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  • 1.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Oceanografiska stationsnät: Svenskt Vattenarkiv1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Uppföljning av sjövärmepump i Lilla Värtan1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Broman, Barry
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Hammarklint, Thomas
    Rannat, Kalev
    Soomere, Tarmo
    Valdmann, Ain
    Trends and extremes of wave fields in the north-eastern part of the Baltic Proper2006Ingår i: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 48, s. 165-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses one of the longest contemporary wave measurements in the northern Baltic Sea, performed at Almagrundet 1978-2003. This record contains the roughest instrumentally measured wave conditions (significant wave height = c. 7.8 m) in the northern Baltic Proper until December 2004. The data for the years 1979-95, the period for which the data are the most reliable, show a linear rising trend of 1.8% per annum in the average wave height. The seasonal variation in wave activity follows the variation in wind speed. The monthly mean significant wave height varies from 0.5 m in May-July to 1.3-1.4 m in December-January. No corrections have been made in the analysis to compensate for missing values, for their uneven distribution, or for ice cover.

  • 4.
    Broman, Barry
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Peterson, Carsten
    SMHI.
    Spridningsundersökningar i yttre fjärden Piteå1985Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5. Hell, Benjamin
    et al.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Jakobsson, Lars
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Magnusson, Ake
    Wiberg, Patrik
    The Use of Bathymetric Data in Society and Science: A Review from the Baltic Sea2012Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 138-150Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bathymetry, the underwater topography, is a fundamental property of oceans, seas, and lakes. As such it is important for a wide range of applications, like physical oceanography, marine geology, geophysics and biology or the administration of marine resources. The exact requirements users may have regarding bathymetric data are, however, unclear. Here, the results of a questionnaire survey and a literature review are presented, concerning the use of Baltic Sea bathymetric data in research and for societal needs. It is demonstrated that there is a great need for detailed bathymetric data. Despite the abundance of high-quality bathymetric data that are produced for safety of navigation purposes, the digital bathymetric models publicly available to date cannot satisfy this need. Our study shows that DBMs based on data collected for safety of navigation could substantially improve the base data for administrative decision making as well as the possibilities for marine research in the Baltic Sea.

  • 6.
    Höglund, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Kriezi, Ekaterini
    SMHI.
    Validation and correction of regionalised ERA-40 wind fields over the Baltic Sea using the Rossby Centre Atmosphere model RCA3.02009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface wind fields from ERA-40 regionalised with the Rossby Centre Atmosphere model RCA3.0 are underestimated. In this report a method for correcting the wind fields is evaluated. The method is based on the empirical linear relationship between gusty winds and mean wind. For the validation observations from 26 automatic stations along the Swedish coasts have been used. We found that the validation of wind over the open sea is difficult due to the impact of land that cannot be resolved properly by the atmospheric model as the horizontal grid resolution amounts to about 25 km. In addition, long homogeneous wind data sets are not available due to a switch from manual to automatic readings during the 1990s. The results show that the correction method improves the frequency distribution of simulated wind speed at most stations. Thus the corrected wind fields may be used to force Baltic Sea models during 1961-2004. However, the suggested correction method should be regarded only as a temporary solution while waiting for improved boundary layer

  • 7.
    Jönsson, Anette
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Variations in the Baltic Sea wave fields2003Ingår i: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 107-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface waves in the Baltic Sea are hindcast with the spectral wave model HYPAS during a 12-month period. The model results show a strong temporal and spatial variation in the wave field due to the physical dimensions of the different basins and the predominant wind field. The highest waves in the area are found in the outer part of Skagerrak, as well as in the central and southern parts of the Baltic Proper. To get significant waves above 6 m high, strong winds (15-20 m/s) must have been blowing for 6 to 24 h from a favourable direction over a deep area. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Andréasson, Johan
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Persson, Gunn
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Climate change scenario simulations of wind, sea level, and river discharge in the Baltic Sea and Lake Mälaren region – a dynamical downscaling approach from global to local scales2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A regional climate model (RCM) and oceanographic, hydrological and digital elevation models were applied to study the impact of climate change on surface wind, sea level, river discharge, and flood prone areas in the Baltic Sea region. The RCM was driven by two global models and two emission scenarios. According to the four investigated regional scenario simulations, wind speed in winter is projected to increase between 3 and 19% as an area average over the Baltic Sea. Although extremes of the wind speed will increase about as much as the mean wind speed, sea level extremes will increase more than the mean sea level, especially along the eastern Baltic coasts. In these areas projected storm events and global average sea level rise may cause an increased risk for flooding. However, the Swedish east coast will be less affected because mainly the west wind component in winter would increase and because land uplift would compensate for increased sea levels, at least in the northern parts of the Baltic. One of the aims of the downscaling approach was to investigate the future risk of flooding in the Lake Mälaren region including Stockholm city. In Stockholm the 100-year surge is projected to change between -51 and 53 cm relative to present mean sea level suggesting that in the city the risk of flooding from the Baltic Sea is relatively small because the critical height of the jetty walls will not be exceeded. Lake Mälaren lies just to the west of Stockholm and flows directly into the Baltic Sea to the east. This study addresses also the question of how the water level in Lake Mälaren may be affected by climate change by incorporating the following three contributing components into an analysis: 1) projected changes to hydrological inflows to Lake Mälaren, 2) changes to downstream water levels in the Baltic Sea, and 3) changes in outflow regulation from the lake. The first component is analyzed using hydrological modeling. The second and third components employ the use of a lake discharge model. An important conclusion is that projected changes to hydrological inflows show a stronger impact on lake levels than projected changes in water level for the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, an identified need for increased outflow capacity from the lake for the present climate does not diminish with projections of future climate change. The tools developed in this work provide valuable inputs to planning for both present and future operations of water level in Lake Mälaren. Based on the oceanographic and hydrological scenario simulations, flood prone areas were analysed in detail for two municipalities, namely Ekerö and Stockholm. The GIS analysis of both municipalities indicates a series of affected areas. However, in case of the 100-year flood (0.65 m above the mean lake level) in present climate or even in case of the maximum probable flood (1.48 m above the mean lake level) the potential risks will be relatively low.

  • 9.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Modelling Sea Level Variability in Different Climates of the Baltic Sea2004Ingår i: Fourth Study Conference on BALTEX: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Hans-Jörg Isemer, Risø National Laboratory Technical University of Denmark GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH , 2004, s. 170-171Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Simulated sea level in past and future climates of the Baltic Sea2004Ingår i: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 59-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea levels of the Baltic Sea in past and future climates were investigated based upon 6-hourly regional model results. For the future climate, the Rossby Centre Atmosphere Ocean model was used to perform a set of 30 yr time slice experiments. For each of the 2 driving global models HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3, one control run (1961 to 1990) and 2 scenario runs (2071 to 2100) based upon the scenarios A2 and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) were conducted. To estimate uncertainties in the global and regional models, 3 sea level scenarios for the Baltic Sea were compiled assuming global average sea level rises between 0.09 and 0.88 m and considering land uplift and the impact of regional changes in wind direction and velocity from the time slice experiments. In the scenarios forced with ECHAM4/OPYC3 the mean sea level between October and April increases significantly compared to the control climate, and storm surges increase even more than monthly mean sea level. In the scenarios forced with HadAM3H the changes are mostly not significant. Depending on the sea level rise, the risk of flooding at the coasts may either decrease in the entire Baltic, or it may increase, especially at the eastern ends of the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga and in Gdansk Bay. Here, maximum changes of about 1 m are found in the winter mean 99% quantiles of the sea level. For the past climate the regional ocean model was forced with reconstructed surface wind fields for 1903 to 1998. The results are close to observations, but storm surges in the western Baltic are underestimated.

  • 11.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Piechura, J
    The major Baltic inflow in January 2003 and preconditioning by smaller inflows in summer/autumn 2002: a model study2004Ingår i: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 557-579Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the results of the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO) the Baltic inflows in summer/autumn 2002 and January 2003 have been studied. The model results were extracted from a long simulation with observed atmospheric forcing Starting in May 1980. In RCO a bottom boundary layer model was embedded. Both the Smaller inflows and the major inflow in January 2003 are simulated in good agreement with observations. We found that a total of 222 km(3) water entered the Baltic in January: the salinity of 94 km(3) was greater than 17 PSU. In August/September 2002 the outflow through the Sound and inflow across the Darss Sill were simulated. The net inflow volume amounted to about 50 km(3).

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