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  • 101.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Gustafson, Arne
    SIMULATION OF RUNOFF AND NITROGEN LEACHING FROM 2 FIELDS IN SOUTHERN SWEDEN1987Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 191-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 102.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hydrology of the Baltic Basin: Inflow of fresh water from rivers and land for the period 1950–19901993Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A data base of monthly inflow of fresh water from rivers and land to the Baltic Sea and its subbasins is created. The data base covers the period 1950 - 1990 and is based on observations from the national hydrological services of the surrounding countries.

    The main features of the data base are presented including river flow of selected rivers and total inflow to the Baltic Sea and its subbasins. Long term, seasonal and short term variabilities are analysed and the effects of hydropower development are identified. An earlier data base by Mikulski (1982) is used for comparison and extension of the record to cover the period 1921 - 1990.

    It is concluded that the variability of inflow is great and that the decade 1981 - 1990 is the wettest in 70 years. The increase in runoff is mainly due to increasing river flow during the cold seasons. The effects of hydropower development are noticeable in the records for the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea.

  • 103.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    RIVER RUNOFF TO THE BALTIC SEA - 1950-19901994Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 23, nr 4-5, s. 280-287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A database of monthly inflow of fresh water from rivers and land to the Baltic Sea and its subbasins is created. The database covers the period 1950-1990 and is based on observations from the national hydrological services of the surrounding countries. The main features of the database are presented including river flow of selected rivers and total inflow to the Baltic Sea and its subbasins. Long term, seasonal and short-term variabilities are analyzed and the effects of hydropower development are identified. An earlier database by Mikulski is used for comparison and extension of the record to cover the period 1921-1990. It is concluded that the variability of inflow is great and that the decade 1981-1990 was the wettest in 70 years. Wet years are also found in the 1920s. The increase in runoff is mainly due to increasing river flow during the cold seasons. The effects of hydropower development are noticeable in the records for the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea.

  • 104.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pettersson, Anna
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Rummukainen, Markku
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Climate change impacts on runoff in Sweden - assessments by global climate models, dynamical downscaling and hydrological modelling2001Ingår i: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 101-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish regional climate modelling programme, SWECLIM, started in 1997 with the main goal being to produce regional climate change scenarios over the Nordic area on a time scale of 50 to 100 yr. An additional goal is to produce water resources scenarios with a focus on hydropower production, dam safety, water supply and environmental aspects of water resources. The scenarios are produced by a combination of global climate models (GCMs), regional climate models and hydrological runoff models. The GCM simulations used thus far are 10 yr time slices from 2 different GCMs, UKMO HadCM2 from the Hadley Centre and the ECHAM4/OPYC3 of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The regional climate model is a modified version of the international HIRLAM forecast model and the hydrological model is the HBV model developed at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Scenarios of river runoff have been simulated for 6 selected basins covering the major climate regions in Sweden. Changes in runoff totals, runoff regimes and extreme values have been analysed with a focus on the uncertainties introduced by the choice of GCM and routines for estimation of evapotranspiration in the hydrological model. It is further shown how these choices affect the statistical return periods of future extremes in a design situation.

  • 105.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Ehlin, Ulf
    SMHI.
    Olsson, Per-Eric
    VASO.
    Riktlinjer och praxis vid dimensionering av utskov och dammar i USA: Rapport från en studieresa i oktober 19851986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under oktober månad 1985 företog vi en studieresa i USA på uppdrag av Flödeskommittén. Avsikten var att inhämta upplysningar om de riktlinjer, som tillämpas i USA för bestämning av dimensionerade flöden för utskov vid kraftverk och regleringsdammar. Inte minst viktigt var att genom personliga samtal med meteorologer, hydrologer och tekniker få ett grepp om metodernas fördelar och svagheter samt vilka subjektiva bedömningar, som påverkar beräkningsresultaten. Vi kom även att diskutera frågor om hydrologiska prognoser och datainsamlingssystem. 

  • 106.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Abstract to "On the scale problem in hydrological modelling" [Journal of Hydrology 211 (1998) 253-265]1999Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 217, nr 3-4, s. 284-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 107.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    On the scale problem in hydrological modelling1998Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 211, nr 1-4, s. 253-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of scales and particularly the modelling of macro or continental scale catchments in hydrology is addressed. It is concluded that the magnitude of the scale problem is related to the specific hydrologic problem to be solved and to the scientific approach and perspective of the modeller. A distributed modelling approach, based on variability parameters, is suggested for modelling of soil moisture dynamics and runoff generation. It is shown that the parameters of such an approach are relatively stable over a wide range of scales. An example of the application of a standard Version of the Swedish HBV hydrological model to the continental scale catchment of the Baltic Sea is shown and its usefulness is discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 108.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Harlin, Joakim
    SMHI.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    SPILLWAY DESIGN FLOODS IN SWEDEN .1. NEW GUIDELINES1992Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 505-519Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish guidelines for the estimation of design floods for dams and spillways are presented, with emphasis on high-hazard dams. The method is based on a set of regional design precipitation sequences, rescaled for basin area, season and elevation above sea level, and a full hydrological model. A reservoir operation strategy is also a fundamental component of the guidelines. The most critical combination of flood generating factors is searched by systematically inserting the design precipitation sequence into a ten year climatological record, where the initial snowpack has been replaced by a statistical 30-year snowpack. The new guidelines are applicable to single reservoir systems as well as more complex hydroelectric schemes, and cover snowmelt floods, rain floods and combinations of the two. In order to study the probabilities of the computed floods and to avoid regional inconsistencies, extensive comparisons with observed floods and frequency analyses have been carried out.

  • 109.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Interpretation of runoff processes in hydrological modelling experience from the HBV approach2015Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, nr 16, s. 3535-3545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of development and application of the Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavdelning hydrological model over a time period of more than 40years is reviewed and discussed. Emphasis is on the early modelling strategy and physical considerations based on contemporary research on runoff formation processes in the drainage basin. This includes areal considerations on the catchment scale, soil moisture and evapotranspiration and storages and discharge as represented by the response function of the model. The introduction of the concept of dynamic recharge and discharge areas is also addressed as well as the modelling of snow accumulation and melt. Some operational international experiences are also addressed. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 110.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pettersson, Anna
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Multi-variable parameter estimation to increase confidence in hydrological modelling2002Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 413-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The expanding use and increased complexity of hydrological runoff models has given rise to a concern about overparameterization and risks for compensating errors. One proposed way out is the calibration and validation against additional observations, such as snow, soil moisture, groundwater or water quality. A general problem, however, when calibrating the model against more than one variable is the strategy for parameter estimation. The most straightforward method is to calibrate the model components sequentially. Recent results show that in this way the model may be locked up in a parameter setting, which is good enough for one variable but excludes proper simulation of other variables. This is particularly the case for water quality modelling, where a small compromise in terms of runoff simulation may lead to dramatically better simulations of water quality. This calls for an integrated model calibration procedure with a criterion that integrates more aspects on model performance than just river runoff. The use of multi-variable parameter estimation and internal control of the HBV hydrological model is discussed and highlighted by two case studies. The first example is from a forested basin in northern Sweden and the second one is from an agricultural basin in the south of the country. A new calibration strategy, which is integrated rather than sequential, is proposed and tested. It is concluded that comparison of model results with more measurements than only runoff can lead to increased confidence in the physical relevance of the model, and that the new calibration strategy can be useful for further model development. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

  • 111.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Sandén, Per
    SMHI.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Analysis of climate-induced hydrochemical variations in till aquifers1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of the relations between climatological factors and short term variabilityin groundwater storage and hydrochemistry in till aquifers is performed. The analysis isbased on a simple empirical hydrological model, the PULSE model, and groundwaterrecords from four sites in Sweden.The model proved to be capable of describing the dynamics of groundwater levels ordischarge, and at one of the sites it was possible to describe hydrochemical variations aswell. The application to the remaining three sites illustrated that groundwater chemistryshows a much more complex pattem of variations than does corresponding streamflowin this type of basin. The importance of areal variabilities within the recharge area isdiscussed and illustrated by a distribution of the model into two submodels when applyingit to one of the basins.

  • 112. Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Beven, Keith
    Destouni, Georgia
    Abrahamsson, Katarina
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Johnson, Richard K.
    Rodhe, Johan
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Nature as the "Natural" Goal for Water Management: A Conversation2009Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 209-214Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals for water-quality and ecosystem integrity are often defined relative to "natural" reference conditions in many water-management systems, including the European Union Water Framework Directive. This paper examines the difficulties created for water management by using "natural" as the goal. These difficulties are articulated from different perspectives in an informal (fictional) conversation that takes place after a workshop on reference conditions in water-resources management. The difficulties include defining the natural state and modeling how a system might be progressed toward the natural, as well as the feasibility and desirability of restoring a natural state. The paper also considers the appropriateness for developing countries to adopt the use of natural as the goal for water management. We conclude that failure to critically examine the complexities of having "natural" as the goal will compromise the ability to manage the issues that arise in real basins by not making the ambiguities associated with this "natural" goal explicit. This is unfortunate both for the western world that has embraced this model of "natural as the goal" and for the developing world in so far as they are encouraged to adopt this model.

  • 113. Bjork, Goran
    et al.
    Nordberg, Kjell
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Bornmalm, Lennart
    Harland, Rex
    Robijn, Ardo
    Odalen, Malin
    Seasonal oxygen depletion in a shallow sill fjord on the Swedish west coast2017Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 175, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 114. Bjork, Goran
    et al.
    Stranne, Christian
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    The Sensitivity of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Thickness and Its Dependence on the Surface Albedo Parameterization2013Ingår i: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 1355-1370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the response of sea ice thickness to changes in the external forcing is investigated and particularly how this response depends on the surface albedo formulation by means of a one-dimensional coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere model. The main focus is on the thickness response to the atmospheric heat advection F-wall, solar radiation F-SW, and amount of snow precipitation S-prec. Different albedo parameterization schemes [ECHAM5, CSIRO, and Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3)] representing albedos commonly used in global climate models are compared together with more simplified schemes. Using different albedo schemes with the same external forcing produces large differences in ice thickness. The ice thickness response is similar for all realistic albedo schemes with a nearly linear decrease with increasing F-wall in the perennial ice regime and with a steplike transition into seasonal ice when F-wall exceeds a certain threshold. This transition occurs at an annual-mean ice thickness of 1.7-2.0 m. Latitudinal differences in solar insolation generally leads to increasing ice thickness toward the North Pole. The snow response varies significantly depending on which albedo scheme is used. The ECHAM5 scheme yields thinner ice with S-prec, the CSIRO scheme gives ice thickness nearly independent of S-prec, and with the CCSM3 scheme the ice thickness decreases with S-prec. A general result is that the modeled ice cover is rather sensitive to positive perturbations of the external heat supply when it is close to the transition such that just a small increase of, for example, F-wall can force the ice cover into the seasonal regime.

  • 115. Blauw, A. N.
    et al.
    Anderson, P.
    SMHI.
    Estrada, M.
    Johansen, M.
    Laanemets, J.
    Peperzak, L.
    Purdie, D.
    Raine, R.
    Vahtera, E.
    The use of fuzzy logic for data analysis and modelling of European harmful algal blooms: results of the HABES project2006Ingår i: African Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1814-232X, E-ISSN 1814-2338, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 365-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuzzy logic was applied to model blooms of Nodularia spumigena, Dinophysis spp., Alexandrium minutum, Karenia mikimotoi and Phaeocystis globosa at various European sites as part of the Harmful Algal Blooms Expert System (HABES) project. This modelling approach was useful in performing integrated analyses of interacting physical and biological factors involved in HABs. A basic knowledge of HAB formation and sufficient data are a prerequisite for successful bloom prediction.

  • 116. Bloeschl, Guenter
    et al.
    Hall, Julia
    Parajka, Juraj
    Perdigao, Rui A. P.
    Merz, Bruno
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Aronica, Giuseppe T.
    Bilibashi, Ardian
    Bonacci, Ognjen
    Borga, Marco
    Canjevac, Ivan
    Castellarin, Attilio
    Chirico, Giovanni B.
    Claps, Pierluigi
    Fiala, Kayroly
    Frolova, Natalia
    Gorbachova, Liudmyla
    Gul, Ali
    Hannaford, Jamie
    Harrigan, Shaun
    Kireeva, Maria
    Kiss, Andrea
    Kjeldsen, Thomas R.
    Kohnova, Silvia
    Koskela, Jarkko J.
    Ledvinka, Ondrej
    Macdonald, Neil
    Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria
    Mediero, Luis
    Merz, Ralf
    Molnar, Peter
    Montanari, Alberto
    Murphy, Conor
    Osuch, Marzena
    Ovcharuk, Valeryia
    Radevski, Ivan
    Rogger, Magdalena
    Salinas, Jose L.
    Sauquet, Eric
    Sraj, Mojca
    Szolgay, Jan
    Viglione, Alberto
    Volpi, Elena
    Wilson, Donna
    Zaimi, Klodian
    Zivkovic, Nenad
    Changing climate shifts timing of European floods2017Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 357, nr 6351, s. 588-590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 117. Bloeschl, Guenter
    et al.
    Hall, Julia
    Viglione, Alberto
    Perdigao, Rui A. P.
    Parajka, Juraj
    Merz, Bruno
    Lun, David
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Aronica, Giuseppe T.
    Bilibashi, Ardian
    Bohac, Milon
    Bonacci, Ognjen
    Borga, Marco
    Canjevac, Ivan
    Castellarin, Attilio
    Chirico, Giovanni B.
    Claps, Pierluigi
    Frolova, Natalia
    Ganora, Daniele
    Gorbachova, Liudmyla
    Gul, Ali
    Hannaford, Jamie
    Harrigan, Shaun
    Kireeva, Maria
    Kiss, Andrea
    Kjeldsen, Thomas R.
    Kohnova, Silvia
    Koskela, Jarkko J.
    Ledvinka, Ondrej
    Macdonald, Neil
    Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria
    Mediero, Luis
    Merz, Ralf
    Molnar, Peter
    Montanari, Alberto
    Murphy, Conor
    Osuch, Marzena
    Ovcharuk, Valeryia
    Radevski, Ivan
    Salinas, Jose L.
    Sauquet, Eric
    Sraj, Mojca
    Szolgay, Jan
    Volpi, Elena
    Wilson, Donna
    Zaimi, Klodian
    Zivkovic, Nenad
    Changing climate both increases and decreases European river floods2019Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 573, nr 7772, s. 108-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has led to concerns about increasing river floods resulting from the greater water-holding capacity of a warmer atmosphere(1). These concerns are reinforced by evidence of increasing economic losses associated with flooding in many parts of the world, including Europe(2). Any changes in river floods would have lasting implications for the design of flood protection measures and flood risk zoning. However, existing studies have been unable to identify a consistent continental-scale climatic-change signal in flood discharge observations in Europe(3), because of the limited spatial coverage and number of hydrometric stations. Here we demonstrate clear regional patterns of both increases and decreases in observed river flood discharges in the past five decades in Europe, which are manifestations of a changing climate. Our results-arising from the most complete database of European flooding so far-suggest that: increasing autumn and winter rainfall has resulted in increasing floods in northwestern Europe; decreasing precipitation and increasing evaporation have led to decreasing floods in medium and large catchments in southern Europe; and decreasing snow cover and snowmelt, resulting from warmer temperatures, have led to decreasing floods in eastern Europe. Regional flood discharge trends in Europe range from an increase of about 11 per cent per decade to a decrease of 23 per cent. Notwithstanding the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the observational record, the flood changes identified here are broadly consistent with climate model projections for the next century(4,5), suggesting that climate-driven changes are already happening and supporting calls for the consideration of climate change in flood risk management.

  • 118. Bloeschl, Gunter
    et al.
    Bierkens, Marc F. P.
    Chambel, Antonio
    Cudennec, Christophe
    Destouni, Georgia
    Fiori, Aldo
    Kirchner, James W.
    McDonnell, Jeffrey J.
    Savenije, Hubert H. G.
    Sivapalan, Murugesu
    Stumpp, Christine
    Toth, Elena
    Volpi, Elena
    Carr, Gemma
    Lupton, Claire
    Salinas, Jose
    Szeles, Borbala
    Viglione, Alberto
    Aksoy, Hafzullah
    Allen, Scott T.
    Amin, Anam
    Andreassian, Vazken
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Aryal, Santosh K.
    Baker, Victor
    Bardsley, Earl
    Barendrecht, Marlies H.
    Bartosova, Alena
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Batelaan, Okke
    Berghuijs, Wouter R.
    Beven, Keith
    Blume, Theresa
    Bogaard, Thom
    de Amorim, Pablo Borges
    Boettcher, Michael E.
    Boulet, Gilles
    Breinl, Korbinian
    Brilly, Mitja
    Brocca, Luca
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Castellarin, Attilio
    Castelletti, Andrea
    Chen, Xiaohong
    Chen, Yangbo
    Chen, Yuanfang
    Chifflard, Peter
    Claps, Pierluigi
    Clark, Martyn P.
    Collins, Adrian L.
    Croke, Barry
    Dathe, Annette
    David, Paula C.
    de Barros, Felipe P. J.
    de Rooij, Gerrit
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Driscoll, Jessica M.
    Duethmann, Doris
    Dwivedi, Ravindra
    Eris, Ebru
    Farmer, William H.
    Feiccabrino, James
    Ferguson, Grant
    Ferrari, Ennio
    Ferraris, Stefano
    Fersch, Benjamin
    Finger, David
    Foglia, Laura
    Fowler, Keirnan
    Gartsman, Boris
    Gascoin, Simon
    Gaume, Eric
    Gelfan, Alexander
    Geris, Josie
    Gharari, Shervan
    Gleeson, Tom
    Glendell, Miriam
    Bevacqua, Alena Gonzalez
    Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria P.
    Grimaldi, Salvatore
    Gupta, A. B.
    Guse, Bjoern
    Han, Dawei
    Hannah, David
    Harpold, Adrian
    Haun, Stefan
    Heal, Kate
    Helfricht, Kay
    Herrnegger, Mathew
    Hipsey, Matthew
    Hlavacikova, Hana
    Hohmann, Clara
    Holko, Ladislav
    Hopkinson, Christopher
    Hrachowitz, Markus
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Inam, Azhar
    Innocente, Camyla
    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan
    Jarihani, Ben
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Kalvans, Andis
    Khanal, Sonu
    Khatami, Sina
    Kiesel, Jens
    Kirkby, Mike
    Knoben, Wouter
    Kochanek, Krzysztof
    Kohnova, Silvia
    Kolechkina, Alla
    Krause, Stefan
    Kreamer, David
    Kreibich, Heidi
    Kunstmann, Harald
    Lange, Holger
    Liberato, Margarida L. R.
    Lindquist, Eric
    Link, Timothy
    Liu, Junguo
    Loucks, Daniel Peter
    Luce, Charles
    Mahe, Gil
    Makarieva, Olga
    Malard, Julien
    Mashtayeva, Shamshagul
    Maskey, Shreedhar
    Mas-Pla, Josep
    Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria
    Mazzoleni, Maurizio
    Mernild, Sebastian
    Misstear, Bruce Dudley
    Montanari, Alberto
    Mueller-Thomy, Hannes
    Nabizadeh, Alireza
    Nardi, Fernando
    Neale, Christopher
    Nesterova, Nataliia
    Nurtaev, Bakhram
    Odongo, Vincent O.
    Panda, Subhabrata
    Pande, Saket
    Pang, Zhonghe
    Papacharalampous, Georgia
    Perrin, Charles
    Pfister, Laurent
    Pimentel, Rafael
    Polo, Maria J.
    Post, David
    Sierra, Cristina Prieto
    Ramos, Maria-Helena
    Renner, Maik
    Reynolds, Jose Eduardo
    Ridolfi, Elena
    Rigon, Riccardo
    Riva, Monica
    Robertson, David E.
    Rosso, Renzo
    Roy, Tirthankar
    Sa, Joao H. M.
    Salvadori, Gianfausto
    Sandells, Mel
    Schaefli, Bettina
    Schumann, Andreas
    Scolobig, Anna
    Seibert, Jan
    Servat, Eric
    Shafiei, Mojtaba
    Sharma, Ashish
    Sidibe, Moussa
    Sidle, Roy C.
    Skaugen, Thomas
    Smith, Hugh
    Spiessl, Sabine M.
    Stein, Lina
    Steinsland, Ingelin
    Strasser, Ulrich
    Su, Bob
    Szolgay, Jan
    Tarboton, David
    Tauro, Flavia
    Thirel, Guillaume
    Tian, Fuqiang
    Tong, Rui
    Tussupova, Kamshat
    Tyralis, Hristos
    Uijlenhoet, Remko
    van Beek, Rens
    van der Ent, Ruud J.
    van der Ploeg, Martine
    Van Loon, Anne F.
    van Meerveld, Ilja
    van Nooijen, Ronald
    van Oel, Pieter R.
    Vidal, Jean-Philippe
    von Freyberg, Jana
    Vorogushyn, Sergiy
    Wachniew, Przemyslaw
    Wade, Andrew J.
    Ward, Philip
    Westerberg, Ida K.
    White, Christopher
    Wood, Eric F.
    Woods, Ross
    Xu, Zongxue
    Yilmaz, Koray K.
    Zhang, Yongqiang
    Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH) - a community perspective2019Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 64, nr 10, s. 1141-1158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 119. Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Dekhla, Isabelle
    Schöld, Sofie
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Svensson, Ola
    Amorim, M. Clara P.
    Continuous but not intermittent noise has a negative impact on mating success in a marine fish with paternal care2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 5494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 120. Boergel, Florian
    et al.
    Frauen, Claudia
    Neumann, Thomas
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on Baltic Sea Variability2018Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, nr 18, s. 9880-9888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 121.
    Borenäs, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Hietala, R.
    Laanearu, J.
    Lundberg, P.
    Some estimates of the Baltic deep-water transport through the Stolpe trench2007Ingår i: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 238-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsurface flow of high-saline water masses from the Bornholm Basin through the Stolpe Channel plays an important role for the renewal of the Baltic Central Basin deep waters. In order to determine whether rotating 11/2-layer hydraulic theory is an appropriate tool for describing this process, maximal-transport estimates based on climatological data from the Bornholm and Gdansk Basins have been established. These were found to deviate considerably from observational realities, and hence similar hydraulic considerations were also applied to more-or-less synoptic field data from a Finnish field campaign carried through in the mid-1980s. Also in this case significant differences were found between calculated transport capacity and observations. Since it furthermore was demonstrated that the characteristics of the observed cross-channel hydrographic structure could be explained using a frictional-balance model of the deep-water flow, it has been concluded that a hydraulic framework, although providing an upper bound of the transport, is of limited use when dealing with the Stolpe-Channel overflow. Although it cannot be excluded that the inflow is inviscid, but submaximal, it is more likely that the transport is governed by the combined effects of friction and wind forcing.

  • 122.
    Borenäs, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lake, Irene
    Lundberg, P A
    On the intermediate water masses of the Faroe-Bank Channel overflow2001Ingår i: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 31, nr 7, s. 1904-1914Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of available hydrographic data from the Faroe-Bank Channel indicates that North Icelandic/Arctic Intermediate water masses are present in the passage to a larger extent than was previously believed. The presently compiled statistics, including results on the seasonality, are discussed in relation to previous investigations. Finally, a high quality subset of the hydrographic data is used for an analysis of the alongchannel mixing of the intermediate water masses.

  • 123.
    Borenäs, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lundberg, P
    The Faroe-Bank channel deep-water overflow2004Ingår i: Deep-sea research. Part II, Topical studies in oceanography, ISSN 0967-0645, E-ISSN 1879-0100, Vol. 51, nr 4-5, s. 335-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1950s it was recognised that a considerable transport of water from the deeper reaches of the Norwegian Sea into the Atlantic takes place through the Faroe-Bank Channel, which thereby serves as an important source for the renewal of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Consequently, substantial efforts have, over the past decades, been dedicated towards quantifying the overflow as well as clarifying the underlying dynamics. In the present review, an attempt is made to summarise the main body of the observational results as well as some theoretical considerations regarding the dynamical mechanisms. The most prominent characteristic of the Faroe-Bank Channel overflow is that it is a persistent phenomenon with a yearly average deep-water (viz. T<5degreesC) transport of around 2 Sv. Using inviscid rotating hydraulics, the flow through the controlling section at the sill, furthermore, can be reasonably well predicted on the basis of upstream conditions in the Norwegian Sea. After passing the threshold the descending overflow plume is subject to intense mixing, a process very much in the focus of ongoing research. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 124.
    Bosshard, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Carambia, M.
    Goergen, K.
    Kotlarski, S.
    Krahe, P.
    Zappa, M.
    Schaer, C.
    Quantifying uncertainty sources in an ensemble of hydrological climate-impact projections2013Ingår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 1523-1536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantification of uncertainties in projections of climate impacts on river streamflow is highly important for climate adaptation purposes. In this study, we present a methodology to separate uncertainties arising from the climate model (CM), the statistical postprocessing (PP) scheme, and the hydrological model (HM). We analyzed ensemble projections of hydrological changes in the Alpine Rhine (Eastern Switzerland) for the near-term and far-term scenario periods 2024-2050 and 2073-2099 with respect to 1964-1990. For the latter scenario period, the model ensemble projects a decrease of daily mean runoff in summer (-32.2%, range [-45.5% to -8.1%]) and an increase in winter (+41.8%, range [+4.8% to +81.7%]). We applied an analysis of variance model combined with a subsampling procedure to assess the importance of different uncertainty sources. The CMs generally are the dominant source in summer and autumn, whereas, in winter and spring, the uncertainties due to the HMs and the statistical PP gain importance and even partly dominate. In addition, results show that the individual uncertainties from the three components are not additive. Rather, the associated interactions among the CM, the statistical PP scheme, and the HM account for about 5%-40% of the total ensemble uncertainty. The results indicate, in distinction to some previous studies, that none of the investigated uncertainty sources are negligible, and some of the uncertainty is not attributable to individual modeling chain components but rather depends upon interactions. Citation: Bosshard, T., M. Carambia, K. Goergen, S. Kotlarski, P. Krahe, M. Zappa, and C. Schar (2013), Quantifying uncertainty sources in an ensemble of hydrological climate-impact projections, Water Resour. Res., 49, 1523-1536, doi: 10.1029/2011WR011533.

  • 125.
    Bosshard, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Kotlarski, Sven
    Zappa, Massimiliano
    Schaer, Christoph
    Hydrological Climate-Impact Projections for the Rhine River: GCM-RCM Uncertainty and Separate Temperature and Precipitation Effects2014Ingår i: Journal of Hydrometeorology, ISSN 1525-755X, E-ISSN 1525-7541, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 697-713Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to affect the hydrological cycle, with considerable impacts on water resources. Climate-induced changes in the hydrology of the Rhine River (Europe) are of major importance for the riparian countries, as the Rhine River is the most important European waterway, serves as a freshwater supply source, and is prone to floods and droughts. Here regional climate model data from the Ensemble-Based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts (ENSEMBLES) project is used to drive the hydrological model Precipitation-Runoff-Evapotranspiration-Hydrotope (PREVAH) and to assess the impact of climate change on the hydrology in the Rhine basin. Results suggest increases in monthly mean runoff during winter and decreases in summer. At the gauge Cologne and for the period 2070-99 under the A1B scenario of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, projected decreases in summer vary between -9% and -40% depending on the climate model used, while increases in winter are in the range of +4% to +51%. These projected changes in mean runoff are generally consistent with earlier studies, but the derived spread in the runoff projections appears to be larger. It is demonstrated that temperature effects (e.g., through altered snow processes) dominate in the Alpine tributaries, while precipitation effects dominate in the lower portion of the Rhine basin. Analyses are also presented for selected extreme runoff indices.

  • 126.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Areella snöstudier1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den areella variationen hos ett snötäcke påverkas av mångafaktorer. De meteorologiska förhållandena - främst temperaturoch fuktighet - när snön faller, styr snöns ursprungligadensitet och djup. Vind under och efter snötillfället förflyttarsnön. Den ansamlas i svackor och längs hinder, texlängs skogsgränser, och eroderas på utsatta platser, såsomryggar. Snöförluster orsakade av smältning och avdunstningpåverkar även snöackumulationen.

  • 127.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bestämning av optimalt klimatstationsnät för hydrologiska prognoser1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är lätt att avfärda dåliga prognosresultat med att klimatstationsnätet är för glest för att man skall kunna bestämma vinternederbörden korrekt. För att testa antalet behövliga temperatur- och nederbördsstationer för olika typer av områden har vi därför prövat att ändra antalet temperatur- resp. nederbördsstationer och studerat hur det påverkar simuleringarnas precision.Studien har finansierats av Vattenregleringsföretagens samarbetsorgan(VASO).

  • 128.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF SUSPENDED AND DISSOLVED MATERIAL - EXAMPLES FROM SWEDISH RIVERS1990Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 72, nr 3-4, s. 273-283Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition in river systems in Sweden are discussed. The database consists of observations from a research project and from the Swedish network for the measurement of sediment transport. Examples are given from measurements in small plots, and from river basins of different sizes and characteristics. Effects of hydrological regime, of deposition in lakes, and of geology and human impact are illustrated. It was found that observations of erosion losses in index plots cannot easily be extrapolated to large areas, and that trends of transport most likely reflect trends in runoff.

  • 129.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Human impacts and weather-dependent effects on water balance and water quality in some Swedish river basins1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The weather has a great effect on the water balance and, indirectly, affects water quality of river systems. At the same tirne, man-made changes in the Iandscape and other human activities have a great impact. To be able to distinguish the human irnpacts from the effects of natura! weather fluctuations we need observations and measurements but also analysis tools.

    In this thesis the PULSE and HBV hydrological models have been used as the analysis tools. Examples are given from forest management, in particular clearcuning, drainage and biomass increase, and from mining and agricultural activities. The models include conceptual descriptions of the most significant hydrological processes and are capable of coping with. weather-dependent fluctuations. Observed air temperature, precipitation and an estimate of the potential evapotranspiration are input data to the models.

    Simple hydrochemical and nitrogen leaching subroutines have been Iinked to the PULSE water balance model.These subroutines have been used to quantify weather-dependent and human effects on pH downstream from a mine tailings deposit and on nitrogen Ieaching from different non-point sources, especially from arable land.

    The applications illustrate the advantage of this type of model for analysis of man-made irnpacts and short-term climatological fluctuations. As the models are restricted to stationary conditions they cannot be used for forecasting of long-term changes due to changes in atmospheric deposition, land use or climate, unless the local effects of these changes are known. Other methods of analysing effects of man-made changes have also been tested, such as conventional comparative investigations, regression analysis and trend analysis. The use of these methods is exemplified by an analysis of human effects on erosion and sediment transport. It was found to be much more difficult to quantify effects with these sirnpler methods

  • 130.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Sedimenttransport i svenska vattendrag exempel från 1967-19941996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Sedimenttransport i svenska vattendrag exempel från 1967-1994" är framtagen inom Analysenheten på Affärsområde Samhälle vid SMHI.

    Många års mätning inom sedimenttransportnätet ligger till grunden för denna bearbetning.

    Månads- och årsvärden på halter och transporter finns bearbetade och lagrade för alla stationer. Dessa kan beställas från SMHI. I denna rapport redovisas delar av detta material.

  • 131.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    SIMULATION OF RUNOFF AND NITRATE TRANSPORT FROM MIXED BASINS IN SWEDEN1990Ingår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 13-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 132.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Skogens inverkan på vattenbalansen1992Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Virkesmängden i Sveriges skogar har ökat under 1900-talet och i första hand beror det på ökad skogsproduktion. I södra Sverige har även skogsrnarksarealen ökat något. Eftersom träd tar upp vatten från marken, har det diskuterats om detta innebär att avdunstningen ökat och i sin tur avrinningen minskat. Frågan har analyserats dels genom beräkning av differensen mellan nederbörd (omräknad till areell och höjdkorrigerad nederbörd) och avrinning, dvs ett relativt mått på evapotranspirationen, för ett antal avrinningsområden i Sverige, och dels genom modellsimulering med HBVmodellen från 1930-talet och framåt.

    Differensberäkningen utifrån den uppmätta nederbörden och avrinningen visar att våta år medför inte bara hög avrinning utan även ofta något högre evapotranspiration än torra år. Man kan inte se några tydliga förändringar i evapotranspirationen i någon av de undersökta områdena mer än mindre upp- och nergångar, som troligen mest beror på klimatets fluktuationer.

    Indata till modellen är nederbörd och lufttemperatur. Modellen tar hand om de väderberoende fluktuationerna och gör det är lättare att skilja klimatförändringar från effekten av ändrad markanvändning. Inte heller den analysen visar några klara trender i evapotranspirationen och avrinningen. Eventuella förändringar försvinner i det brus som uppstår av ofullständiga indata (ett glest nederbördsnät på grund av kravet på homogena långa serier) och på de förenklingar av naturen som ändå sker i modellen. Studien tyder alltså på att det inte skett några tydligt påvisbara förändringar av evapotranspirationen och avrinningen på grund av ökad skogstillväxt.

  • 133.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Snömätning med georadar och snötaxeringar i övre Luleälven1991Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Snömätning med flygburen georadarutrustning (i helikopter) har utförts längs fasta linjer i övre Luleälvens tillrinningsområde i april under åren 1986 till 1990. I prognosområdena Suorva, Parki och Tjaktjajaure, som domineras av kalfjäll och där nederbördsstationsnätet är mycket glest, visar de fem årens mätningar, att en uppdatering av HBV-modellens snömagasin utifrån georadarmätningarna kan förbättra prognosutfallet. För skogsområdena Porjus och Letsi, som har ett mer representativt nederbördsstationsnät och bättre prognosutfall, är det svårare att förbättra prognoserna.

  • 134.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    INTEGRATION OF FIELD DATA INTO OPERATIONAL SNOWMELT-RUNOFF MODELS1994Ingår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 25, nr 1-2, s. 101-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual runoff models have become standard tools for operational hydrological forecasting in Scandinavia. These models are normally based on observations from the national climatological networks, but in mountainous areas the stations are few and sometimes not representative. Due to the great economic importance of good hydrological forecasts for the hydro-power industry attempts have been made to improve the model simulations by support from field observations of the snowpack. The snowpack has been mapped by several methods; airborne gamma-spectrometry, airborne georadars, satellites and by conventional snow courses. The studies cover more than ten years of work in Sweden. The conclusion is that field observations of the snow cover have a potential for improvement of the forecasts of inflow to the reservoirs in the mountainous part of the country, where the climatological data coverages is poor. This is pronounced during years with unusual snow distribution. The potential for model improvement is smaller in the climatologically more homogeneous forested lowlands, where the climatological network is denser. The costs of introduction of airborne observations into the modelling procedure are high and can only be justified in areas of great hydropower potential.

  • 135.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    MODELING THE EFFECTS OF CLEARCUTTING ON RUNOFF - EXAMPLES FROM CENTRAL SWEDEN1988Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 307-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 136.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gardelin, Marie
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Modellberäkning av extrem effektiv nederbörd1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande analys av vattenbalansen vid extrema situationer är ett led i Flödeskommittens arbete med att ta fram nya riktlinjer för dimensioneringsberäkningar för dammar och utskov, som inleddes våren 1985 (Ehlin, 1986). Frågan fick förnyad aktualitet i samband med höstflöden 1985 och 1986, som orsakade översvämningar och ett antal mindre dammras.De viktigaste faktorerna för beräkning av dimensionerande flöden är arealnederbörd, snösmältning, markfuktighet samt flödessituationen före flödet. En analys av extrem nederbörd har utförts (Vedin och Eriksson, 1986). För beräkning av effekten av den extrema nederbörden på flödet behöver även kombinationer av eventuell snösmältning och markfuktighetsunderskott i marken vara kända. Hur stor snösmältning kan tänkas ske i ett avrinningsområde? Kan vi räkna med att marken är helt mättad? Ett sätt att analysera detta är att med HBV-modellen ta fram extrema arealnederbörds- och snösmältningsvärden samt lägsta  markfuktighetsunderskott. I denna rapport redovisas en analys, som bygger på HBV-modellberäkningar i tjugofem avrinningsområden. Sammanlagt täcker områdena 79 000 km2 av Sveriges totala yta på449 000 km2. Den sammantagna tidsperioden för beräkningarna är475 år.

  • 137.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Sandén, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF AN OLD MINE TAILINGS DEPOSIT - MODELING OF WATER-BALANCE, ALKALINITY AND PH1987Ingår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 18, nr 4-5, s. 291-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 138.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Ehlert, Kurt
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Avrinningen från Sverige till omgivande hav1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avrinningen från Sverige till omgivande hav har beräknats från 1931 och framåt dels utifrån direkta vattenföringsbestämningar i större vattendrag och dels genom uppskattningar av vattenflödet för kustområden och små avrinningsområden med hjälp av referensstationer. Uppmätta vattenföringsuppgifter finns från 86% av landarealen. Beräkningarna är lagrade som månads- och årsvärden för alla huvudvattendrag, som mynnar i havet, samt för alla kustområden mellan dessa. Beräkningar finns för 265 områden.Grundvattenflöde som ej förs ut med vattendragen har uppskattats till 0,4 promille av totala avrinningen från Sverige.I rapporten presenteras i tabeller 30-årsmedelvärden och månadsmedelvärden för de större floder vid mynningen och för större kustområden inkluderat mindre vattendrag för perioden 1931-1990. Dessutom redovisas långtidsförändringar, trender och säsongsvariationer samt tillrinningen till havet längs olika kuststräckor.

  • 139.
    Brandt, Maja
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Grahn, Gun
    SMHI.
    Avdunstning och avrinningskoefficient i Sverige 1961-1990: Beräkningar med HBV-modellen1998Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Världsmeteorologiska organisationen (WMO) har fastställt att statistiska parametrar, som används för klimatbeskrivningar, skall beräknas för sk normalperioder orn 30 år, såsom 1931-1960, 1961-1990. I Sveriges Nationalatlas (SNA 1995) redovisas ett stort antal kartor för olika parametrar (nederbörd, avrinning, avdunstning, temperatur, snödjup osv) för perioden 1961-1990. Avrinningskartan i SNA togs fram med hjälp av HBV-modellen.Modellen beskriver vattnets kretslopp från nederbörd, snöackumulation till snösmältning, avdunstning, buffring i marken, grundvattenbildning och avrinning på daglig basis, vilket gör det möjligt att plocka ut mer resultat för fler parametrar än bara avrinningen både i rummet och tiden.

    I denna rapport har avdunstningen och avrinningskoefficienter i Sverige närmare studerats utifrån de körningar som gjorts för perioden 1961-1990. Diagrammen och kartorna i rapporten är av översiktlig natur och hänsyn måste tas till det vid utnyttjandet. Kartorna är inte lämpadeför detaljplanering eller vid studier av korta delperioder.

  • 140. Breuer, L.
    et al.
    Huisman, J. A.
    Willems, P.
    Bormann, H.
    Bronstert, A.
    Croke, B. F. W.
    Frede, H. -G
    Graeff, T.
    Hubrechts, L.
    Jakeman, A. J.
    Kite, G.
    Lanini, J.
    Leavesley, G.
    Lettenmaier, D. P.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Seibert, J.
    Sivapalan, M.
    Viney, N. R.
    Assessing the impact of land use change on hydrology by ensemble modeling (LUCHEM). I: Model intercomparison with current land use2009Ingår i: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 129-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the project on 'Assessing the impact of land use change on hydrology by ensemble modeling (LUCHEM)' that aims at investigating the envelope of predictions on changes in hydrological fluxes due to land use change. As part of a series of four papers, this paper outlines the motivation and setup of LUCHEM, and presents a model intercomparison for the present-day simulation results. Such an intercomparison provides a valuable basis to investigate the effects of different model structures on model predictions and paves the ground for the analysis of the performance of multi-model ensembles and the reliability of the scenario predictions in companion papers. in this study, we applied a set of 10 lumped, semi-lumped and fully distributed hydrological models that have been previously used in land use change studies to the low mountainous Dill catchment. Germany. Substantial differences in model performance were observed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies ranging from 0.53 to 0.92. Differences in model performance were attributed to (1) model input data, (2) model calibration and (3) the physical basis of the models. The models were applied with two sets of input data: an original and a homogenized data set. This homogenization of precipitation, temperature and leaf area index was performed to reduce the variation between the models. Homogenization improved the comparability of model simulations and resulted in a reduced average bias, although some variation in model data input remained. The effect of the physical differences between models on the long-term water balance was mainly attributed to differences in how models represent evapotranspiration. Semi-lumped and lumped conceptual models slightly outperformed the fully distributed and physically based models. This was attributed to the automatic model calibration typically used for this type of models. Overall, however, we conclude that there was no superior model if several measures of model performance are considered and that all models are suitable to participate in further multi-model ensemble set-ups and land use change scenario investigations. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 141. Brigode, Pierre
    et al.
    Brissette, Francois
    Nicault, Antoine
    Perreault, Luc
    Kuentz, Anna
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Mathevet, Thibault
    Gailhard, Joel
    Streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in northern Quebec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree rings and geopotential height field reanalysis2016Ingår i: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 12, nr 9, s. 1785-1804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 142.
    Bringfelt, Björn
    SMHI.
    An evapotranspiration model using SYNOP weather observations in the Penman-Monteith equation1998Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was initiated in order to improve the evapotranspiration data used in the HBV model. Evapotranspiration is calculated consecutively by the Penman-Monteith equation using three-hourly SYNOP observations transformed to values of net radiation, water vapour deficit and data necessary for evaluating aerodynamical resistance and surf ace resistance. Transpiration, rainfall interception and a simple treatment of winter evaporation are included. Soil moisture is used for calculating the surface resistance and it is updated three-hourly with the soil moisture accounting routine of the HBV model regarding the contributions from rainfall and snow melt. Then soil moisture is reduced due to total evapotranspiration.

    Two main parts have been developed and are described here:1. A program for interpolation of missing SYNOP observations and2. The evapotranspiration model.Evapotranspiration is calculated for six SYNOP stations used in the HBV model. Using literature parameter values for open land and forest, the calculated transpiration, interception evaporation and snow evaporation are found to assign reasonable values. Only limited tests against measured evapotranspiration have been made, such as some comparisons with winter data from the NOPEX main site in Norunda north of Uppsala. A comparison is made with evapotranspiration data obtained from calibrations of the HBV model. The performance of the evaporation values in the HBV model remains to be tested. 

  • 143.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Oceanografiska stationsnät: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Oceanografiska stationsnät. Svenskt Vattenarkiv.

  • 144.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Uppföljning av sjövärmepump i Lilla Värtan1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 145.
    Broman, Barry
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Hammarklint, Thomas
    Rannat, Kalev
    Soomere, Tarmo
    Valdmann, Ain
    Trends and extremes of wave fields in the north-eastern part of the Baltic Proper2006Ingår i: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 48, s. 165-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses one of the longest contemporary wave measurements in the northern Baltic Sea, performed at Almagrundet 1978-2003. This record contains the roughest instrumentally measured wave conditions (significant wave height = c. 7.8 m) in the northern Baltic Proper until December 2004. The data for the years 1979-95, the period for which the data are the most reliable, show a linear rising trend of 1.8% per annum in the average wave height. The seasonal variation in wave activity follows the variation in wind speed. The monthly mean significant wave height varies from 0.5 m in May-July to 1.3-1.4 m in December-January. No corrections have been made in the analysis to compensate for missing values, for their uneven distribution, or for ice cover.

  • 146.
    Broman, Barry
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Peterson, Carsten
    SMHI.
    Spridningsundersökningar i yttre fjärden Piteå1985Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut (SMHI) får i september 1984 i uppdrag av SCA, Piteå-Munksund att undersöka utspädnings- och spridningsförhållandena för avloppsvattnet från SCAs Munksundsindustri.

    Under åren 1981 och 1982 utförs strömundersökningar i Yttre fjärden, Piteå, för att med detta som underlag kunna simulera spridningen av avloppsvattnet från Munksundsindustrin (ref nr 8).

    En ändring av utsläppets läge görs i maj 1982 och ytterligare förändringar sker senare under året genom att länsor och strömbildare läggs ut, i syfte att föra avloppsvattnet i ett samlat stråk ut i Piteälvens strömfåra. SMHI rekommenderar, med ledning av strömundersökningarna 1981-82, att en avloppsledning skall dras ut centralt i fjärden med en utsläppsnivå ovan 6 meters djup, dvs ovan språngskiktet.

    Enligt beslut av Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten i november 1983 (bilaga 1), skall SMHI, i enlighet med Länsstyrelsens anvisningar och på uppdrag av SCA, studera utspädnings- och spridningsförhållandena med hjälp av spårämne.

  • 147. Browny, Nicola Jane
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Arctic Ocean Freshwater Dynamics: Transient Response to Increasing River Runoff and Precipitation2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 124, nr 7, s. 5205-5219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 148. Bruen, M.
    et al.
    Krahe, P.
    Zappa, M.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Vehvilainen, B.
    Kok, K.
    Daamen, K.
    Visualizing flood forecasting uncertainty: some current European EPS platforms-COST731 working group 32010Ingår i: Atmospheric Science Letters, ISSN 1530-261X, E-ISSN 1530-261X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 92-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) funding allows European scientists to establish international links, communicate their work to colleagues, and promote international research cooperation. COST731 was established to study the propagation of uncertainty from hydrometeorological observations through meteorological and hydrological models to the final flood forecast. Our focus is on how information about uncertainty is presented to the end user and how it is used. COST731 has assembled a number of demonstrations/case studies that illustrate a variety of practical approaches and these are presented here. While there is yet no consensus on how such information is presented, many end users do find it useful. Copyright (C) 2010 Royal Meteorological Society

  • 149. Buizza, Roberto
    et al.
    Poli, Paul
    Rixen, Michel
    Alonso-Balmaseda, Magdalena
    Bosilovich, Michael G.
    Bronnimann, Stefan
    Compo, Gilbert P.
    Dee, Dick P.
    Desiato, Franco
    Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie
    Fujiwara, Masatomo
    Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.
    Kobayashi, Shinya
    Liu, Zhiquan
    Masina, Simona
    Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe
    Rayner, Nick
    Richter, Carolin
    Seneviratne, Sonia I.
    Simmons, Adrian J.
    Thepaut, Jean-Noel
    Auger, Jeffrey D.
    Bechtold, Michel
    Berntell, Ellen
    Dong, Bo
    Kozubek, Michal
    Sharif, Khaled
    Thomas, Christopher
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Storto, Andrea
    Tuma, Matthias
    Valisuo, Ilona
    Vaselali, Alireza
    ADVANCING GLOBAL AND REGIONAL REANALYSES2018Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 99, nr 8, s. ES139-ES144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 150. Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Israelsson, Stina
    Baltar, Federico
    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Legrand, Catherine
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Lindh, Markus
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Martinez-Garcia, Sandra
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    High Frequency Multi-Year Variability in Baltic Sea Microbial Plankton Stocks and Activities2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 3296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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