using the long-range atmospheric dispersion model MATCH. Software tools were developed to run MATCH in the EU nuclear emergency response system JRODOS using freely available numerical weather prediction (NWP) data of the Global Forecasting System (GFS) operated by the United States National Center of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Comparisons are made of results with JRODOS/MATCH and a standalone MATCH operated by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) driven by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) NWP data.

  • 162. Krecl, Patricia
    et al.
    Cipoli, Yago Alonso
    Targino, Admir Creso
    Toloto, Matheus de Oliveira
    Segersson, David
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Parra, Alvaro
    Polezer, Gabriela
    Moreton Godoi, Ricardo Henrique
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Modelling urban cyclists' exposure to black carbon particles using high spatiotemporal data: A statistical approach2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 679, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Krieg, Roland
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Beräkningar av vindenergitillgången på några platser i Skåne1986Report (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, C.
    SMHI.
    Utemiljön vid Kvarnberget, Lysekil1986Report (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, C.
    SMHI.
    Vindmätningar i höga master - kvartalsrapport 1/19861986Report (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, C.
    SMHI.
    Vindmätningar i höga master - kvartalsrapport 2/19861986Report (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, C.
    SMHI.
    Vindmätningar i höga master, kvartalsrapport 4/19851986Report (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Fredriksson, Ulf
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Vindarna över Sverige1986Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Johansson, L.
    SMHI.
    Andersson, C.
    SMHI.
    Vindmätningar i höga master, kvartalsrapport 3/19851986Report (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Kvick, Tord
    SMHI.
    Vindmätningar i höga master1986Report (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Spridningsberäkningar för Volvos planerade bilfabrik i Uddevalla1985Report (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Spridningsberäkningar för Volvos planerade bilfabrik i Uddevalla - kompletterande beräkningar för fabrikerna1985Report (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Wern, Lennart
    SMHI, Core Services.
    En klimatstudie för Arlanda stad1986Report (Other academic)
  • 174. Kristensson, A
    et al.
    Johansson, C
    Westerholm, R
    Swietlicki, E
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Wideqvist, U
    Vesely, V
    Real-world traffic emission factors of gases and particles measured in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden2004In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 657-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden give the real-world traffic emission factors for a number of gaseous and particle pollutants. These include 49 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, NOX, benzene, toluene, xylenes, aldehydes, elements and inorganic/organic carbon contained in particles, the sub-micrometer aerosol number size distribution, PM2.5 and PM10. The exhaust pipe emission factors are divided with the help of automated traffic counts into the two pollutant sources, the heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and light-duty vehicles (LDV). The LDV fleet contains 95% petrol cars and the total fleet contains about 5% HDV. When data permitted, the emission factors were further calculated at different vehicle speeds. The current work shows that average CO, NOX and benzene emission factors amounted to 5.3, 1.4 and 0.017 g veh(-1) km(-1), respectively. Since the mid-90s CO and benzene decreased by about 15%, carbonyls by about a factor 2, whereas NOX did not change much. PAR emission factors were 2-15 times higher than found during dynamometer tests. Most particles are distributed around 20 nm diameter and the LDV fleet contributes to about 65% of both PM and particle number. In general, the gaseous emissions are higher in Sweden than in USA and Switzerland, foremost due to the lower fraction catalytic converters in Sweden. The PM and number emissions of particles are also slightly higher in the Swedish tunnel. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 175. Kulmala, M.
    et al.
    Asmi, A.
    Lappalainen, H. K.
    Baltensperger, U.
    Brenguier, J. -L
    Facchini, M. C.
    Hansson, H. -C
    Hov, O.
    O'Dowd, C. D.
    Poeschl, U.
    Wiedensohler, A.
    Boers, R.
    Boucher, O.
    de Leeuw, G.
    van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    Feichter, J.
    Krejci, R.
    Laj, P.
    Lihavainen, H.
    Lohmann, U.
    McFiggans, G.
    Mentel, T.
    Pilinis, C.
    Riipinen, I.
    Schulz, M.
    Stohl, A.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Vignati, E.
    Alves, C.
    Amann, M.
    Ammann, M.
    Arabas, S.
    Artaxo, P.
    Baars, H.
    Beddows, D. C. S.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Beukes, J. P.
    Bilde, M.
    Burkhart, J. F.
    Canonaco, F.
    Clegg, S. L.
    Coe, H.
    Crumeyrolle, S.
    D'Anna, B.
    Decesari, S.
    Gilardoni, S.
    Fischer, M.
    Fjaeraa, A. M.
    Fountoukis, C.
    George, C.
    Gomes, L.
    Halloran, P.
    Hamburger, T.
    Harrison, R. M.
    Herrmann, H.
    Hoffmann, T.
    Hoose, C.
    Hu, M.
    Hyvarinen, A.
    Horrak, U.
    Iinuma, Y.
    Iversen, T.
    Josipovic, M.
    Kanakidou, M.
    Kiendler-Scharr, A.
    Kirkevag, A.
    Kiss, G.
    Klimont, Z.
    Kolmonen, P.
    Komppula, M.
    Kristjansson, J. -E
    Laakso, L.
    Laaksonen, A.
    Labonnote, L.
    Lanz, V. A.
    Lehtinen, K. E. J.
    Rizzo, L. V.
    Makkonen, R.
    Manninen, H. E.
    McMeeking, G.
    Merikanto, J.
    Minikin, A.
    Mirme, S.
    Morgan, W. T.
    Nemitz, E.
    O'Donnell, D.
    Panwar, T. S.
    Pawlowska, H.
    Petzold, A.
    Pienaar, J. J.
    Pio, C.
    Plass-Duelmer, C.
    Prevot, A. S. H.
    Pryor, S.
    Reddington, C. L.
    Roberts, G.
    Rosenfeld, D.
    Schwarz, J.
    Seland, O.
    Sellegri, K.
    Shen, X. J.
    Shiraiwa, M.
    Siebert, H.
    Sierau, B.
    Simpson, D.
    Sun, J. Y.
    Topping, D.
    Tunved, P.
    Vaattovaara, P.
    Vakkari, V.
    Veefkind, J. P.
    Visschedijk, A.
    Vuollekoski, H.
    Vuolo, R.
    Wehner, B.
    Wildt, J.
    Woodward, S.
    Worsnop, D. R.
    van Zadelhoff, G. -J
    Zardini, A. A.
    Zhang, K.
    van Zyl, P. G.
    Kerminen, V. -M
    Carslaw, K. S.
    Pandis, S. N.
    General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales2011In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 11, no 24, p. 13061-13143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 176. Kulshrestha, Monika J.
    et al.
    Singh, Ruchi
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ambient and Episodic Levels of Metals in PM10 Aerosols and Their Source Apportionment in Central Delhi, India2016In: JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS TOXIC AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE, ISSN 2153-5493, Vol. 20, no 4, article id UNSP A4014002Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 177. Kulshrestha, U C
    et al.
    Granat, L
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Rodhe, H
    Review of precipitation monitoring studies in India - a search for regional patterns2005In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, no 38, p. 7403-7419Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a review of rain chemistry measurements reported in India. Data from nearly 100 stations were reviewed with regard to sampling location, sampling method and chemical analyses. Some characteristic differences were found between the concentrations in different environments in line with known distributions of emissions. This was most clearly seen for with median concentration increasing from rural and suburban to urban and industrial environments, with concentrations of HCO3- and H+ varying the opposite way. Ca2+ concentration was higher in suburban and industrial environments compared to rural and urban. Concentration of NH4+ was lower in rural than in the other locations. Sea salt const, concentration (Na+ and Cl- in approximately 'Jut proport ion) was higher in urban than in rural locations at the same distance from the sea. The reported data from rural and Suburban locations were used to derive large-scale concentration fields over India. With knowledge of emission fields and with the aid of output from a regional transport model it was possible to see some limited spatial resemblance between modelled and observed concentrations in cases of SO2, NH4+, NO3- and SO42-. For soil dust, Current models are very crude but here some resemblance Could be seen: primarily limited spatial resemblance with Ca2+, pH and HCO3- with generally increasing values towards NW. Four sites, at least two of them located in forested environments, had a mean rainwater pH close to neutral (concentration or H+ and HCO3- about equal). Other sites had oil average an excess of HCO3-, becoming very substantial in the direction of the Thar Desert in NW India. With this review we conclude that there is a need to better assure the quality of the data with regard to sampling methods, chemical analyses and spatial representativeness. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 178. Kuylenstierna, J C I
    et al.
    Hicks, W K
    Cinderby, S
    Vallack, H W
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Variability in mapping acidification risk scenarios for terrestrial ecosystems in Asian countries2001In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 130, no 1-4, p. 1175-1180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification has the potential to become a widespread problem in parts of Asia. Just how widespread this risk may be is discussed by comparing sulphur deposition to critical load estimates, taking into account neutralising base cation deposition from soil dust. Two scenarios for the sulphur emission in 2025 are used as inputs to the MATCH atmospheric transfer model to estimate sulphur deposition scenarios. Net acidic deposition using a low and high base cation deposition input is compared to a map of sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to acidic deposition. Two ranges of critical loads assigned to this sensitivity reap are used. The variability in the maps showing risks of acidification using low and high estimates for critical loads and base cation deposition for two different development pathways is discussed. Certain areas are shown to be at risk in all cases whereas others are very sensitive to the values used to estimate risk.

  • 179.
    Kvick, Tord
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Krieg, Roland
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Vindförhållandena i Sveriges kust- och havsband, rapport nr 21986Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med syfte att ta fram vindenergi kartor för de svenska kust- och havsområdena har vi gått vidare med de havsvindstudier som genomfördes av SMHI 1983-84.

    Vi har dels kunnat analysera längre tidsserier av mätdata från kasunfyrar och dels gjort ytterligare simuleringar med den dynamiska vindfältsmodellen som i detta projekt utnyttjas med några smärre modifieringar.

    De mätdata som nu utnyttjats är 5-7.5 års timvisa vinddata från sju kasunfyrar där SMHI har automatiska väderstationer placerade.Dessa mätningar görs på 25-35 meters höjd över havsytan och i områden som är fria från öar. Uppmätta data har korrigerats med hänsyn till de störningar i vindströmningen som  uppstår runt fyrkropparna.

    Den dynamiska vindfältsmodell vi arbetat med beskrevs första gången av Danard ( 1977) och är en enkel en-nivås 2 dimensionell primitiv ekvationsmodell. Den mindre skalans vind erhålles genom en dynamisk tolkning av den stora skalan.

    De mesoskaliga effekter som parametriseras i modellen och ligger till grund för den dynamiska tolkningen är:

    • friktionseffekter
    • topografin
    • värmeflödet från underlaget

    Mer i detalj innebär detta att vi för den stora skalans karaktäristik utnyttjat den geostrofiska vinden samt temperatur och geopotentialanalyser från marken, 850 mb och 700 mb. Den lilla skalans egenskaper beskrivs genom en digitalisering av topografin och skrovligheten i ett gridnät.

    I denna studie har vi minskat avståndet mellan grid- eller beräkningspunkterna från 22 km till 11 km och utökat den simulerade tidsperioden från tre till tolv månader. Beräkningsområdet omfattar södra Sverige upp till Gävlebukten samt angränsande områden i väster och öster.

    Slutresultaten redovisas i form av medianvindens fördelning för 100 m nivån i kartskalan 1: 2500000 och i form av rörelseenergikartor för 100 meters höjd i skalan 1: 1250000. De senare kan sammanfattas i följande punkter.

    • Vindenergipotentialen är ca 40% högre vid den bästa kasunfyrsplatserna,Trubaduren, än vid den sämsta, Gustav Dahlen.
    • 10-15 km ut från land är vindenergipotentialen i regel 35-45%högre än vid de land lägen som ligger närmast stranden.
    • De mest vindrika områdena längs de svenska kusterna finns, enligt vad som framkommit i denna studie, längs hela västkustenoch sydväst om Falsterbo, syd och öst om Öland, nordväst om Gotland och i Alands hav.
  • 180. Kylling, A.
    et al.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Lindqvist, H.
    Nousiainen, T.
    Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles2014In: ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, ISSN 1867-1381, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 919-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass-and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry were calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres were found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates was found to underestimate mass loading compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles. The underestimate increases with the mass loading. For an ash cloud recorded during the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption, the mass-equivalent spheres underestimate the total mass of the ash cloud by approximately 30% compared to the morphologically complex inhomogeneous particles.

  • 181. Lacressonniere, Gwendoline
    et al.
    Foret, Gilles
    Beekmann, Matthias
    Siour, Guillaume
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Gauss, Michael
    Watson, Laura
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Colette, Augustin
    Josse, Beatrice
    Marecal, Virginie
    Nyiri, Agnes
    Vautard, Robert
    Impacts of regional climate change on air quality projections and associated uncertainties2016In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 309-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 182. Lacressonniere, Gwendoline
    et al.
    Watson, Laura
    Gauss, Michael
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Beekmann, Matthias
    Colette, Augustin
    Foret, Gilles
    Josse, Beatrice
    Marecal, Virginie
    Nyiri, Agnes
    Siour, Guillaume
    Sobolowski, Stefan
    Vautard, Robert
    Particulate matter air pollution in Europe in a+2 degrees C warming world2017In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 154, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Alpfjord Wylde, Helene
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Mapping of phytotoxic ozone dose for birch, spruce, wheat and potato using the MATCH-Sweden system2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have added calculations of PODY for birch, spruce, wheat and potato to theMATCH-Sweden system. Several important updates compared to the previousimplementation for generic crops and generic deciduous trees have been made includingimproved calculations of canopy level ozone concentrations, updated calculations ofquasi-laminar and surface resistance and inclusion of soil moisture dependence forspecific vegetation species. 

    A comparison to results from the EMEP model for generic crops and generic deciduoustrees shows a better agreement than previously. Considering also that an error in theEMEP calculations has been identified, affecting primarily the PODY calculations forgeneric deciduous trees, MATCH-Sweden and EMEP model results now appear to bemore consistent.Year to year variability of PODY for birch and spruce are similar to that for genericdeciduous trees while numerical values are different, especially for birch, due to differentparameters in the PODY calculation and longer vegetation periods. Critical levelscorresponding to a 4 % growth reduction are exceeded for both birch and spruce in majorparts of Sweden for all years in the period 2013-2017.Year to year variability of PODY for wheat and potato are larger than for generic cropsdue to the higher threshold for PODY used in the calculations. Critical levelscorresponding to a 5 % reduction in crop yield are reached in four of five years insouthern Sweden for wheat and for two in five years for potato.The updated program package for PODY calculations could be used to calculateconsistent time series of PODY for different types of vegetation for the period 1990-2013based on reanalyzed ozone concentrations. The program package could also be developedto calculate PODY for the whole of Europe for different emission- or climate scenarios.The results presented in this report are also available in digital form at the SMHI homepage for environmental monitoring of air quality(www.smhi.se/klimatdata/miljo/atmosfarskemi).

  • 184.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Atmospheric input of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea basin: present situation, variability due to meteorology and impact of climate change2009In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 226-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present estimates of the present and future deposition of atmospheric nitrogen into the Baltic Sea made using the Eulerian chemical transport model MATCH, and compare these with earlier model estimates. The average total nitrogen deposition for periods of five to ten years from 1992 to 2001 was estimated to be in the range of 261-300 Gg N yr(-1). The deposition across the whole catchment area for 2001 was estimated to be 1.55-1.73 Tg N yr(-1). Inter-annual variability of nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea was calculated to be in the range of 5.1%-8.0%. Investigating one climate change scenario using emissions for year 2000 indicated a rather small impact on total deposition of nitrogen due to climate change, i.e. increase of total nitrogen deposition by similar to 5% by the end of the 21st century as compared with present conditions. The combined effect of climate change and future changes in anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen to the atmosphere remains an open question. Additional climate change scenarios using different combinations of global and regional climate models and greenhouse gas emission scenarios need to be explored.

  • 185.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Pollution Budgets2001In: Transport and Chemical Transformation in the Troposphere - Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium 2000 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany 27-31 March 2000 / [ed] Midgley, P.M., Reuther, M. and Williams, M., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Foltescu, Valentin
    SMHI.
    Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe2005In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1129-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impact of regional climate change on the distribution and deposition of air pollutants in Europe has been studied using a regional chemistry/transport/deposition model, MATCH. MATCH was set up using meteorological output from two 10-year climate change experiments made with the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric climate model version 1 (RCA1). RCA1 was forced by boundary conditions from two different global climate models using the IPCC IS92a (business as usual) emission scenario. The global mean warming in both the GCMs was 2.6 K and was reached in the period 2050-2070. Simulations with MATCH indicate substantial potential impact of regional climate change on both deposition of oxidised nitrogen and concentrations of surface ozone. The simulations show a strong increase in surface ozone expressed as AOT40 and mean of daily maximum over southern and central Europe and a decrease in northern Europe. The simulated changes in April September AOT40 are significant in relation to inter-annual variability over extended areas. Changes in deposition of oxidised nitrogen are much smaller and also less coherent due to the strong inter-annual variability in precipitation in the RCA1 simulations and differences in the regional climate change simulated with RCA1 in the two regional scenarios. Changes in simulated annual deposition are significant in relation to inter-annual variability only over small areas. This indicates that longer simulation periods are necessary to establish changes in deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 187.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Klein, Thomas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Skagerström, M.
    SMHI.
    Nuläge och scenarier för inverkan på marknära ozon av emissioner från Västra Götalands län - Beräkningar för 19992004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMHI har på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands län studerat hur olikascenarier för reducerade NOx och VOC-utsläpp från Västra Götaland påverkarfördelningen av marknära ozon över södra Sverige. Studien har utnyttjat den atmosfärkemiskaspridningsmodellen MATCH (Multi-scale Atmospheric Transportand Chemistry model). Modellen har först applicerats över hela Europa förår 1999 med aktuella emissioner. Resultaten från dessa beräkningar har sedankopplats till en högupplöst modell, MATCH-O-län, som täcker södra Sverige.Beräkningar med MATCH har genomförts för ett nuläge (basfall) med utsläppsdataför år 2000/2001 och tre scenarier där utsläppen har reducerats. Scenariermed reduktion av NOx och VOC-utsläppen från Västra Götalands län med 45 respektive44% var för sig respektive sammantaget har studerats. För basfallet harjämförelser gjorts med mätningar av marknära ozon i området för år 1999. Medutgångspunkt från dessa jämförelser bedömer vi att MATCH ger en tillräckligtgod beskrivning av de verkliga ozonhalterna för att kunna utnyttjas för studier avscenarier.Beräkningarna visar att utsläppen från Västra Götaland har en signifikant påverkanpå halterna av marknära ozon i södra Sverige. Reducerade utsläpp leder generellttill reducerade halter av marknära ozon i södra Sverige och lägre värdenför olika mått på kritiska nivåer av halten av marknära ozon. Effekterna av reduceradeutsläpp berör inte bara närområdet utan täcker ett område som är fleragånger större än det område där utsläppen har ändrats.I området närmast Göteborg leder emellertid reducerade NOx-utsläpp till ökadehalter av ozon. Denna effekt är mindre vid en samtidig reduktion av NOx ochVOC.Bortsett från området med stora NOx-utsläpp i västra delen av Västra Götalandså är reduktioner av NOx effektivare när det gäller att reducera halterna av marknäraozon än reduktion av VOC-utsläpp. Reduktion av NOx-utsläpp är mer änsju gånger effektivare än reduktion av VOC-utsläpp när det gäller att reducerabildningen av ozon inom modellområdet för MATCH-O-län under periodenapril-september 1999.Reducerade utsläpp av NOx och VOC från Västra Götaland beräknas, i större delenav länet, leda till en viss minskning av antalet dagar med 8-timmars medelhaltersom överskrider 120 μg/m3 (60 ppb(v)) under sommarperioden aprilseptember.Reducerad NOx-utsläpp förväntas dock leda till ett ökat antal dagarmed överskridanden i Göteborgsområdet.Reducerade utsläpp från Västra Götaland leder till en reduktion av AOT401 med0.1 ppm(v) h över en stor del av södra Sverige under perioden maj-juli. Den2maximala reduktionen överstiger 0.5 ppm(v) i enstaka beräkningsrutor. För periodenapril-september reduceras AOT40 med mer än 0.1 ppm(v) h i en större delav södra Sverige och en reduktion med mer än 0.5 ppm(v) h beräknas för en stordel av Västra Götaland.

  • 188.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Plejel, Karin
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute IVL.
    European scale modeling of sulfur, oxidized nitrogen and photochemial oxidants: Model development and evaluation for the 1994 growing season1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical mechanism, including the relevant reactions leading to the production of ozone and other photochemical oxidants, has been implemented in the MATCH regional tracer transport/chemistry/deposition model. The aim has been to develop a model platform that can be used as a basis for a range of regional scale studies involving atmospheric chemistry, including assessment of the importance of different sources of pollutants to the levels of photochemical oxidants and air pollutant forecasting. Meteorological input data to the model were taken from archived output from the operational version of HIRLAM at SMHI. Evaluation of model calculations over Europe for a six month period in 1994 for a range of chemical components show good results considering known sources of error and uncertainties in input data and model formulation. With limited further work the system is sufficiently good to be applied for scenario studies and for regional scale air pollutant forecasts.

  • 189.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    European summer surface ozone 1990-21002012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 21, p. 10097-10105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of climate change and changes in ozone precursor emission on summer surface ozone in Europe was studied using a regional CTM over the period 1990 to 2100. Two different climate simulations under the SRES A1B scenario together with ozone precursor emission changes from the RCP4.5 scenario were used as model input. In southern Europe regional climate change leads to increasing surface ozone concentrations during April-September, but projected emission reductions in Europe have a stronger effect, resulting in net reductions of surface ozone concentrations. In northern Europe regional climate change decreases surface O-3 and reduced European emissions acts to further strengthen this trend also when including increasing hemispheric background concentrations. The European O-3 precursor emission reductions in RCP4.5 are substantial and it remains to be seen if these reductions can be achieved. There is substantial decadal variability in the simulations forced by climate variability which is important to consider when looking at changes in surface O-3 concentrations, especially until the first half of the 21st century. In order to account for changes in background O-3 future regional model studies should couple global (hemispheric) and regional CTMs forced by a consistent set of meteorological and precursor emission data.

  • 190.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Baklanov, A.
    Christensen, J. H.
    Gauss, M.
    Geels, C.
    Hedegaard, G. B.
    Nuterman, R.
    Simpson, D.
    Soares, J.
    Sofiev, M.
    Wind, P.
    Zakey, A.
    A multi-model study of impacts of climate change on surface ozone in Europe2012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 21, p. 10423-10440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of climate change on surface ozone over Europe was studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models (CTMs) and one online regional integrated climate-chemistry model (CCM), driven by the same global projection of future climate under the SRES A1B scenario. Anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors from RCP4.5 for year 2000 were used for simulations of both present and future periods in order to isolate the impact of climate change and to assess the robustness of the results across the different models. The sensitivity of the simulated surface ozone to changes in climate between the periods 20002009 and 2040-2049 differs by a factor of two between the models, but the general pattern of change with an increase in southern Europe is similar across different models. Emissions of isoprene differ substantially between different CTMs ranging from 1.6 to 8.0 Tg yr(-1) for the current climate, partly due to differences in horizontal resolution of meteorological input data. Also the simulated change in total isoprene emissions varies substantially across models explaining part of the different climate response on surface ozone. Ensemble mean changes in summer mean ozone and mean of daily maximum ozone are close to 1 ppb(v) in parts of the land area in southern Europe. Corresponding changes of 95-percentiles of hourly ozone are close to 2 ppb(v) in the same region. In northern Europe ensemble mean for mean and daily maximum show negative changes while there are no negative changes for the higher percentiles indicating that climate impacts on O-3 could be especially important in connection with extreme summer events.

  • 191.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Concentration and deposition of acidifying air pollutants over Sweden: Estimates for 1991 based on the match model and observations1995In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 2021-2026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MATCH (Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry) model has been developed as a tool for air pollution assessment studies on different geographical scales. MATCH is an Eulerian atmospheric dispersion model, including physical and chemical processes governing sources, atmospheric transport and sinks of oxidized sulfur and oxidized and reduced nitrogen. Using a combination of air and precipitation chemistry measurements and the MATCH model, the national and long-range transport contributions to air pollution and deposition can be quantified in the model region. The calculations for the year 1991 show that the Swedish import was about 4.5 times larger than the export for sulfur and about six times larger for reduced nitrogen, while the Swedish import of oxidized nitrogen only exceeded the export by 10%. Using the MATCH system we estimate the long-range transport in an independent way compared to EMEP. Comparison between the EMEP and MATCH calculations for 1991 show that the total deposition of oxidized nitrogen over Sweden is similar, while the EMEP-values for total deposition of oxidized sulfur and reduced nitrogen are 25% respectively 40% smaller than what is obtained from MATCH.

  • 192.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ullerstig, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Air pollution Assessment Study Using the MATCH Modelling System: Application to sulfur and nitrogen compounds over Sweden 19941996Report (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ullerstig, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Validation of the operational emergency response model at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute using data from ETEX and the Chernobyl accident1998In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 32, no 24, p. 4325-4333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eulerian atmospheric tracer transport model MATCH (Multiscale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry model) has been extended with a Lagrangian particle model treating the initial dispersion of pollutants from point sources. The model has been implemented at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute in an emergency response system for nuclear accidents and can be activated on short notice to provide forecast concentration and deposition fields. The model has been used to simulate the transport of the inert tracer released during the ETEX experiment and the transport and deposition of Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident. Visual inspection of the results as well as statistical analysis shows that the extent, time of arrival and duration of the tracer cloud, is in good agreement with the observations for both cases, with a tendency towards over-prediction for the first ETEX release. For the Chernobyl case the simulated deposition pattern over Scandinavia and over Europe as a whole agrees with observations when observed precipitation is used in the simulation. When model calculated precipitation is used, the quality of the simulation is reduced significantly and the model fails to predict major features of the observed deposition held. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 194.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    RODHE, H
    CRUTZEN, PJ
    ZIMMERMANN, P
    ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF TROPOSPHERIC SULFATE AEROSOL1992In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 359, no 6397, p. 712-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HUMAN activities have increased global emissions of sulphur gases by about a factor of three during the past century, leading to increased sulphate aerosol concentrations, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Sulphate aerosols can affect the climate directly, by increasing the backscattering of solar radiation in cloud-free air, and indirectly, by providing additional cloud condensation nuclei1-4. Here we use a global transport-chemistry model to estimate the changes in the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol and deposition of non-seasalt sulphur that have occurred since pre-industrial times. The increase in sulphate aerosol concentration is small over the Southern Hemisphere oceans, but reaches a factor of 100 over northern Europe in winter. Our calculations indicate, however, that at most 6% of the anthropogenic sulphur emissions is available for the formation of new aerosol particles. This is because about one-half of the sulphur dioxide is deposited on the Earth's surface, and most of the remainder is oxidized in cloud droplets so that the sulphate becomes associated with pre-existing particles. Even so, the rate of formation of new sulphate particles may have doubled since pre-industrial times.

  • 195.
    Laurin, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Beräknad formaldehydspridning och deposition från SWEDSPANs spånskivefabrik1985Report (Other academic)
  • 196. Leck, C
    et al.
    Heintzenberg, J
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    A meridional profile of the chemical composition of submicrometre particles over the East Atlantic Ocean: regional and hemispheric variabilities2002In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of SWEDARP (Swedish Antarctic Program) 92,93 an aerosol sampling program was carried out on board of M/S Palarbjorn which carried staff and material to the Nordic Antarctic Field exercises during the Austral summer 1992/1993. The cruise started 11 November 1992 from Oslo, went via Cape Town to Antarctica, and then back to Cape Town ,here the ship arrived on 4 January 1993. During the cruise, a meridional profile of physical and chemical submicrometre aerosol properties was derived covering the East Atlantic Ocean from 60degreesN to 70degreesS. The multicomponent aerosol data set combined with a trajectory analysis revealed a systematic meridional distribution of aerosol sources over the Atlantic that covered European and African continental Plumes and, South of 15degreesS, a largely biologically controlled marine aerosol. Median number concentrations calculated over the whole cruise spanned a factor of 20 between 2000 and 100 cm(-3), while total analyzed mass concentrations ranged between 7800 and 40 ng m(3). From the biologically dominated subset of the data in the southern hemisphere, relationships were developed that allowed an apportionment of the observed sulfate and ammonium concentration to biogenic and anthropogenic Sources over the whole meridional aerosol profile.

  • 197.
    Leung, Wing
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Windmark, Fredrik
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Brodl, Ludvik
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    A basis to estimate marginal cost for air traffic in Sweden.: Modelling of ozone, primary and secondary particles and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen.2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have investigated the effects of emissions from aviation on air quality in both Swedish and European domains. The results will be used as a basis to estimate the marginal cost for air traffic in Sweden. The vertical, geographical and temporal distribution of aviation emissions over Sweden has been estimated using a newly developed methodology. The aviation emissions have been categorized by their emission altitude (LTO, low cruise and high cruise) and flight nationality (international, national and overflight). This aviation emission information was then used as input data to the regional atmospheric chemistry model MATCH to simulate the effects of aviation emissions on ecosystem, health and climate metrics. A total of 17 model simulations over three years have been performed. There is one simulation in which all emitted species from the surface and aviation emissions are included and eight simulations in which all aviation emissions from each combination of emission altitude and flight nationality are included. There are eight simulations in which NOx aviation emissions from each combination of emission altitude and flight nationality are included. Using these simulations, contributions from aviation emissions to deposition, concentrations and a range of different air pollution metrics has been calculated. The results are calculated in both the Europe and Swedish domains for all the simulations. 

    The following results are included in this report: . Deposition of oxidised and reduced nitrogen . Deposition of excess sulfur . AOT40 and SOMO35 and their exposures . Concentration and exposure of primary and secondary particles . Concentration of nitrate and sulfate particles . Concentration of surface and above surface ozone 

    In summary, contributions from aviation emissions in Sweden to the different concentrations, deposition and metrics for environmental effects are generally small, on the order of a few per mille or less. However the impacts can be traced in the simulations well beyond the Swedish borders. LTO emissions give the largest contribution to deposition of oxidised and reduced nitrogen, deposition of excess sulfur and concentrations of primary and secondary particles. In particular near the major airports like Stockholm-Arlanda and Gothenburg-Landvetter. High cruise emissions give insignificant contributions to deposition and concentrations at surface level. LTO emissions give a negative contribution to surface ozone concentration locally at the main Swedish airports but give an overall increased contribution in the regions around. Aviation emissions at low cruise and high cruise levels have the largest effect on ozone concentrations at higher levels. 

  • 198. Lewinschal, Anna
    et al.
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Hansson, Hans-Christen
    Sand, Maria
    Berntsen, Terje K.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Local and remote temperature response of regional SO2 emissions2019In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 2385-2403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Lövblad, Gun
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Background report on air pollution situation in the Baltic states - a prefeasibility study: IVL Publikation B 10381991Report (Other academic)
  • 200. Mackowski, D. W.
    et al.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Mishchenko, M. I.
    A T matrix method based upon scalar basis functions2013In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 123, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A surface integral formulation is developed for the T matrix of a homogenous and isotropic particle of arbitrary shape, which employs scalar basis functions represented by the translation matrix elements of the vector spherical wave functions. The formulation begins with the volume integral equation for scattering by the particle, which is transformed so that the vector and dyadic components in the equation are replaced with associated dipole and multipole level scalar harmonic wave functions. The approach leads to a volume integral formulation for the T matrix, which can be extended, by the use of Green's identities, to the surface integral formulation. The result is shown to be equivalent to the traditional surface integral formulas based on the VSWF basis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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