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  • 1251.
    Andersson, Tage
    SMHI, Research Department.
    VAD winds from C band Ericsson Doppler Weather Radars1998In: Meteorologische Zeitschrift, ISSN 0941-2948, E-ISSN 1610-1227, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 309-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VAD (Velocity Azimuth Display) technique for retrieving winds from a single Doppler weather radar is well known as a robust and simple one, though still not used on its merits. Precipitation generally gives VAD winds, but it is less known that even in high latitudes during the warmer seasons the Doppler weather radars of today record enough clear air echos to give wind profiles in the planetary boundary layer. There are, however, few verifications of VAD winds in general, and hardly any concerning clear air. In this paper mainly VAD winds from one Ericsson Doppler Weather Radar in Jonsered, Gothenburg (57.723 degrees N, 12.172 degrees E, 164 m above MSL) are compared to Radiosonde Winds (RAWINDs) from Landwetter (57.668 degrees N, 12.296 degrees E, 155 m above MSL). The sites are about 10 km apart, and the radiosonde is within the range used for the VAD (30 km). The VAD soundings were made each hour, and the radiosoundings every 6th (00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC). About seven months of data were available (9 Dec. 1994 to 14 Feb. 1995 and 28 Jun. to 30 Nov. 1995). The LORAN C system was used to retrieve the RAWINDs during the first period (Dec. 1994 to Feb. 1995), and the OMEGA system was used during the second period. The comparisons are made using the five standard pressure levels, 925, 850, 700, 500 and 400 hPa, corresponding to heights above MSL of about 750, 1450, 3000, 5600 and 7200 m. As overall results, the average differences, in m/s, between the VAD and RAWIND were largest at the lowest (geometrically) levels, and higher up more or less constant with height. This is remarkable, since the wind speed increases with height, and the relative differences thus decrease with height. As an example, the average of the magnitude of the wind vector differences was 3.2 m/s at 925 hPa, but about 2.8 m/s at the higher levels. The differences also tend to be somewhat larger for winds retrieved from clear air echos. In the planetary boundary layer during summer, that is up to about 800 hPa, the availability of VAD winds was about 90 %. The availability decreases with height, and at 400 hPa it was 15 % for the whole period. Comparisons are also performed between VAD winds and winds from a limited area model, HIRLAM.

  • 1252.
    Räisänen, Jouni
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    CO2- and aerosol-induced changes in vertically integrated zonal momentum budget in a GCM experiment1998In: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 625-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The German Climate Computing Center recently conducted a model experiment in which separate runs simulate the climatic response to increasing CO2 alone and to increasing CO2 together with direct radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols. One of the variables that shows interesting differences between the different runs is the nearsurface zonal-mean zonal wind. As compared with the control run, the midlatitude surface westerlies intensify and shift poleward in the CO2-only run in both hemispheres in both the northern winter (DJF) and summer (JJA). However, the aerosol forcing moderates these changes in general and, in particular, reverses the pattern of change in the Northern Hemisphere in JJA. Consistent differences between the various runs occur in the meridional distribution of sea level pressure. The origin of these simulated changes is studied by using the vertically integrated zonal-mean zonal momentum budget, utilizing the intimate linkage between the low-level wind and the surface stress and the close time-mean balance between the surface stress and the other terms in the budget. Regardless of the forcing used, momentum convergence in transient eddies is found to be the dominant agent of change in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere and in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes in JJA, In particular, the changes in the contribution of high-pass transients are relatively large and they seem to be qualitatively traceable to the changes in the tropospheric meridional temperature gradient. In the northern extratropics in DJE stationary eddies make an even larger contribution than the transients.

  • 1253.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Barnston, A
    Saha, S
    van den Dool, H
    On the level and origin of seasonal forecast skill in northern Europe1998In: Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, ISSN 0022-4928, E-ISSN 1520-0469, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 103-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the level and origin of seasonal forecast skill of surface air temperature in northern Europe. The forecasts are based on an empirical methodology, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which is a method designed to find correlated patterns between predictor and predictand fields. A modified form of CCA is used where a prefiltering step precedes the CCA as proposed by T.P. Barnett and R. Preisendorfer. The predictive potential of four fields is investigated, namely, (a) surface air temperature (i.e., the predictand field itself), (b) local sea surface temperature (SST) in the northern European area on a dense grid, (c) Northern Hemisphere 700-hPa geopotential height, and (d) quasi-global SST on a coarse grid, The design is such that four contiguous predictor periods (of 3 months each) are followed by a lead time and then a single predictand period (3 months long). The shortest lead time is 1 month and the longest is 15 months. The skill of the CCA based forecasts is estimated for the 39-yr time period 1955-93, using cross-validated hindcasting. Skill estimates are expressed as the temporal correlation between the forecasts and the respective verifying observations. The forecasts are most skillful in the winter seasons with a secondary weaker skill maximum during summer. During winter the geopotential height field produces the highest skill scores of the four predictor fields. The dominant predictor pattern of the geopotential height field is confined to the predictor period that is closest to a preceding core winter season and resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAG) teleconnection pattern. The time series of the expansion coefficients of this dominant predictor pattern correlates well with a low-pass filtered rime series of an NAO index. The obtained skill is similar to what is found in the United States, both with regard to seasonal distribution and level of skill. The origin of skill is however different. In the United States it is the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with its predominantly interannual character that is the main source of skill in winter. In northern Europe it is instead the NAO that contributes the most, and especially the lower frequency part of the NAO (periods between 4 and 10 yr). Spatially sparse station data of surface pressure extending back to the middle of the nineteenth century suggests a nonstationarity in the NAO behavior. The implications of this nonstationarity for the obtained results of this study is briefly discussed. Because finely resolved field data are not readily available for this earlier period, the level of skill realizable for that period using a pattern relationship technique such as CCA remains an open question.

  • 1254.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Källén, Erland
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Thorsteinsson, Sigurdur
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Sensitivity of forecast errors to initial and lateral boundary conditions1998In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 167-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adjoint of a limited area model has been used to study the sensitivity of 12 h forecast errors to initial and lateral boundary conditions. Upper troposphere potential vorticity and mean sea level pressure verification scores for 1 month of operational forecasts from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute were used to select 2 cases with particularly poor forecast performance. The sensitivity experiments show that errors in initial data is the most likely explanation for one of the forecast failures, while errors in initial as well as lateral boundary data can explain the 2nd forecast failure. Results from the sensitivity experiments with respect to the lateral boundary conditions indicate that poor quality lateral boundary conditions may be improved by utilizing subsequent downstream observations within the model integration area. This result is of great significance with regard to the possibilities for applying 4-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) for limited area forecast models. Results from the sensitivity experiments also reveal, however, that the lateral boundary treatment in operational limited area models needs to be improved with regard to the mathematical formulation. It is furthermore shown that modifications to be applied to the lateral boundary conditions need to be determined with appropriate time resolution and that some filtering of these lateral boundary modifications has to be introduced to avoid enhanced high-frequency gravity wave noise in the vicinity of the lateral boundaries.

  • 1255. Rex, M
    et al.
    von der Gathen, P
    Harris, N R P
    Lucic, D
    Knudsen, B M
    Braathen, G O
    Reid, S J
    De Backer, H
    Claude, H
    Fabian, R
    Fast, H
    Gil, M
    Kyro, E
    Mikkelsen, I S
    Rummukainen, Markku
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Smit, H G
    Stahelin, J
    Varotsos, C
    Zaitcev, I
    In situ measurements of stratospheric ozone depletion rates in the Arctic winter 1991/1992: A Lagrangian approach1998In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 103, no D5, p. 5843-5853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Lagrangian approach has been used to assess the degree of chemically induced ozone loss in the Arctic lower stratosphere in winter 1991/1992. Trajectory calculations are used to identify air parcels probed by two ozonesondes at different points along the trajectories. A statistical analysis of the measured differences in ozone mixing ratio and the time the air parcel spent in sunlight between the measurements provides the chemical ozone loss. Initial results were first described by von der Gathen et al. [1995]. Here we present a more detailed description of the technique and a more comprehensive discussion of the results. Ozone loss rates of up to 10 ppbv per sunlit hour (or 54 ppbv per day) were found inside the polar vortex on the 475 K potential temperature surface (about 19.5 km in altitude) at the end of January. The period of rapid ozone loss coincides and slightly lags a period when temperatures were cold enough for type I polar stratospheric clouds to form. It is shown that the ozone loss occurs exclusively during the sunlit portions of the trajectories. The time evolution and vertical distribution of the ozone loss rates are discussed.

  • 1256. Hillring, B
    et al.
    Krieg, Roland
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Wind energy potential in southern Sweden - Example of planning methodology1998In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a planning model for Swedish activities in the field of wind power. Models and results of calculations of the land-based wind energy potential with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programme, WA(s)P, are described and analysed in a geographical information systems (GIS) called the ArcView(R) GIS system. One county in southern Sweden was chosen as a case study to present the methods used. The results from that case study indicate a great wind energy potential but there are nevertheless many factors limiting that potential. The study calls for a further development of planning tools in the field. Important areas for the future are the development of knowledge in market issues, wind power technology, environmental issues, and public opinion on constructing wind turbines. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 1257.
    Omstedt, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Meuller, Lars
    SMHI.
    Nyberg, Leif
    SMHI.
    Interannual, seasonal and regional variations of precipitation and evaporation over the Baltic Sea1997In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 484-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation and evaporation rates over the Baltic Sea during the period 1981-1994 have been analyzed. The precipitation rate was based upon available meteorological weather, which were interpolated to grid paints using a two-dimensional objective analysis scheme, The evaporation rate was calculated using an ocean model, in which the Baltic Sea was treated as 13 sub-basins with high vertical resolution. Sea-surface temperatures as well as sea ice were calculated and verified extensively against temperature and ice-chart information, In the model, the latent heat flux was calculated according to a bulk formula parameterization. The evaporation rate was then calculated from the latent heat calculations and reduced by sea ice concentration, assuming that evaporation from sea ice is negligible. The long-term difference between precipitation and evaporation rates (the atmospheric fresh water inflow) is positive, which implies that the atmosphere adds fresh water to the Baltic Sea. For the period 1981 - 1994, the total mean atmospheric freshwater inflow was calculated to be 1986 m(3) s(-1). This is less than the total river runoff, but almost as large as the contribution from the River Neva, and thus an important source in the freshwater balance of the Baltic Sea. For the long time mean, the inclusion of sea ice increased (by reducing evaporation with 8%) the atmospheric freshwater inflow by 26% for the studied period, compared to an artificial case without ice in the Baltic Sea. The precipitation and evaporation over the Baltic Sea show, however, large interannual, seasonal and regional differences.

  • 1258.
    Lindström, Göran
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Johansson, Barbro
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Persson, Magnus
    SMHI.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Development and test of the distributed HBV-96 hydrological model1997In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 201, no 1-4, p. 272-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive re-evaluation of the HBV hydrological model has been carried out. The objectives were to improve its potential for making use of spatially distributed data, to make it more physically sound and to improve the model performance. The new version, HBV-96, uses subbasin division with a typical resolution of 40 km(2), although any resolution can be used. In addition, each subbasin is divided into elevation bands, vegetation and snow classes. Automatic weighting of precipitation and temperature stations was introduced and a new automatic calibration scheme was developed. The modifications led to significant improvements in model performance. In seven test basins the average value of the efficiency criterion R-2 increased from 86 to 89%, with improvements in both the calibration and verification periods. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 1259. Danielssen, D S
    et al.
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hernroth, L
    Ostrowski, M
    Svendsen, E
    Talpsepp, L
    Oceanographic variability in the Skagerrak and Northern Kattegat, May-June, 19901997In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 753-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Skagerrak Experiment (SKAGEX), was a large, international, ICES-supported joint venture, carried out in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area on four different surveys in the period 1990-1991. It involved some 20 institutes and, at times, up to 17 research vessels. The main aim of the Experiment was to identify and quantify the different water masses entering and leaving the Skagerrak area and their variation over lime. It also aimed to investigate the mechanisms that drive the circulation and to study their effects on biological processes. The aim was to be attained mostly through extensive synoptic observations. This paper focuses on the variability in physical, chemical and biological parameters during the first part of SKAGEX, 24 May-20 June 1990. During the first half of the period of investigation, the main outflow from the Skagerrak, represented by the Norwegian Coastal Current, was barotropic with daily mean velocities varying from 10-40 cm s(-1). During the second half a clear baroclinic current component developed, giving rise to near surface velocities of up to 100 cm s(-1). A pronounced feature in the Skagerrak during the study was the counter-clockwise circulation of the Norwegian Coastal Current at times of strong northwesterly winds. During such conditions this surface water reached as far as the Danish coast south of 57 degrees N and upwelling along the Norwegian coast was also found. During northerly winds upwelling also occurred along the Swedish coast. The nutrient-rich Jutland Coastal Water, originating from the German Eight, was never found to reach the inner part of the Skagerrak during this first part of SKAGEX. It was partly blocked or diluted by other water-masses. A large ''ridge'' of nutrient-rich Atlantic water was found in the central Skagerrak throughout the investigation. It is shown that this elongated ''ridge'' was associated with the deepest (>500 m) area of the Skagerrak. Within this area, high subsurface chlorophyll concentrations were always found and, due to the persistence of the supply of nutrients, it is concluded that this phenomenon could be one of the main reasons for the high productivity of the Skagerrak. (C) 1997 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  • 1260.
    Krysell, Mikael
    SMHI, Core Services.
    How accreditation changed us1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 35, no 1-6, p. 167-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, laboratories involved in national or international marine monitoring programmes are strongly encouraged to seek accreditation or another formal proof of competence, The question often asked is whether a laboratory actually produces more reliable data when a quality system has been set up. A method of monitoring the differences in laboratory performance from year to year is presented in this paper. In the case of the SMHI Oceanographical Laboratory there has been substantial improvement in laboratory performance since formal quality assurance measures were introduced. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 1261. Aminot, A
    et al.
    Kirkwood, D
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The QUASIMEME laboratory performance studies (1993-1995): Overview of the nutrients section1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 35, no 1-6, p. 28-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The QUASIMEME Project (1993-1996) was established to assist European laboratories to improve the data they produce in marine monitoring programmes. Through laboratory performance Studies (with six-monthly reports), workshops and expert visits the programme was fully interactive. There were five rounds of laboratory performance studies. For the nutrient section, in which about 50 laboratories took part, the reference materials distributed to the participants consisted of standard solutions of nutrients and seawater samples stabilized by autoclaving. The material included low and high concentrations typical of those encountered in coastal seawater; at least two samples with different concentrations were distributed in each round. Robust statistics were used to determine the means and standard deviations for each set of results. For inorganic nutrients, the assessment of the data for bias and precision was based mainly on a Z- and P-scoring system in which targets of +/- 6% were allocated to the high concentrations, likewise +/- 12.5% to the low concentrations. This overview discusses overall performance separately for nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and classifies the performance of individual laboratories in each round, while maintaining their anonymity. Performance for nitrate plus nitrite and nitrite improved steadily and these determinands are now fully under control; at the end of the programme, standard deviations (SD) for nitrate plus nitrite were 0.2 mu mol l(-1) at low concentration and 0.6 mu mol l(-1) (4%) at high concentration, and for nitrite they were 0.03 mu mol l(-1) and 0.06 mu mol l(-1) (5%) respectively. Phosphate showed a somewhat stable level of performance with SD of 0.06 mu mol l(-1) and 0.10 mu mol l(-1) (10%) at low and high concentrations respectively, but this could be improved. Ammonia proved the most difficult to determine, and in spite of a substantial improvement at the beginning of the exercise, this determinand is not under control in many laboratories. At low concentrations, ammonia shows a positive bias of 0.2 mu mol l(-1) and a SD of 0.3 mu mol l(-1), while at high concentrations SD reaches 0.5 mu mol l(-1) (20%). For total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), the exercises show that only two thirds of the participants produced consistent data for TN, and less than half of them produced consistent data for TP. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 1262.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    A simple automatic calibration routine for the HBV model1997In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple, but efficient, method for automatic calibration of the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model was developed. A new criterion, which combines the commonly used efficiency criterion R-2 and the relative volume error was introduced. 2 values nearly as high as those Optimising this combined criterion resulted in R-2 for optimising only R-2, but With much smaller volume errors. An earlier automatic calibration method for the HBV model relied on the use of different criteria for different parameters. With the simplification to one single criterion, the optimum search method could be made more efficient. The optimisation is made for one parameter at a time, while the others are kept constant. This one-dimensional optimisation is repeated in a loop for all parameters. A new loop is performed as long as there is a sufficiently large improvement since the last one. After each loop a search is made in the direction which is defined by the differences in parameter values between the two latest loops. The calibration routine was developed for, and tested with, the HBV model, but it should be general enough to be applicable to other models as well.

  • 1263.
    Gardelin, Marie
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Priestley-Taylor evapotranspiration in HBV-simulations1997In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 28, no 4-5, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimations of potential evapotranspiration as input to runoff calculations with the HBV model are usually given as monthly standard values calculated with the Penman method. Daily changes in the weather conditions can in later model versions be taken into account by the introduction of a temperature anomaly correction of the evapotranspiration. In this study daily values of potential evapotranspiration calculated with the Priestley-Taylor method were used as input to the model. The required net radiation estimations were calculated from routine weather observations including cloudiness. Potential evapotranspiration was calculated on a three hour basis over a 20-year period. Model simulations using different input data on the potential evapotranspiration were made for three drainage basins (3,500-4,300 km(2)) in Sweden. The Priestley-Taylor evapotranspiration generally gave small improvements of the runoff simulations. The simple temperature anomaly correction method gave improvements of the same size.

  • 1264.
    Wittgren, Hans B.
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Maehlum, T
    Wastewater treatment wetlands in cold climates1997In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The best prospects for successful wetland treatment should be in the warmer regions of the world, but studies in North America and Scandinavia show that wetland treatment may be feasible also in cooler regions. A review shows that the number of wetlands of different types (free water surface, FWS; horizontal and vertical subsurface flow, SSF), treating different kinds of wastewater, is steadily increasing in most parts of the cold temperate regions of the world. The major wetland engineering concerns in cold climates, which are discussed in this paper, are related to: (1) ice formation, and its implications for hydraulic performance; (2) hydrology and hydraulic issues besides ice formation; and (3) the thermal consequences for biologically or microbiologically mediated treatment processes. Energy- and water-balance calculations, as well as thermal modeling, are useful tools for successful design and operation of treatment wetlands, but the shortage of data makes it necessary to adopt a conservative approach. The treatment processes often appear less temperature sensitive in full-scale wetlands as compared to laboratory incubations. Several possible explanations are discussed in the paper: (1) sedimentation playing a significant role, (2) overdimensioning in relation to some constituents, (3) seasonal adsorption (cation exchange) of ammonium, and (4) temperature adaptation of the microbial community. Experience shows that cold climate wetlands can meet effluent criteria for the most important treatment parameters. To gain wide acceptance, however, we need to become more specific about design and construction, and also about operation, maintenance and cost-effectiveness. These goals require detailed knowledge about processes in full-scale wetlands, including long-term changes and response to maintenance. (C) 1997 IAWQ.

  • 1265.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Lonnberg, P
    Pailleux, J
    Data assimilation for high-resolution limited-area models1997In: Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, ISSN 0026-1165, Vol. 75, no 1B, p. 367-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present status of development of data assimilation techniques for high resolution limited area models is reviewed and various candidates for a new generation of a data assimilation system are compared. It is concluded that data assimilation based on 3-dimensional or 4-dimensional variational techniques is the most promising approach. Further investigations are needed, however, to find out whether variational data assimilation is feasible over "limited" model integration areas or whether global/hemispheric model integration areas have to be introduced for high resolution limited area data assimilation purposes. The main problem in this connection is the rapid propagation of forecast errors on a global or at least hemispheric atmospheric scale within a time-scale of a few days.

  • 1266.
    Häggkvist, Kenneth
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Evaluation of dispersion models for an urban environment: an example from Stockholm, Sweden1997In: International Journal of Environment and Pollution, ISSN 0957-4352, E-ISSN 1741-5101, Vol. 8, no 3-6, p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An air quality management system has been in operational use in the city of Stockholm, Sweden, for several years. In the system there are, in addition to databases for measurements of air pollution and meteorological parameters and emission data, several dispersion models. The models include a Gaussian and a Eulerian (grid) type of dispersion model. An evaluation of the Gaussian and the grid models for Stockholm has been carried out. Simulated concentrations of nitrogen oxides, NOx, have been compared with measured NOx concentrations at three measuring stations in central parts of the city. The evaluation was based on comparisons between measured and simulated concentrations in two time-series, a summer week and a winter week, and between two seasonal simulations, a summer and a winter seasonal average and extreme concentrations. It was noted that the mean difference between the measured and the simulated concentrations during all trials varied from a few percent up to 60%. It was also noted that the differences for the seasonal averages and 98-percentile decreased considerably when the simulated value was picked from the gridpoint with best agreement with the measured value, inside a circle with a radius of one grid distance from the measuring station.

  • 1267.
    Alexandersson, Hans
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Moberg, A
    Homogenization of Swedish temperature data .1. Homogeneity test for linear trends1997In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new test for the detection of linear trends of arbitrary length in normally distributed time series is developed. With this test it is possible to detect and estimate gradual changes of the mean value in a candidate series compared with a homogeneous reference series. The test is intended for studies of artificial relative trends in climatological time series, e.g. an increasing urban heat island effect. The basic structure of the new test is similar to that of a widely used test for abrupt changes, the standard normal homogeneity test. The test for abrupt changes is found to remain unaltered after an important generalization.

  • 1268. Moberg, A
    et al.
    Alexandersson, Hans
    SMHI.
    Homogenization of Swedish temperature data .2. Homogenized gridded air temperature compared with a subset of global gridded air temperature since 18611997In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homogeneity tests of long seasonal temperature series from Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway indicate that homogeneous series are rare and that an abrupt change of the relative mean level is a much more common type of nonhomogeneity than a gradual change. Furthermore, negative shifts were 20% more common than positive shifts. Homogenized temperature anomaly series that were constructed for six 5 degrees latitude x 5 degrees longitude grid boxes indicate that the temporal pattern of temperture changes has been similar in different parts of Sweden since 1861. The annual mean temperature over Sweden was found to have increased by 0.68 degrees C from the period 1861-1890 to 1965-1994. The corresponding changes for the seasons were: +0.18 degrees C (winter), +1.40 (spring), +0.42 (summer) and +0.60 (autumn). A direct comparson shows that non-homogeneities in the temperature series from individual grid boxes in a global data set can be as large as the total changes observed. We estimate that a 95 per cent confidence interval for the error, due to non-homogeneous long station records, in estimates of hemispheric temperature changes over land regions since the period 1861-1890 is +/-0.1 degrees C for the Northern Hemisphere and the globe and +/-0.25 degrees C for the Southern Hemisphere. For a region consisting of about five grid boxes, this error is +/-0.5 degrees C. The large non-homogeneities in individual grid-box series in the global data set is partly a consequence of the fact that homogeneous climate data are not always easily available for the open research community. We urge that efforts are made to improve this situation.

  • 1269.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Cloud climate investigations in the Nordic region using NOAA AVHRR data1997In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 57, no 3-4, p. 181-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to estimate monthly cloud conditions (monthly cloud frequencies) from multispectral satellite imagery is described. The operational cloud classification scheme SCANDIA (the SMHI Cloud ANalysis model using DIgital AVHRR data), based on high resolution imagery from the polar orbiting NOAA-satellites, has been used to produce monthly cloud frequencies for the entire year of 1993 and some additional months in 1991, 1992, 1994 and 1995. Cloud analyses were made for an area covering the Nordic countries with a horizontal resolution of four km. Examples of seasonal, monthly and diurnal variation in cloud conditions are given and an annual mean for 1993 is presented. Comparisons with existing surface observations showed very good agreement for horizontal cloud distributions but approximately 5% smaller cloud amounts were found in the satellite estimations. The most evident problems were encountered in the winter season due to difficulties in identifying low-level cloudiness at very low sun elevations. The underestimation in the summer season was partly fictious and caused by the overestimation of convective cloud cover by surface observers. SCANDIA results were compared to ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) cloud climatologies for two selected months in 1991 and 1992. ISCCP cloudiness was indicated to be higher, especially during the month with anticyclonic conditions where a cloudiness excess of more than 10% were found. The regional variation of cloud conditions in the area was found to be inadequately described by ISCCP cloud climatologies. An improvement of the horizontal resolution of ISCCP data seems necessary to enable use for regional applications. The SCANDIA model is proposed as a valuable tool for local and regional monitoring of the cloud climatology at high latitudes. More extensive comparisons with ISCCP cloud climatologies are suggested as well as comparisons with modelled cloudiness from atmospheric general circulation models and climate models. Special studies of cloud conditions in the Polar areas are also proposed.

  • 1270.
    Ljungemyr, Patrik
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Parameterization of lake thermodynamics in a high-resolution weather forecasting model1996In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 608-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for the parameterization of lake temperatures and lake ice thicknesses in atmospheric models is presented. The model is verified independently, and it is also tested within the framework of the High Resolution Limited Area Model(HIRLAM), applied operationally for short range weather forecasting at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The lake model is a slab model based upon energy conservation and treats the lakes as well mixed boxes with depths represented by the mean depths. The model is forced by near surface fluxes calculated from total cloudiness, air temperature, air humidity and low-level winds. A data base, describing 92000 Swedish lakes. provides the model with lake mean depths, areal sizes and locations. When the model is used for parameterization of lake effects in the atmospheric model, all the smaller lakes and the fractions of larger lakes within each horizontal grid square of the atmospheric model are parameterized by four model lakes, representing the lake size distribution. The verification of the lake model is done by comparing it with a more advanced, vertically resolved model, including parameterization of turbulent mixing processes, as well as by comparison with observations. A sensitivity test shows great interannual variations of the ice-covered season, which implies that lake models should be used instead of climate data. The results from an experiment with two-way coupling of the lake model to the atmospheric model are verified by comparing forecasted weather parameters with routine meteorological observations. These results show that the impact of lake effects can reach several degrees C in air temperatures close to the surface.

  • 1271.
    Omstedt, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Nyberg, Leif
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Response of Baltic Sea ice to seasonal, interannual forcing and climate change1996In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 644-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the present paper are to formulate and explore a coupled sea ice-ocean model and to examine the sensitivity of ice in the Baltic Sea to climate change. The model treats the Baltic Sea as 13 sub-basins with vertical resolution, horizontally coupled by estuarine circulation and vertically coupled to a sea ice model which includes both dynamic and thermodynamic processes. The reducing effect on the barotropic exchange due to sea ice in the entrance area is also added. The model was first verified with data from 3 test periods representing one mild, one normal and one severe ice winter. The maximum seasonal ice extent was then examined on the basis of simulated and observed data for the period 1980-1993. After that, some climate scenarios (both warm and cold) were examined. The seasonal, regional and interannual variations of sea ice were well described by the model, and the thermal response in the Baltic Sea can be realistically simulated applying forcing data from rather few stations. The Baltic Sea system is highly sensitive to climate change, particularly during the winter season, Warming may drastically decrease the number of winters classified as severe, forcing the climate towards more oceanic conditions. On the other hand, cooling will increase the number of severe winters, forcing the climate towards more sub-arctic conditions.

  • 1272.
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Special issue with papers presented at ''first study conference on BALTEX'' in Visby, Sweden, 28 August 1 September 1995 - Preface1996In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 607-607Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1273.
    Omstedt, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Nyberg, Leif
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Lepparanta, M
    On the ice-ocean response to wind forcing1996In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 593-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ice-ocean response to variable winds is analysed based upon two types of models. An analytical ice-ocean model with linear stress laws and forced by periodic winds is first derived. Secondly a numerical, vertically resolved ice-ocean model is introduced. In the numerical model, the ice-water stress law is calculated from a turbulence model and the wind stress is calculated on the basis of a square law formation. By comparing the ice-ocean stress law formulations, it is illustrated that the numerical model predicts an ice-ocean stress law that has a power slightly less than 2 compared to 1 for the analytical model. The numerical prediction is in good accordance with field observations and the slight deviation from 2 is due to wall effects close to the ice-water interface. It is then demonstrated that the ice-ocean response to variable winds could be well simulated by both models, but the analytical model did not capture the wind dependency properly (because of the linear approach). The ice and current factors are amplified at wind frequencies close to inertial (omega = -f) and damped at high positive and negative frequencies. The maximum ice and current factors at a wind frequency equal to the inertial oscillation are shown to be dependent only on the friction coefficients. With the constants applied in the present study, the maximum ice drift and current speed are equal to 7.8% and 5.5% of the wind speed, respectively. These steady state values are however quite unrealistic as they would require a uniformly changing wind direction for many inertial periods.

  • 1274.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Source apportionment of riverine nitrogen transport based on catchment modelling1996In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 33, no 4-5, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Source apportionment of river substance transport, i.e. estimation of how much each source in each subbasin contributes to the river-mouth transport is a vital step in achieving the most efficient management practices to reduce pollutant loads to the sea. In this study, the spatially lumped (at sub-catchment level), semiempirical PULSE hydrological model, with a nitrogen routine coupled to if was used to perform source apportionment of nitrogen transport in the Soderkopingsan river basin (882 km(2)) in south-eastern Sweden, for the period 1991-93. The river basin was divided into 28 subbasins and the following sources were considered: land leakage from the categories forest arable and ley/pasture; point sources, and; atmospheric deposition on lake surfaces. The calibrated model yielded an explained variance of 60%, based on comparison of measured and modelled river nitrogen (Total N) concentrations. Eight subbasins, with net contributions to the river-mouth transport exceeding 3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), were identified as the most promising candidates for cost efficient nitrogen management. The other 20 subbasins all had net contributions below 3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). Arable land contributed 63% of the nitrogen transport at the river mouth and would thus be in focus for management measures. However, point sources (18% contribution to net transport) should also be considered due to their relatively high accessibility for removal measures (high concentrations). E.g., the most downstream subbasin, with the largest wastewater treatment plant in the whole river basin, had a net contribution of 16 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). This method for source apportionment may provide authorities with quantitative information about where in a river basin, and at which sources, they should focus their attention. However, once this is done, an analysis with higher resolution has to be performed in each of the interesting subbasins, before decisions on actual management measures can be taken. Copyright (C) 1996 IAWQ.

  • 1275. Enoksson, V
    et al.
    Fogelqvist, E
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Nitrogen speciation and nitrification potential in the Skagerrak area during the SKAGEX IV experiment1996In: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1029-1044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrification was studied in relation to the inorganic nitrogen species in the Skagerrak in May 1991 during the SKAGEX IV expedition. The distribution of density, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate are shown for the four north-south sections and, for two of these, the distribution of nitrification potential (NP, i.e. nitrification with excess ammonium during incubation) and oxygen saturation values are also presented. Highly saline and ammonium rich Atlantic/North Sea water was sinking into the Skagerrak along the Danish slope, where it gradually mixed with the ''old'' and relatively stagnant Skagerrak water with high nitrate concentrations but very low ammonium concentrations. The zone of mixing was characterised by high concentrations of nitrite, an intermediate product during the,bacterial oxidation of ammonium to nitrate. The NP rates were in the range 0-60 nmoll(-1) day(-1). Water masses with undetectable or low NP included the upper water layers and water flowing in at depth. Maximum NP rates were found in or near the zone with high nitrite concentrations just below the upper layers and at the border between inflowing water and ''old'' Skagerrak water at depth. It is postulated that nitrification was stimulated in the mixture of inflowing, ammonium rich water and ''old'' Skagerrak water. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 1276. Kirkwood, D S
    et al.
    Aminot, A
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The 1994 QUASIMEME laboratory performance study: Nutrients in seawater and standard solutions1996In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 32, no 8-9, p. 640-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1994 QUASIMEME (nutrients) Laboratory-Performance Study (LPS) is presented, The year's programme consisted of two periods, December-May and June-November, (These are referred to as Round 2 and Round 3, respectively, the previous 1993 LPS being Round 1.) In each period, participating laboratories were sent two types of sample material, that is seawater samples and a standard solution containing a mixture of nutrient salts, The standard solution required dilution (by participants) and multiple analyses over several weeks in order to assess long-term repeatability, In Round 2, a few laboratories, identified as poor performers in Round 1 (1993), undertook a 'learning programme' in which they received, unknowingly, samples identical to those analysed in Round 1, The other laboratories received samples different from those used in Round 1, In Round 3, all laboratories received the same package of samples, different from those used in Round 1 and Round 2, The results clearly indicate that general all-round improvements in data quality have been achieved. Crown copyright (C) 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

  • 1277. Zhang, X N
    et al.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    A comparative study of a Swedish and a Chinese hydrological model1996In: WATER RESOURCES BULLETIN, ISSN 0043-1370, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 985-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a large number of conceptual hydrological models available today. It is not easy to immediately identify the similarities and differences between the different models. The Swedish HBV model and the Chinese Xinanjiang model are two examples of conceptual, semi-distributed, rainfall-runoff models. The Xinanjiang model was designed for use in humid and semi-humid regions, with no routine for the snowmelt runoff, whereas the snow routine is an important part of the HBV model in many applications. The model structures of the two models may be described in four routines, compared in this paper. The integral structures of them are similar, but there are some differences, especially in the runoff production routine. The physical significance and physical definitions of some model parameters were analyzed. Both models were tested in two basins. Both models gave similar results, and both models performed well in the application. The similarity of the results obtained by different model structures leads to the following two conclusions. First, more effort should probably be spent on the improvement of input data quality and coverage than on the development of more detailed model structures only. Second, inference about basin behavior and characteristics from the values of calibrated model parameters must be made with great caution.

  • 1278.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The upwelling of nutrients in the central Skagerrak1996In: Deep-sea research. Part II, Topical studies in oceanography, ISSN 0967-0645, E-ISSN 1879-0100, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of inorganic nutrients during four expeditions to the Skagerrak, within the SKAGEX programme in 1990 and 1991, form the basis for estimation of the magnitude of potential new primary production caused by upwelling of nutrients in the central part of Skagerrak. Calculations have been made using available transport and upwelling data given in the literature together with the concentrations of nitrogenous nutrients (nitrite, nitrate and ammonia), phosphate and silicate in the lower part of the pycnocline in the upwelling area. The potential new production of organic matter due to upwelling is estimated at 6.15 x 10(6) t C year(-1) based on a vegetative period of 8 months. This corresponds to 190 gC m(-2) year(-1) if distributed over the entire Skagerrak area. A possible contribution to diatom production from the upwelling of silicate is estimated to be 2.09 x 10(6) t C year(-1), which corresponds to 64 gC m(-2) year(-1).

  • 1279.
    Mattsson, Johan
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Analysis of the exchange of salt between the Baltic and the Kattegat through the Oresund using a three-layer model1996In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 101, no C7, p. 16571-16584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shallowness of the Oresund prevents a continuous inflow of saline Kattegat water to the Baltic. Instead, the salt is exchanged largely by fluctuating barotropic transports. Buffer effects and temporal storage of low-salinity Baltic surface water complicate the exchange. The analysis of salt exchange through the Oresund requires use of a model of the stratification and baroclinically modified exchange processes. In this paper a three-layer model of the Oresund, forced by the exchange with the Kattegat and the Baltic, is formulated and calibrated. Frontal dynamics, necessary to explain the retreat of the uppermost layer, are included. The model is calibrated using genetic algorithms, which provide an efficient and robust optimization method for this kind of model. An analysis of the exchange in view of the model results is presented. The paper also gives estimates of typical mean quantities. For the analyzed period of 11 years (1977-1987) the mean salt outflow rate from the Baltic during outflows is 311,000 kg s(-1) and the mean salt inflow rate to the Baltic during inflows is 500,000 kg s(-1). The net salt outflow from the Baltic is estimated to 19,000 kg s(-1). The mean frontal speed is estimated at 0.25 m s(-1) and the typical required length of an inflow event for high-salinity Kattegat water to reach the Baltic is estimated at 4 days. Further results are also given. In addition, the baroclinic dynamics of the Oresund are discussed.

  • 1280.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Graneli, W
    Sahlsten, Elisabeth
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kuylenstierna, M
    Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the Skagerrak - Processes and plankton community structure1996In: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 35, no 1-3, p. 139-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface chlorophyll maxima are common phenomena in both the coastal and open ocean. The main objective of this study was to clarify possible differences in the structure and function of the plankton community in subsurface chlorophyll maxima and at the surface. Sampling was performed at seven stations in the Skagerrak, northeast Atlantic, during five cruises in May and August 1992 and April, May and August 1993. Subsurface chlorophyll fluorescence maxima (FM) occurred on 25 out of 32 sampling occasions. The FMs were usually situated below the pycnocline and associated with the nutricline. The ratio of chlorophyll a to particulate carbon and the light-saturated primary production were higher for plankton at the FM than at the surface, although assimilation numbers (primary production rate:chlorophyll a) were not different from surface plankton. The light protective pigment diadinoxanthin occurred in higher concentrations relative to chlorophyll a in surface plankton than in FM plankton. Respiration was higher in the FM than at the surface. This was not related to abundance of bacteria or bacterial production since no differences between surface and FM values were detected for these parameters. FM plankton was characterized by high nutrient uptake rates, but in this study there were no significant differences compared to surface plankton. 'New' production was on average 25%, but up to about 50% in the western Skagerrak in spring. The average nitrogen uptake rates were dominated by the regenerated nutrients ammonium and urea, accounting for about 50 and 25%, respectively. The <3 mu m size fraction contributed significantly to concentrations of total chlorophyll a, particulate carbon, and nitrogen as well as to nitrogen uptake. Its contribution was highest when total values were low. Microscopical investigations and analysis of pigments specific to algal groups showed that diatoms dominated in the FMs in spring and that peridinin-containing dinoflagellates dominated in FMs in August. Autotrophic nanoplankton was dominated by the Prymnesiophyceae contributing about 50% of total cell numbers. Colonies of Phaeocystis sp. were abundant along the NW Danish coast in April and May 1993, Autotrophic eukaryotic picoplankton occurred in cell numbers up to about 30 x 10(6) cells . dm(-3) along the Swedish coast. The highest cell numbers of cyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type, about 100 x 10(6) cells . dm(-3), were found in the central Skagerrak in August and the abundance of Synechococcus was correlated with nitrogen uptake in the <3 mu m size fraction.

  • 1281. Sanden, P
    et al.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Long-term trends in Secchi depth in the Baltic Sea1996In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have increased during the last century, and primary production has probably also risen. However, the evidence of such a rise is circumstantial, and most of the available findings concerning primary production cover only brief time periods. A more appropriate type of data in this area is Secchi disk measurements. We present the results of trend tests applied to Secchi depth values recorded during two discrete time periods: 1919-1939 and 1969-1991. We performed a step trend test to compare the data from the two periods and applied a monotonic trend test to the later series. Both tests showed that Secchi depth decreased by similar to 0.05 m yr(-1) during both periods. Calculations of changes in chlorophyll concentrations suggest a yearly increase of similar to 1%. Extending the calculations to represent primary production indicates an increase of slightly <1% yr(-1). These calculations, however, are unreliable due to substantial uncertainty regarding the relationships between Secchi depth and chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll and primary production.

  • 1282.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Trends in nutrient and oxygen concentrations in the Skagerrak-Kattegat1996In: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 35, no 1-3, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Skagerrak and Kattegat form a transition zone between the Baltic and the North Sea. Both areas are subject to increased nutrient loads. In this paper a non-parametric method is used to calculate the changes in nutrient and oxygen concentrations in the area. The period chosen was 1971 to 1990 and the parameters were dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus together with oxygen and oxygen saturation. Data have been sorted after salinity and the analyses have been carried out for different water masses and subareas. The results demonstrate that both surface and deep water in the Kattegat show increasing trends during winter for all nutrients except silicate. During summer there is an increase in total nitrogen and total phosphorus while silicate shows a decrease. In the Skagerrak the picture is more variable; in the eastern part, however, there is a clear increase for all inorganic nutrients during winter in the coastal water. Oxygen shows a declining trend in most areas.

  • 1283.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Alenius, P
    Brydsten, L
    Physical environment in the Gulf of Bothnia1996In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, p. 5-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gulf of Bothnia contains about 29% of the whole water volume of the Baltic Sea. The water exchange between the Baltic proper and the Gulf is good, which results in a water renewal time of about 4 to 5 yrs. The dynamics and thermodynamics of the Gulf of Bothnia are guided by hydrological, meteorological and, partly, topographical factors, such as freshwater supply, wind over sea, sun radiation, sea ice and sill depth between the sub-basins, The water mass is vertically divided into two layers with a halocline at 50 to 60 m depth. The deep water, below 60 m, mainly originates from the upper layer of the Baltic proper and has a salinity of 6-7 psu. In the surface layer, a thermocline develops each summer. This upper well-mixed layer is, on average, 15 m deep. The north to south water transport mainly occurs in this surface layer along the coasts, with a tendency to cyclonic circulation. It is, however, strongly wind-dependent and thus intermittent in time, On a long time scale, pulse-like wind events produce on average an eastbound current drift in the open sea. The river runoff causes a slow southbound current drift of diluted freshwater along the western region of the Bothnian Sea. Distribution and deposition of dissolved and particulate matter occurs with several types of transport mechanisms. Our measurements during 1991 show that in the surface water, substances can be distributed right across the Bothnian Sea in about one to two weeks, but perhaps more normally in about one month, The geographical extension of the accumulation bottoms is most often limited to areas deeper than 40 m. Transport of particulate matter can however also occur below this critical depth especially during periods of strong winds, forcing wind waves of sufficient wave length and amplitude to erode bottom particulate matter.

  • 1284.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Sanner, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Modelling influence of river regulation on runoff to the Gulf of Bothnia1996In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 337-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runoff from a land area of approximately 490,000 km(2) enters the Gulf of Bothnia. This runoff is of essential importance for the flushing of the Gulf. a change in the volume of runoff effects the residence time. There are many natural as well as man made changes in the runoff, both in the form of long-term changes over many years and those occurring within one year. The most significant man made changes come from hydropower regulation. This report describes the effect on runoff from the development of the hydropower plants in Sweden and Finland by means of comparing recorded regulated runoff and simulated natural runoff. A recent time period, 1980-91, and a time period before regulation, 1925-36, were simulated. The monthly magnitudes of the redistributed flows were found to be on average 1,700 m(3)/s. The maximum redistributed monthly flow in May - June reached 5,000-6,000 m(3)/s.

  • 1285.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Huang, S Y
    Sensitivity experiments with the spectral HIRLAM and its adjoint1996In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 501-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tangent-linear and the adjoint of the spectral High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) have been derived as a first step in the development of a 4-dimensional variational data assimilation system for HIRLAM. The adjoint of the spectral HIRLAM was applied successfully to test the sensitivity of short-range forecast errors to initial conditions. These sensitivity experiments were carried out for a particular case study in addition to a full 5-day period. The results of the sensitivity experiments indicate an ability of the adjoint model to improve the assimilation of baroclinically developing systems and this may open possibilities for application of the adjoint model in a ''Poor mans 4-dimensional variational data assimilation'' in advance of the implementation of the full 4-dimensional variational data assimilation.

  • 1286. Sjodin, A
    et al.
    Sjoberg, K
    Svanberg, P A
    Backström, Hans
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Verification of expected trends in urban traffic NOx emissions from long-term measurements of ambient NO2 concentrations in urban air1996In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 189, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from long-term measurements of ambient NO2 concentrations at roof level in 15 Swedish cities have been used to verify expected trends in urban traffic NOx emissions, resulting mainly from the growth in the number of threeway catalyst (TWC) cars in Sweden since the mid 1980s. The results show that, with few exceptions, all cities exhibit a highly significant downward trend in ambient NO2 concentration since the winter season 1986/1987, as regards both winter season averages and 98th percentiles of daily averages, with an average decrease in both cases of approximately 30% through the winter season 1993/1994. The same trend is also observed when meteorological variations between years are taken into account. Corrections for NO2 in background air yield an even stronger downward trend, or an average 40% decrease for the study period. Simultaneously, rough calculations indicate a 30% decrease in urban traffic NOx emissions during the study period. The conclusions are that, since emission calculations always involve a high degree of uncertainty, use of data from long-term measurements of NO2 concentrations in urban air can be very helpful in establishing real-world trends for urban traffic NOx emissions, as soon as NOx-levels are low enough for the NO + ozone reaction to become 'NOx-limited'.

  • 1287. Swap, R
    et al.
    Garstang, M
    Macko, S A
    Tyson, P D
    Maenhaut, W
    Artaxo, P
    Kållberg, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Talbot, R
    The long-range transport of southern African aerosols the tropical South Atlantic1996In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 101, no D19, p. 23777-23791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two episodes of long-range aerosol transport (4000 km) from southern Africa into the central tropical South Atlantic are documented. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis, multielemental analysis, and meteorological observations on local and regional scales are used to describe the observed surface aerosol chemistry during these transport episodes. The chemical, kinematic, and thermodynamic analyses suggest that for the central tropical South Atlantic, west Africa between 0 degrees and 10 degrees S is the primary air mass source region (over 50%) during austral spring. Over 70% of all air arriving in the lower and middle troposphere in the central tropical South Atlantic comes from a broad latitudinal band extending from 20 degrees S to 10 degrees N. Air coming from the east subsides and is trapped below the midlevel and trade wind inversion layers. Air from the west originates at higher levels (500 hPa) and contributes less than 30% of the air masses arriving in the central tropical South Atlantic. The source types of aerosols and precursor trace gases extend over a broad range of biomes from desert and savanna to the rain forest. During austral spring, over this broad region, processes include production from vegetation, soils, and biomass burning. The aerosol composition of air masses over and the atmospheric chemistry of the central South Atlantic is a function of the supply of biogenic, biomass burning, and aeolian emissions from tropical Africa. Rainfall is a common controlling factor for all three sources. Rain, in turn, is governed by the large-scale circulations which show pronounced interannual variability. The field measurements were taken in an extremely dry year and reflect the circulation and transport fields typical of these conditions.

  • 1288. Garstang, M
    et al.
    Tyson, P D
    Swap, R
    Edwards, M
    Kållberg, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Lindesay, J A
    Horizontal and vertical transport of air over southern Africa1996In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 101, no D19, p. 23721-23736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropospheric air trajectories that occurred during the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) in August-October 1992 are described in terms of a circulation classification scheme and the vertical stability of the atmosphere. Three major and frequently occurring stable discontinuities are found to control vertical transport of aerosols in the subtropical atmosphere at the end of the dry season. Of these, the main subsidence-induced feature is a spatially ubiquitous and temporally persistent absolutely stable layer at an altitude of about 5 km (3.5 km above the interior plateau elevation). This effective obstacle to vertical mixing is observed to persist without break for up to 40 days. Below this feature an absolutely stable layer at 3 km (1.5 km above the surface) prevails on and off at the top of the surface mixing layer for up to 7 days at a time, being broken by the passage of regularly occurring westerly wave disturbances. Above the middle-level discontinuity a further absolutely stable layer is frequently discerned at an altitude of about 8 km. It is shown that five basic modes can be used to describe horizontal aerosol transportation fields over southern Africa. Dominating these is the anticyclone mode which results in frequent recirculation at spatial scales varying from hundreds to thousands of kilometers. In exiting the anticyclonic circulation, transport on the northern periphery of the system is to the west over the Atlantic Ocean via a semistationary easterly wave over the western part of the subcontinent. On the southern periphery, wave perturbations in the westerly enhance transports which exit the subcontinent to the east into the Indian Ocean. Independently derived data suggest that during SAFARI only 4% of the total transport of air from three locations south of 18 degrees 8 was into the Atlantic Ocean. Over 90% of the transport was into the Indian Ocean across 35 degrees E. This result reflects circulation fields typical of the extremely dry conditions prevailing in 1992. The integrated effect of the control exerted by atmospheric stability on vertical mixing, on the one hand, and the nature of the horizontal circulation fields, on the other, is to produce a distinctive suite of transport patterns that go a long way to explain the observed high concentrations of tropospheric aerosols and trace gases observed over the subcontinent in winter and spring, as well as over the tropical South Atlantic and southwestern Indian Oceans.

  • 1289.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Validation of modelled cloudiness using satellite-estimated cloud climatologies1996In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 767-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to evaluate forecasts of total fractional cloud cover using satellite measurements is demonstrated. Cloud analyses in the form of monthly cloud climatologies are extracted from NOAA. AVHRR data which are compared to corresponding cloud forecast information from the HIRLAM and ECMWF numerical weather prediction models. The satellite-based cloud information is extracted for a summer month in 1994 and a winter month in 1995 by use of the SMHI cloud classification model SCANDIA. Cloud analyses are conducted for an area covering a substantial part of northern Europe. Deficiencies in forecasted cloud amounts are found for both models, especially the underestimation of cloudiness for short forecast lengths with the HIRLAM model. Forecast improvements using the HIRLAM model are indicated when introducing a cloud initialisation technique using cloud fields from initial 6-hour forecasts (first-guess fields). Future systematic validations using this technique are, however, needed to make firm conclusions on the general model behaviour. SCANDIA-derived cloud information is proposed as a valuable complement to other datasets used for cloud forecast validation (e.g., the SSM/I- and ISCCP data sets).

  • 1290. Tyson, P D
    et al.
    Garstang, M
    Swap, R
    Kållberg, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Edwards, M
    An air transport climatology for subtropical southern Africa1996In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 265-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An air transport climatology is derived for subtropical southern Africa (Africa south of 15 degrees S) by classifying daily synoptic situations into predominant circulation types. The annual variation of these provides the basis for determining month-by-month transport. Percentage zonal transport in easterly and westerly directions, levels of transport, and times of transit are derived from forward trajectory analyses using European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data for a 7-year period. It is shown that semi-permanent subtropical continental anticyclones, transient mid-latitude ridging anticyclones and midlatitude westerly disturbances produce major transport into the south-western Indian Ocean in the Natal plume. Only quasistationary tropical easterly waves result in appreciable transport into the tropical South Atlantic Ocean in the Angolan plume. Total transport is a function of circulation type and frequency, as well as plume dimensions. Transport in continental highs follows an annual cycle reaching peak values in excess of 70 per cent in winter. That in easterly waves also exhibits an annual cycle, but one peaking in summer, when up to 55 per cent transport may occur in north-western regions. Transport in ridging highs and westerly perturbations is much less and occurs throughout the year, with a slight tendency to peak in spring. Recirculation of air is shown to be considerable when anticyclonic conditions prevail. Monthly, seasonal, and annual mass fluxes over and out of southern Africa are determined from transport fields, frequency of occurrence of circulation types and from measurements of aerosol concentrations. An annual mass flux of aerosols some 134 Mtons is generated over the subcontinent. About 60 Mtons year(-1) are deposited, and approximately 29 Mtons year(-1) are exported westward over the Atlantic Ocean and 45 Mtons year(-1) eastward over the Indian Ocean. Twenty-six million tons of the 74 Mtons of aerosols exported annually to the adjacent oceans on each coast are a product of recirculation. Deposition within 10 degrees latitude of the coast is nearly 10 times greater on the east than on the west coast.

  • 1291.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    McDonald, A
    A comparison of the HIRLAM gridpoint and spectral semi-Lagrangian models1996In: Monthly Weather Review, ISSN 0027-0644, E-ISSN 1520-0493, Vol. 124, no 9, p. 2008-2022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of two semi-Lagrangian limited area models, one spectral, and the other grid point, is described. Forecasts from both models are compared and contrasted, first on a 55-km horizontal mesh and subsequently an a 22-km horizontal mesh. The weaknesses in the respective models exposed by these tests, and the corrections made to overcome them are described. The final models arrived at are shown to be accurate and more efficient than the Eulerian counterpart for the test dataset. It is also found that the spectral model is as accurate as the gridpoint model and is also computationally competitive. It is concluded that with sufficient thought and effort the gridpoint and spectral models can be made to produce equally good forecasts at comparable computer costs. Finally. a reassessment of the relative merits and drawbacks of the spectral and gridpoint schemes is attempted taking into account the fact that the advection terms are integrated by the semi-Lagrangian scheme.

  • 1292. MACDONALD, RW
    et al.
    PATON, DW
    CARMACK, EC
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    THE FRESH-WATER BUDGET AND UNDER-ICE SPREADING OF MACKENZIE RIVER WATER IN THE CANADIAN BEAUFORT SEA BASED ON SALINITY AND O-18/O-16 MEASUREMENTS IN WATER AND ICE1995In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 100, no C1, p. 895-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of salinity and oxygen isotope composition (delta(18)O) were made for the Beaufort shelf-Mackenzie estuary waters in September 1990, just prior to ice formation, and for both the water column and ice in April-May 1991, at the end of winter. These measurements are used to determine the apportioning of fresh water in the estuary between its two main sources, runoff and sea ice melt. Changes in disposition of water between seasons and amounts frozen into the growing ice sheet are also derived. Two domains are considered in order to construct a freshwater budget for the Mackenzie shelf, the nearshore within which landfast ice grows in winter and the outer shelf. Most of the winter inflow from the Mackenzie River appears to remain impounded as liquid under the ice within the landfast zone at the end of winter, and about 15% of it is incorporated into the landfast ice. Oxygen isotopes (delta(18)O) in ice cores collected from across the shelf record the progress beneath the ice of new Mackenzie inflow as it invades the nearshore throughout winter. Rates of spreading are about 0.2 cm s(-1) away from the coast and 1.3 cm s(-1) along the coast. As this inflow spreads across the shelf, it progressively shuts off convection driven by brine production at locations within the landfast ice. Salinity and delta(18)O in the offshore water column suggest that about 3 m of sea ice was for:med in the outer shelf domain. Since both brine and newly formed sea ice can be advected off the shelf, a complete budget for brine or sea ice production cannot be established without first measuring the advection of one of these two components.

  • 1293. KAHRU, M
    et al.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    RUD, O
    DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE FRONTS IN THE BALTIC SEA AS DERIVED FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY1995In: Continental Shelf Research, ISSN 0278-4343, E-ISSN 1873-6955, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 663-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 9-month time series of satellite infrared imagery was used to examine the sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the northern and central Baltic Sea. Objective multi-level edge detection techniques were applied to find sharp SST gradient areas known as fronts. The spatial distribution of frontal frequency was calculated over time periods from a few days to 9 months covering different thermal and wind conditions. The 9-month average frequency that a front is detected in a pixel of 1.1 x 1.1 km is up to 10% in certain areas whereas the median is around 2%. Large scale fronts are aligned to the coast and isobaths, and occur predominantly in areas of straight and uniformly sloping bottom topography. The major frontal areas are along the eastern coast of the Bothnian Sea and along the north-western coast of the Gulf of Finland. Low large-scale frontal frequency is characteristic to areas with highly structured bottom topography. The major mechanism of front generation is coastal upwelling, being complemented by coastal jets, eddies, differential heating and cooling, and water exchange between basins with different water characteristics. Filaments (''squirts'') originating from upwelling areas are shown to be an important mechanism for transporting water and substances over long distances.

  • 1294.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department.
    Tobiason, S
    Nitrogen removal from pretreated wastewater in surface flow wetlands1995In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wastewater treatment plant in the town of Oxelosund (12,500 inhabitants), Sweden, has mechanical and chemical treatment for removal of BOD and phosphorus. With the aim to achieve 50% nitrogen removal, a surface flow wetland system of 21 ha was created as a final step during 1993. It consists of 5 cells, where 2+2 are operated in parallel with a final common cell, This allows intermittent filling and emptying, the goal of which is to promote both nitrification and denitrification for a design flow of 6000 m(3) day(-1). During the first year of operation, August 1993 to July 1994, the wetland removed 720 kg ha(-1) of total nitrogen from the load of 1810 kg ha(-1). Ammonium-N was the dominant fraction at the inlet as well as at the outlet, 79% and 90% of total nitrogen, respectively. The large fraction of NH4+ at the outlet showed that nitrification was the limiting step. An intensive monitoring effort in May 1994 indicated that neither wastewater toxicity nor oxygen deficiency were likely to limit nitrification. Instead, sub-optimal hydraulic loading conditions; a lack of suitable surfaces for ion exchange of NH4+ as well as for attachment of nitrifiers; and phosphorus deficiency, were considered potentially important factors in limiting nitrification. In addition to nitrogen removal, the wetland system reduced total phosphorus, BOD7 and E. coli (44 degrees C) to very low levels at the outlet.

  • 1295.
    Rahm, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    LARSSON, P
    FOGELQVIST, E
    BREMLE, G
    Valderaama, Jorge
    SMHI.
    NUTRIENT AND PERSISTENT POLLUTANT DEPOSITION ON THE BOTHNIAN BAY ICE AND SNOW FIELDS1995In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 84, no 1-2, p. 187-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of atmospheric deposited nutrients and some persistent pollutants has been carried out on the ice and snow fields of the subarctic Bothnian Bay, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. Total amounts of 600, 500 and 400 tons NO3-N, NH4-N and N-org-N, respectively are deposited in the snow while the corresponding amounts for P-tot-P is 40 tons. The corresponding amount for PCB and lindane are 1.0 and 0.2 kg, respectively. The measurements were carried out on the snow-covered ice four to six weeks old. A part of the deposited snow has been incorporated into the snow-ice and an attempt to estimate its mean thickness and its amount of nutrients has been made. The total amounts now reach 1700, 1300 and 1100 tons of NO3-N and NH4-N and N-org-N, respectively in the snow and ice together. The results obtained support the use of land-based stations in estimates of seasonal atmospheric nutrient deposition to the Bothnian Bay. The observed concentrations of chloroorganic compounds correspond to those land-based observations reported from the same latitude in the northern hemisphere and reported in literature.

  • 1296.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Moberg, Mats
    SMHI.
    Thompson, Thomas
    SMHI.
    REAL-TIME USE OF ERS-1 SAR IMAGERY FOR ICE SERVICE AND ICEBREAKING OPERATIONS IN THE BALTIC SEA1995In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 16, no 17, p. 3441-3458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea ice forms every winter in the Baltic Sea and several icebreakers in Sweden and Finland keep the major ports in the area open for sea-trade all the year around. Information and forecasts of the sea ice formation, drift and deformation are vital for safe and efficient winter navigation. In this respect, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is of great interest, since this technique is almost cloud independent and has potential for real-time ice mapping. The usefulness of SAR imagery for sea ice operations has been evaluated in the Baltic Sea. The imagery was used both for ice mapping, for icebreaker operations and ship routeing. Images presented onboard the icebreakers were highly appreciated and easily interpreted by the crew. The data were frequently used for ship routeing (33 per cent) of merchant vessels and for direct icebreaker assistance (53 per cent). It was concluded by several icebreaker masters that an image resolution of about 100 m was indeed enough to distinguish ridged areas and in the same time obtain a large enough geographical coverage per image.

  • 1297.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    ESTIMATION OF CLOUDINESS AT HIGH-LATITUDES FROM MULTISPECTRAL SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS1995In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clouds play an important role in the climate system, and strongly modify radiation conditions in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface. Present estimations show that the net impact of clouds in the atmosphere results in a cooling several times larger than the expected warming that would result from a doubling of the CO2-concentration in the atmosphere. Regional and global monitoring of cloud conditions is therefore necessary for studying the role of clouds in possible climate feedback mechanisms. This paper presents a method to estimate cloud conditions (cloud cover) in the Nordic region, from multispectral satellite data. A cloud classification scheme, based on high-resolution imagery data from polar orbiting NOAA-satellites, was used to produce monthly cloud frequencies for the summer of 1993. Comparisons with existing surface observations have shown very good agreement. Cloud conditions are shown to be highly sensitive to characteristics of the earth's surface. Large differences between land and sea areas were found, especially in the beginning of summer. Cloud frequencies were significantly lower over the Baltic Sea compared to surrounding land areas. Mountainous areas showed, on the contrary, much higher cloud frequencies than surrounding areas.

  • 1298. Wolters, L
    et al.
    Cats, G
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Wilhelmsson, T
    Data-parallel numerical methods in a weather forecast model1995In: Applied Numerical Mathematics, ISSN 0168-9274, E-ISSN 1873-5460, Vol. 19, no 1-2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results presented in this paper are part of a research project to investigate the possibilities to apply massively parallel architectures for numerical weather forecasting. Within numerical weather forecasting several numerical techniques are used to solve the model equations. This paper compares the performance of implementations on a MasPar system of two techniques, finite difference and spectral, that are adopted in the numerical weather forecasting model HIRLAM. The operational HIRLAM model is based on finite difference methods, while the spectral model is still in a research phase. Also the differences in relative performance of these methods on the MasPar and vector architectures will be discussed.

  • 1299.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Concentration and deposition of acidifying air pollutants over Sweden: Estimates for 1991 based on the match model and observations1995In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 2021-2026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MATCH (Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry) model has been developed as a tool for air pollution assessment studies on different geographical scales. MATCH is an Eulerian atmospheric dispersion model, including physical and chemical processes governing sources, atmospheric transport and sinks of oxidized sulfur and oxidized and reduced nitrogen. Using a combination of air and precipitation chemistry measurements and the MATCH model, the national and long-range transport contributions to air pollution and deposition can be quantified in the model region. The calculations for the year 1991 show that the Swedish import was about 4.5 times larger than the export for sulfur and about six times larger for reduced nitrogen, while the Swedish import of oxidized nitrogen only exceeded the export by 10%. Using the MATCH system we estimate the long-range transport in an independent way compared to EMEP. Comparison between the EMEP and MATCH calculations for 1991 show that the total deposition of oxidized nitrogen over Sweden is similar, while the EMEP-values for total deposition of oxidized sulfur and reduced nitrogen are 25% respectively 40% smaller than what is obtained from MATCH.

  • 1300. HAUGEN, JE
    et al.
    MACHENHAUER, B
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    A Spectrial Limited-Area Formulation with Time-Dependent Boundary-Conditions Applied to the Shallow-Water Equations - Reply1995In: Monthly Weather Review, ISSN 0027-0644, E-ISSN 1520-0493, Vol. 123, no 10, p. 3124-3124Article in journal (Refereed)
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