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  • 1. Ashcroft, Linden
    et al.
    Coll, Joan Ramon
    Gilabert, Alba
    Domonkos, Peter
    Brunet, Manola
    Aguilar, Enric
    Castella, Merce
    Sigro, Javier
    Harris, Ian
    Undén, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Jones, Phil
    A rescued dataset of sub-daily meteorological observations for Europe and the southern Mediterranean region, 1877-20122018Inngår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1613-1635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Borsche, M.
    et al.
    Kaiser-Weiss, A. K.
    Undén, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Kaspar, F.
    Methodologies to characterize uncertainties in regional reanalyses2015Inngår i: Advances in Science and Research, ISSN 1992-0628, E-ISSN 1992-0636, Vol. 12, s. 207-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When using climate data for various applications, users are confronted with the difficulty to assess the uncertainties of the data. For both in-situ and remote sensing data the issues of representativeness, homogeneity, and coverage have to be considered for the past, and their respective change over time has to be considered for any interpretation of trends. A synthesis of observations can be obtained by employing data assimilation with numerical weather prediction (NWP) models resulting in a meteorological reanalysis. Global reanalyses can be used as boundary conditions for regional reanalyses (RRAs), which run in a limited area (Europe in our case) with higher spatial and temporal resolution, and allow for assimilation of more regionally representative observations. With the spatially highly resolved RRAs, which exhibit smaller scale information, a more realistic representation of extreme events (e.g. of precipitation) compared to global reanalyses is aimed for. In this study, we discuss different methods for quantifying the uncertainty of the RRAs to answer the question to which extent the smaller scale information (or resulting statistics) provided by the RRAs can be relied on. Within the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (EU FP7) project Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional Re-Analyses (UERRA) ensembles of RRAs (both multi-model and single model ensembles) are produced and their uncertainties are quantified. Here we explore the following methods for characterizing the uncertainties of the RRAs: (A) analyzing the feedback statistics of the assimilation systems, (B) validation against station measurements and (C) grids derived thereof, and (D) against gridded satellite data products. The RRA ensembles (E) provide the opportunity to derive ensemble scores like ensemble spread and other special probabilistic skill scores. Finally, user applications (F) are considered. The various methods are related to user questions they can help to answer.

  • 3. Stengel, M.
    et al.
    Lindskog, Magnus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Unden, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    The impact of cloud-affected IR radiances on forecast accuracy of a limited-area NWP model2013Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 139, nr 677, s. 2081-2096Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of cloud-affected satellite radiances on numerical weather prediction (NWP) accuracy is investigated. The NWP model used is the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). Its four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) system was used to assimilate cloud-affected infrared (IR) radiances from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI). Cloud parameters are modelled internally in the observation operator and used in the radiative transfer calculations. The interaction between the cloud parameters and the model control vector variables is incorporated in the adjoint version of the observation operator, which is used to derive cloud-affected Jacobians prior to the inner-loop minimization of the cost function. The developed framework supports an extensive usage of satellite observations with spatial coverage extended into cloudy regions, which therefore provides additional analysis increments and supports a more accurate description of the atmospheric state. In extended assimilation and forecast experiments the total number of assimilated satellite observations could be increased by approximately 10%. This was associated with a clear indication of a positive impact of cloud-affected radiances on the moisture and geopotential height fields of the NWP model analysis and forecast accuracy when used on top of clear-sky radiance observations. This is revealed by reduced analysis errors of the total integrated water vapour and by reduced forecast errors in the mid and upper troposphere.

  • 4. Stengel, M.
    et al.
    Lindskog, Magnus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Unden, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Bennartz, R.
    An extended observation operator in HIRLAM 4D-VAR for the assimilation of cloud-affected satellite radiances2010Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 136, nr 649, s. 1064-1074Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An extended observation operator for the direct assimilation of cloud-affected infrared satellite radiances in the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) is examined. The operator includes a simplified moist-physics scheme, which enables the diagnosis of cloudiness in itself using background values of temperature, moisture and surface pressure. Subsequently, a radiative transfer model provides simulated cloud-affected radiances to be used as background equivalents to the satellite observations. The observation operator was evaluated by using infrared observations measured by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). An observation-screening procedure, which incorporates SEVIRI cloud-retrieval products, supports an improved selection of usable cloudy scenes, leading to good agreement between the observations and background equivalents. The tangent-linear observation operator was verified against finite differences from its nonlinear formulation. The increments revealed a near-linear behaviour for the selected channels for a large number of cases. The adjoint observation operator was used to derive brightness-temperature sensitivities with respect to temperature and moisture changes in the presence of radiance-affecting clouds. Differences from the clear-sky sensitivities were found in and below clouds. In a four-dimensional variational data assimilation experiment, cloud-affected SEVIRI observations were assimilated, resulting in additional increments in both moisture and wind fields. The corresponding analysis fields revealed a reduced deviation from the observations for the majority of all cloudy scenes and a reduced bias for wind and temperature in the upper troposphere against independent radiosonde observations. Overall, our results highlight the capability of this observation operator in the HIRLAM assimilation system and encourage its application for the extended usage of cloudy satellite observations in numerical weather prediction. Copyright (C) 2010 Royal Meteorological Society

  • 5. Stengel, M.
    et al.
    Undén, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Lindskog, Magnus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Dahlgren, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Bennartz, R.
    Assimilation of SEVIRI infrared radiances with HIRLAM 4D-Var2009Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 135, nr 645, s. 2100-2109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) systems are ideally suited to obtain the best possible initial model state by utilizing information about the dynamical evolution of the. atmospheric state from observations, such as satellite measurements, distributed over a certain period of time. In recent years, 4D-Var systems have been developed for several global and limited-area models. At the same time, spatially and temporally highly resolved satellite observations, as for example performed by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation satellites, have become available. Here we demonstrate the benefit of a regional NWP model's analyses and forecasts gained by the assimilation of those radiances. The 4D-Var system of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) has been adjusted to utilize three of SEVIRI's infrared channels (located around 6.2 mu m, 7.3 mu m, and 13.4 mu m, respectively) under clear-sky and low-level cloud conditions. Extended assimilation and forecast experiments show that the main direct impact of assimilated SEVIRI radiances on the atmospheric analysis were additional tropospheric humidity and wind increments. Forecast verification reveals a positive impact for almost all upper-air variables throughout the troposphere. Largest improvements are found for humidity and geopotential height in the middle troposphere. The observations in regions of low-level clouds provide especially beneficial information to the NWP system, which highlights the importance of satellite observations in cloudy areas for further improvements in the accuracy of weather forecasts. Copyright (C) 2009 Royal Meteorological Society

  • 6.
    Undén, Per
    Meterologi.
    The Swedish Limited Area Model: Part A. Formulation1982Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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