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  • 101.
    Pechlivanidis, Ilias
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Jackson, Bethanna
    Mcmillan, Hilary
    Gupta, Hoshin V.
    Robust informational entropy-based descriptors of flow in catchment hydrology2016Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the use of entropy-based measures in catchment hydrology, and provides an importance-weighted numerical descriptor of the flow-duration curve. Although entropy theory is being applied in a wide spectrum of areas (including environmental and water resources), artefacts arising from the discrete, under-sampled and uncertain nature of hydrological data are rarely acknowledged, and have not been adequately explored. Here, we examine challenges to extracting hydrologically meaningful entropy measures from a flow signal; the effect of binning resolution on calculation of entropy is investigated, along with artefacts caused by (1) emphasis of information theoretic measures towards flow ranges having more data (statistically dominant information), and (2) effects of discharge measurement truncation errors. We introduce an importance-weighted entropy-based measure to counter the tendency of common binning approaches to over-emphasise information contained in the low flows which dominate the record. The measure uses a novel binning method, and overcomes artefacts due to data resolution and under-sampling. Our analysis reveals a fundamental problem with the extraction of information at high flows, due to the lack of statistically significant samples in this range. By separating the flow-duration curve into segments, our approach constrains the computed entropy to better respect distributional properties over the data range. When used as an objective function for model calibration, this approach constrains high flow predictions, as well as the commonly used Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, but provides much better predictions of low flow behaviour.

  • 102. Winterdahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Sensitivity of stream dissolved organic carbon to temperature and discharge: Implications of future climates2016Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 126-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a significant constituent in aquatic ecosystems with concentrations in streams influenced by both temperature and water flow pathway dynamics associated with changes in discharge (streamflow). We investigated the sensitivity of DOC concentrations in 12 high-latitude headwater streams to changes in temperature and discharge using a mathematical model. The implications of differences in sensitivities were explored by using downscaled projections of air temperature and discharge to simulate possible trajectories of DOC concentrations in a changing climate. We found two distinct responses: (i) catchments where stream DOC sensitivity was high to temperature but low to discharge and (ii) catchments where stream DOC sensitivity was low to temperature but high to discharge. Streams with strong seasonal DOC dynamics were more sensitive to temperature changes than nonseasonal systems. In addition, stream DOC sensitivity to discharge was strongly correlated with vertical soil water DOC differences in the near-stream zone. Simulations of possible future changes in DOC concentrations indicated median increases of about 4-24% compared to current levels when using projections of air temperature and discharge but even larger increases were observed for base flow concentrations (13-42%). Streams with high-temperature sensitivity showed the largest increases in DOC concentrations. Our results suggest that future climatic changes could bring significant increases in surface water DOC concentrations in boreal and hemiboreal areas but that the response ultimately is dependent on vertical soil solution DOC differences and soil organic carbon distribution.

  • 103.
    Olsson, Jonas
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Uvo, C. B.
    Foster, Kean
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Yang, Wei
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Technical Note: Initial assessment of a multi-method approach to spring-flood forecasting in Sweden2016Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 659-667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is a major energy source in Sweden, and proper reservoir management prior to the spring-flood onset is crucial for optimal production. This requires accurate forecasts of the accumulated discharge in the spring-flood period (i.e. the spring-flood volume, SFV). Today's SFV forecasts are generated using a model-based climatological ensemble approach, where time series of precipitation and temperature from historical years are used to force a calibrated and initialized set-up of the HBV model. In this study, a number of new approaches to spring-flood forecasting that reflect the latest developments with respect to analysis and modelling on seasonal timescales are presented and evaluated. Three main approaches, represented by specific methods, are evaluated in SFV hindcasts for the Swedish river Vindelalven over a 10-year period with lead times between 0 and 4 months. In the first approach, historically analogue years with respect to the climate in the period preceding the spring flood are identified and used to compose a reduced ensemble. In the second, seasonal meteorological ensemble forecasts are used to drive the HBV model over the spring-flood period. In the third approach, statistical relationships between SFV and the large-sale atmospheric circulation are used to build forecast models. None of the new approaches consistently outperform the climatological ensemble approach, but for early forecasts improvements of up to 25% are found. This potential is reasonably well realized in a multi-method system, which over all forecast dates reduced the error in SFV by similar to 4 %. This improvement is limited but potentially significant for e.g. energy trading.

  • 104. Nijzink, Remko
    et al.
    Hutton, Christopher
    Pechlivanidis, Ilias
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Capell, Réne
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Freer, Jim
    Han, Dawei
    Wagener, Thorsten
    McGuire, Kevin
    Savenije, Hubert
    Hrachowitz, Markus
    The evolution of root-zone moisture capacities after deforestation: a step towards hydrological predictions under change?2016Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 4775-4799Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The core component of many hydrological systems, the moisture storage capacity available to vegetation, is impossible to observe directly at the catchment scale and is typically treated as a calibration parameter or obtained from a priori available soil characteristics combined with estimates of rooting depth. Often this parameter is considered to remain constant in time. Using long-term data (30–40 years) from three experimental catchments that underwent significant land cover change, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) the root-zone storage capacity significantly changes after deforestation, (2) changes in the root-zone storage capacity can to a large extent explain post-treatment changes to the hydrological regimes and that (3) a time-dynamic formulation of the root-zone storage can improve the performance of a hydrological model.A recently introduced method to estimate catchment-scale root-zone storage capacities based on climate data (i.e. observed rainfall and an estimate of transpiration) was used to reproduce the temporal evolution of root-zone storage capacity under change. Briefly, the maximum deficit that arises from the difference between cumulative daily precipitation and transpiration can be considered as a proxy for root-zone storage capacity. This value was compared to the value obtained from four different conceptual hydrological models that were calibrated for consecutive 2-year windows.It was found that water-balance-derived root-zone storage capacities were similar to the values obtained from calibration of the hydrological models. A sharp decline in root-zone storage capacity was observed after deforestation, followed by a gradual recovery, for two of the three catchments. Trend analysis suggested hydrological recovery periods between 5 and 13 years after deforestation. In a proof-of-concept analysis, one of the hydrological models was adapted to allow dynamically changing root-zone storage capacities, following the observed changes due to deforestation. Although the overall performance of the modified model did not considerably change, in 51 % of all the evaluated hydrological signatures, considering all three catchments, improvements were observed when adding a time-variant representation of the root-zone storage to the model.In summary, it is shown that root-zone moisture storage capacities can be highly affected by deforestation and climatic influences and that a simple method exclusively based on climate data can not only provide robust, catchment-scale estimates of this critical parameter, but also reflect its time-dynamic behaviour after deforestation.

  • 105.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Andersson, Jafet
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Using flow signatures and catchment similarities to evaluate the E-HYPE multi-basin model across Europe2016Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 255-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open data make it possible to set up multi-basin models for large domains across environmental, climate and administrative boundaries. This study presents new methods for evaluating a number of aspects of multi-basin model performance, while exploring the performance of the E-HYPE_v2.1 model for several evaluation criteria in 181 independent river gauges across the European continent. Embedded model assumptions on dominant flow generating mechanisms are analysed by correlating physiographical characteristics to the flow regime. The results indicate that the model captures the spatial variability of flow and is therefore suitable for predictions in ungauged basins. The model shows good performance of long-term means and seasonality, while short-term daily variability is less well represented, especially for Mediterranean and mountainous areas. Major identified shortcomings refer to the resolution of precipitation patterns, aquifer exchanges, water extractions and regulation. This will guide the work with the next model version for which improvements in input data, processes and calibration have been identified to potentially contribute most to improved model performance. [GRAPHICS]

  • 106.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eriksson Bram, Lena
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Löptien, Ulrike
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Strömqvist, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Översikt av beräkningsmodeller för bedömning av fiskodlingars näringsämnesbelastning på sjöar, vattendrag, magasin och kustvatten2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är en kunskapssammanställning som utförts av SMHI på uppdrag av Havs- och Vattenmyndigheten. Den utgör inte något ställningstagande från Havs- och vattenmyndighetens sida. Rapporten försöker att sammanfatta den problematik som associeras med näringsämnesbelastningar från fiskodlingar i öppna kassar, vilka typer av beräkningar som kan behöva göras för att få en uppfattning om hur dessa kan påverka miljön samt några olika typer av modeller för detta ändamål.

    Fisk-, alg- och skaldjursodling är en växande industri runt om i världen som kan ge såväl näringsrik och hälsosam mat som arbetstillfällen. En nackdel med framförallt fiskodling i öppna kassar är att den kan innebära en påfrestning för vattenmiljön. De näringsämnen som ofta släpps ut från odlingen kan bidra till den övergödningsproblematik som redan finns i många sjöar och havsområden. Det är därför av största vikt att få en god uppskattning av den förväntade storleken på utsläppen förknippade med en öppen odling samt hur de kan tänkas förändra vattenkvaliteten på odlingsplatsen och dess närhet. Beräkningsmodeller kan vara till god hjälp vid bedömningen.

    Fiskar utsöndrar lösta näringsämnen och från odlingskassarna faller det också ut partikulärt organiskt material i form av fekalier och oätet foder. Storleken på näringsämneskällorna behöver beräknas och det finns modeller av olika komplexitet för att uppskatta detta. Storleken på det partikulära avfallet är viktigt dels för att det bidrarmed näringsämnen till vattnet och dels för att det kan ge upphov till ansamlingar av organiskt material på bottnen. När det organiska materialet bryts ner förbrukas syre och om ansamlingarna blir omfattande finns en risk för att det uppstår syrebrist vid bottnen. Om svavelväte bildas kan det orsaka skador på såväl den odlade fisken som det lokala ekosystemet. Odlingen kan också bidra till en försämrad vattenkvalitet i sin omgivning genom att tillgången av lösta näringsämnen blir större och därmed ge en ökad algproduktion. Den ökade algproduktionen skall i sin tur brytas ner och kan i förlängningen bidra till syrebristproblematiken.

    Det finns ett antal modeller som är specifikt utvecklade för fiskodlingar i öppna kassar och de tar i olika hög grad upp den beskrivna problematiken. Rapporten innehåller detaljerade genomgångar av några av modeller för att visa på styrkor och svagheter kring olika angreppsätt. Den innehåller också sammanfattningar av några vanligt förekommande modeller som använts internationellt vid bedömning av fiskodlingars miljöpåverkan. För att minska den negativa påverkan på vattenmiljön från har det också utvecklats recirkulerande system för odling. Rapporten tar inte upp belastning från den typen av fiskodlingar. Om utsläppen från ett sådant system är känt kan dock vattenkvalitetsmodeller användas för att se effekten av utsläpp från en punktkälla.

    Rapporten sammanfattar ett antal vattenkvalitetsmodeller för sjöar, vattendrag, kust och hav. En vattenkvalitetsmodell behöver inte nödvändigtvis vara utvecklad för att beskriva konsekvenser av fiskodlingar men bör kunna hantera frågeställningar som uppkommer vid bedömningar av övergödningsrisk vid utsläpp från en punktkälla. Den behöver därför kunna simulera parametrar såsom förändringen av näringsämneskoncentrationer, primärproduktion, siktdjup och syrgashalter på olika nivåer i vattenmassan. Modeller för den här typen av uppskattningar finns också i olika komplexitetsgrad och för olika skalor i tid och rum.

    Vid modellering är en god tillgång till observationer en förutsättning för pålitliga modellresultat och behövs såväl för att driva och kalibrera modellen som för validering av modellresultaten. Det är viktigt att tillgängliga data håller god kvalitet. En noggrann analys och beskrivning av den tillgängliga databasen hjälper därmed till att bedöma tillförlitligheten av modellsimuleringarna.

  • 107. Hall, J.
    et al.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Aronica, T.
    Bilibashi, A.
    Bohac, M.
    Bonacci, O.
    Borga, M.
    Burlando, P.
    Castellarin, A.
    Chirico, G. B.
    Claps, P.
    Fiala, K.
    Gaal, L.
    Gorbachova, L.
    Gul, A.
    Hannaford, J.
    Kiss, A.
    Kjeldsen, T.
    Kohnova, S.
    Koskela, J. J.
    Macdonald, N.
    Mavrova-Guirguinova, M.
    Ledvinka, O.
    Mediero, L.
    Merz, B.
    Merz, R.
    Molnar, P.
    Montanari, A.
    Osuch, M.
    Parajka, J.
    Perdigao, R. A. P.
    Radevski, I.
    Renard, B.
    Rogger, M.
    Salinas, J. L.
    Sauquet, E.
    Sraj, M.
    Szolgay, J.
    Viglione, A.
    Volpi, E.
    Wilson, D.
    Zaimi, K.
    Bloeschl, G.
    A European Flood Database: facilitating comprehensive flood research beyond administrative boundaries2015Ingår i: CHANGES IN FLOOD RISK AND PERCEPTION IN CATCHMENTS AND CITIES, 2015, s. 89-95Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work addresses one of the key building blocks towards an improved understanding of flood processes and associated changes in flood characteristics and regimes in Europe: the development of a comprehensive, extensive European flood database. The presented work results from ongoing cross-border research collaborations initiated with data collection and joint interpretation in mind. A detailed account of the current state, characteristics and spatial and temporal coverage of the European Flood Database, is presented. At this stage, the hydrological data collection is still growing and consists at this time of annual maximum and daily mean discharge series, from over 7000 hydrometric stations of various data series lengths. Moreover, the database currently comprises data from over 50 different data sources. The time series have been obtained from different national and regional data sources in a collaborative effort of a joint European flood research agreement based on the exchange of data, models and expertise, and from existing international data collections and open source websites. These ongoing efforts are contributing to advancing the understanding of regional flood processes beyond individual country boundaries and to a more coherent flood research in Europe.

  • 108. Archfield, Stacey A.
    et al.
    Clark, Martyn
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hay, Lauren E.
    McMillan, Hilary
    Kiang, Julie E.
    Seibert, Jan
    Hakala, Kirsti
    Bock, Andrew
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Farmer, William H.
    Andreassian, Vazken
    Attinger, Sabine
    Viglione, Alberto
    Knight, Rodney
    Markstrom, Steven
    Over, Thomas
    Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling2015Ingår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 10078-10091Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  • 109.
    Koenigk, Torben
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Berg, Peter
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Arctic climate change in an ensemble of regional CORDEX simulations2015Ingår i: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 34, artikel-id 24603Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifth phase Climate Model Intercomparison Project historical and scenario simulations from four global climate models (GCMs) using the Representative Concentration Pathways greenhouse gas concentration trajectories RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are downscaled over the Arctic with the regional Rossby Centre Atmosphere model (RCA). The regional model simulations largely reflect the circulation bias patterns of the driving global models in the historical period, indicating the importance of lateral and lower boundary conditions. However, local differences occur as a reduced winter 2-m air temperature bias over the Arctic Ocean and increased cold biases over land areas in RCA. The projected changes are dominated by a strong warming in the Arctic, exceeding 15 degrees K in autumn and winter over the Arctic Ocean in RCP8.5, strongly increased precipitation and reduced sea-level pressure. Near-surface temperature and precipitation are linearly related in the Arctic. The wintertime inversion strength is reduced, leading to a less stable stratification of the Arctic atmosphere. The diurnal temperature range is reduced in all seasons. The large-scale change patterns are dominated by the surface and lateral boundary conditions so future response is similar in RCA and the driving global models. However, the warming over the Arctic Ocean is smaller in RCA; the warming over land is larger in winter and spring but smaller in summer. The future response of winter cloud cover is opposite in RCA and the GCMs. Precipitation changes in RCA are much larger during summer than in the global models and more small-scale change patterns occur.

  • 110.
    Pechlivanidis, Ilias
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Sharma, D.
    Bosshard, Thomas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Sharma, K. C.
    ASSESSMENT OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE WATER RESOURCES OF THE LUNI REGION, INDIA2015Ingår i: GLOBAL NEST JOURNAL, ISSN 1790-7632, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 29-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on water resources at the local, regional and global scales. In this study, the impact of climate change on the hydro-climatology of the Luni region, India, is investigated by comparing statistics of current and projected future fluxes resulting from three representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). The use of different scenarios allows for the estimation of uncertainty of future impacts. The projections are based on the CORDEX-South Asia framework and are bias-corrected using the DBS method before being entered into the HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment) hydrological model to generate predictions of runoff, evapotranspiration, soil moisture deficit, and applied irrigation water to soil. Overall, the high uncertainty in the climate projections is propagated in the impact model, and as a result the spatiotemporal distribution of change is subject to the climate change scenario. In general, for all scenarios, results show a -20 to +20% change in the long-term average precipitation and evapotranspiration, whereas more pronounced impacts are expected for runoff (-40 to +40% change). Climate change can also affect other hydro-climatic components, however, at a lower impact. Finally, the flow dynamics in the Luni River are substantially affected in terms of shape and magnitude.

  • 111. Fosser, G.
    et al.
    Khodayar, S.
    Berg, Peter
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Benefit of convection permitting climate model simulations in the representation of convective precipitation2015Ingår i: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 44, nr 1-2, s. 45-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A major source of uncertainty in regional climate model (RCM) simulations arises from the parameterisation of sub-grid scale convection. With increasing model resolution, approaching the so-called convection permitting scale, it is possible to switch off most of the convection parameterisations. A set of simulations using COSMO-CLM model has been carried out at different resolutions in order to investigate possible improvements and limitations resulting from increased horizontal resolution. For our analysis, 30 years were simulated in a triple nesting setup with 50, 7 and 2.8 km resolutions, with ERA40 reanalysis data at the lateral boundaries of the coarsest nest. The investigation area covers the state of Baden-Wurttemberg in southwestern Germany, which is a region known for abundant orographically induced convective precipitation. A very dense network of high temporal resolution rain gauges is used for evaluation of the model simulations. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between the 7 and 2.8 km resolutions in the representation of precipitation at sub-daily timescales, and the atmospheric conditions leading to convection. Our results show that the highest resolution of RCM simulations significantly improves the representation of both hourly intensity distribution and diurnal cycle of precipitation. In addition, at convection permitting scale the atmospheric fields related to convective precipitation show a better agreement with each other. The results imply that higher spatial resolution partially improves the representation of the precipitation field, which must be the way forward for regional climate modelling.

  • 112.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Climate impact on floods: changes in high flows in Sweden in the past and the future (1911-2100)2015Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 771-784Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing discussion whether floods occur more frequently today than in the past, and whether they will increase in number and magnitude in the future. To explore this issue in Sweden, we merged observed time series for the past century from 69 gauging sites throughout the country (450 000 km(2)) with high-resolution dynamic model projections of the upcoming century. The results show that the changes in annual maximum daily flows in Sweden oscillate between dry and wet periods but exhibit no significant trend over the past 100 years. Temperature was found to be the strongest climate driver of changes in river high flows, which are related primarily to snowmelt in Sweden. Annual daily high flows may decrease by on average -1% per decade in the future, mainly due to lower peaks from snowmelt in the spring (-2% per decade) as a result of higher temperatures and a shorter snow season. In contrast, autumn flows may increase by + 3% per decade due to more intense rainfall. This indicates a shift in floodgenerating processes in the future, with greater influence of rain-fed floods. Changes in climate may have a more significant impact on some specific rivers than on the average for the whole country. Our results suggest that the temporal pattern in future daily high flow in some catchments will shift in time, with spring floods in the northern-central part of Sweden occurring about 1 month earlier than today. High flows in the southern part of the country may become more frequent. Moreover, the current boundary between snow-driven floods in northern-central Sweden and rain-driven floods in the south may move toward higher latitudes due to less snow accumulation in the south and at low altitudes. The findings also indicate a tendency in observations toward the modeled projections for timing of daily high flows over the last 25 years. Uncertainties related to both the observed data and the complex model chain of climate impact assessments in hydrology are discussed.

  • 113. Aich, Valentin
    et al.
    Liersch, Stefan
    Vetter, Tobias
    Andersson, Jafet
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Mueller, Eva N.
    Hattermann, Fred F.
    Climate or Land Use?-Attribution of Changes in River Flooding in the Sahel Zone2015Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 2796-2820Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to contribute to the ongoing discussion on whether land use and land cover changes (LULC) or climate trends have the major influence on the observed increase of flood magnitudes in the Sahel. A simulation-based approach is used for attributing the observed trends to the postulated drivers. For this purpose, the ecohydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) with a new, dynamic LULC module was set up for the Sahelian part of the Niger River until Niamey, including the main tributaries Sirba and Goroul. The model was driven with observed, reanalyzed climate and LULC data for the years 1950-2009. In order to quantify the shares of influence, one simulation was carried out with constant land cover as of 1950, and one including LULC. As quantitative measure, the gradients of the simulated trends were compared to the observed trend. The modeling studies showed that for the Sirba River only the simulation which included LULC was able to reproduce the observed trend. The simulation without LULC showed a positive trend for flood magnitudes, but underestimated the trend significantly. For the Goroul River and the local flood of the Niger River at Niamey, the simulations were only partly able to reproduce the observed trend. In conclusion, the new LULC module enabled some first quantitative insights into the relative influence of LULC and climatic changes. For the Sirba catchment, the results imply that LULC and climatic changes contribute in roughly equal shares to the observed increase in flooding. For the other parts of the subcatchment, the results are less clear but show, that climatic changes and LULC are drivers for the flood increase; however their shares cannot be quantified. Based on these modeling results, we argue for a two-pillar adaptation strategy to reduce current and future flood risk: Flood mitigation for reducing LULC-induced flood increase, and flood adaptation for a general reduction of flood vulnerability.

  • 114. van Vliet, Michelle T. H.
    et al.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Strombäck, Lena
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Capell, Réne
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Ludwig, Fulco
    European scale climate information services for water use sectors2015Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 528, s. 503-513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and environment (water quality). To study the climate change impacts we used two different hydrological models forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected general circulation model (GCM) output for both the lowest (2.6) and highest (8.5) representative concentration pathways (RCP). Selected indicators of water related vulnerability for each sector were then calculated from the hydrological model results. Our results show a distinct north-south divide in terms of climate change impacts; in the south the water availability will reduce while in the north water availability will increase. Across different climate models precipitation and streamflow increase in northern Europe and decrease in southern Europe, but the latitude at which this change occurs varies depending on the GCM. Hydrological extremes are increasing over large parts of Europe. The agricultural sector will be affected by reduced water availability (in the south) and increased drought. Both streamflow and soil moistures droughts are projected to increase in most parts of Europe except in northern Scandinavia and the Alps. The energy sector will be affected by lower hydropower potential in most European countries and reduced cooling water availability due to higher water temperatures and reduced summer river flows. Our results show that in particular in the Mediterranean the pressures are high because of increasing drought which will have large impacts on both the agriculture and energy sectors. In France and Italy this is combined with increased flood hazards. Our results show important impacts of climate change on European water use sectors indicating a clear need for adaptation. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 115.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Experimenting with Coupled Hydro-Ecological Models to Explore Measure Plans and Water Quality Goals in a Semi-Enclosed Swedish Bay2015Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 3906-3924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Measure plans are currently being developed for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) by European water authorities. In Sweden, such plans include measures for good ecological status in the coastal ecosystem. However, the effect of suggested measures is not yet known. We therefore experimented with different nutrient reduction measures on land and in the sea, using a model system of two coupled dynamic models for a semi-enclosed bay and its catchment. The science question was whether it is worthwhile to implement measures in the local catchment area to reach local environmental goals, or if the status of the Bay is more governed by the water exchange with the Sea. The results indicate that by combining several measures in the catchment, the nutrient load can be reduced by 15%-20%. To reach the same effect on nutrient concentrations in the Bay, the concentrations of the sea must be reduced by 80%. Hence, in this case, local measures have a stronger impact on coastal water quality. The experiment also show that the present targets for good ecological status set up by the Swedish water authorities may be unrealistic for this Bay. Finally, we discuss when and how to use hydro-ecological models for societal needs.

  • 116. Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Yang, Wei
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Fan, Hua
    Farm-scale adaptation under extreme climate and rapid economic transition2015Ingår i: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 393-407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse what shapes farmers' vulnerability and adaptation strategies in the context of rapid change. Xinjiang is semi-arid, with extremes of temperature, growing seasons and winds. Favourable socioeconomic conditions have boosted the wellbeing of farmers in the past decades. Interviews with forty-seven farmers led to the categorization of five groups according to the predominant type of farming activity: animal farmers, government farmers (leasing land from the Xinjiang Production and Construction Group), crop farmers, agri-tourism operators and entrepreneurs. High government support has aided farmers to deal with climate challenges, through advanced technology, subsidies and loans. Farmers, however, greatly contribute to their own high adaptive capacity through inventiveness, flexibility and a high knowledge base. Although the future climate will entail hotter temperatures, farmers can be seen as generally well equipped to deal with these challenges because of the high adaptive capacity they currently have and utilize. Those that are most vulnerable are those that have difficulty to access credit e.g. animal farmers and those that do not want to change their agricultural systems e.g. from pastoral lifestyles to include tourism-based operations.

  • 117. Thirel, G.
    et al.
    Andreassian, V.
    Perrin, C.
    Audouy, J. -N
    Berthet, L.
    Edwards, P.
    Folton, N.
    Furusho, C.
    Kuentz, A.
    Lerat, J.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Martin, E.
    Mathevet, T.
    Merz, R.
    Parajka, J.
    Ruelland, D.
    Vaze, J.
    Hydrology under change: an evaluation protocol to investigate how hydrological models deal with changing catchments2015Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 60, nr 7-8, s. 1184-1199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing hydrological models under changing conditions is essential to evaluate their ability to cope with changing catchments and their suitability for impact studies. With this perspective in mind, a workshop dedicated to this issue was held at the 2013 General Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) in Goteborg, Sweden, in July 2013, during which the results of a common testing experiment were presented. Prior to the workshop, the participants had been invited to test their own models on a common set of basins showing varying conditions specifically set up for the workshop. All these basins experienced changes, either in physical characteristics (e.g. changes in land cover) or climate conditions (e.g. gradual temperature increase). This article presents the motivations and organization of this experimentthat isthe testing (calibration and evaluation) protocol and the common framework of statistical procedures and graphical tools used to assess the model performances. The basins datasets are also briefly introduced (a detailed description is provided in the associated Supplementary material).

  • 118.
    Olsson, Jonas
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Berg, Peter
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Kawamura, Akira
    Impact of RCM Spatial Resolution on the Reproduction of Local, Subdaily Precipitation2015Ingår i: Journal of Hydrometeorology, ISSN 1525-755X, E-ISSN 1525-7541, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 534-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many hydrological hazards are closely connected to local precipitation (extremes), especially in small and urban catchments. The use of regional climate model (RCM) data for small-scale hydrological climate change impact assessment has long been nearly unfeasible because of the low spatial resolution. The RCM resolution is, however, rapidly increasing, approaching the size of small catchments and thus potentially increasing the applicability of RCM data for this purpose. The objective of this study is to explore to what degree subhourly temporal precipitation statistics in an RCM converge to observed point statistics when gradually increasing the resolution from 50 to 6 km. This study uses precipitation simulated by RCA3 at seven locations in southern Sweden during 1995-2008. A positive impact of higher resolution was most clearly manifested in 10-yr intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. At 50 km the intensities are underestimated by 50%-90%, but at 6 km they are nearly unbiased, when averaged over all locations and durations. Thus, at 6 km, RCA3 apparently generates low-frequency subdaily extremes that resemble the values found in point observations. Also, the reproduction of short-term variability and less extreme maxima were overall improved with increasing resolution. For monthly totals, a slightly increased overestimation with increasing resolution was found. The bias in terms of wet fraction and wet spell characteristics was overall not strongly dependent on resolution. These metrics are, however, influenced by the cutoff threshold used to separate between wet and dry time steps as well as the wet spell definition.

  • 119.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Interpretation of runoff processes in hydrological modelling experience from the HBV approach2015Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, nr 16, s. 3535-3545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of development and application of the Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavdelning hydrological model over a time period of more than 40years is reviewed and discussed. Emphasis is on the early modelling strategy and physical considerations based on contemporary research on runoff formation processes in the drainage basin. This includes areal considerations on the catchment scale, soil moisture and evapotranspiration and storages and discharge as represented by the response function of the model. The introduction of the concept of dynamic recharge and discharge areas is also addressed as well as the modelling of snow accumulation and melt. Some operational international experiences are also addressed. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 120.
    Andersson, Jafet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Pechlivanidis, Ilias
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gustafsson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Key factors for improving large-scale hydrological model performance2015Ingår i: European Water, ISSN 1792-085X, Vol. 49, s. 77-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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