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  • 1.
    Amorim, Jorge Humberto
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Asker, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Belusic, Danijel
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Carvalho, Ana
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Körnich, Heiner
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Lind, Petter
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Olsson, Esbjörn
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Segersson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Strombäck, Lena
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Joe, Paul
    Baklanov, Alexander
    Integrated Urban Services for European cities: the Stockholm case2018Inngår i: WMO Bulletin, ISSN 0042-9767, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 33-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Eriksson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Willers, Saskia M.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bellander, Tom
    Pershagen, Goran
    Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: The roadside study2012Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, nr 59, s. 140-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term exposure to traffic noise has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, few studies have been performed in the general population and on railway noise. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of living near noisy roads and railways. This cross-sectional study comprised 25,851 men and women, aged 18-80 years, who had resided in Sweden for at least 5 years. All subjects participated in a National Environmental Health Survey, performed in 2007, in which they reported on health, annoyance reactions and environmental factors. Questionnaire data on self-reported doctors diagnosis of hypertension and/or CVD were used as outcomes. Exposure was assessed as Traffic Load (millions of vehicle kilometres per year) within 500 m around each participants residential address. For a sub-population (n = 2498), we also assessed road traffic and railway noise in L den at the dwelling facade. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess Prevalence Odds Ratios (POR) and 95 Confidence Intervals (CI). No statistically significant associations were found between Traffic Load and self-reported hypertension or CVD. In the sub-population, there was no association between road traffic noise and the outcomes; however, an increased risk of CVD was suggested among subjects exposed to railway noise >= 50 dB(A); POR 1.55 (95 CI 1.00-2.40). Neither Traffic Load nor road traffic noise was, in this study, associated with self-reported cardiovascular outcomes. However, there was a borderline-significant association between railway noise and CVD. The lack of association for road traffic may be due to methodological limitations.

  • 3. Fauser, P.
    et al.
    Ketzel, M.
    Becker, T.
    Plejdrup, M. S.
    Brandt, J.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Skarman, T.
    Bartonova, A.
    Schwarze, P.
    Karvosenoja, N.
    Paunu, V. -V
    Kukkonen, J.
    Karppinen, A.
    Human exposure to carcinogens in ambient air in Denmark, Finland and Sweden2017Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 167, s. 283-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4. Felix, Erika
    et al.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Alonso, Marcelo F.
    Nahirny, Everaldo P.
    Alves, Bruno L.
    Segersson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Amorim, Jorge Humberto
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Passive sampling as a feasible tool for mapping and model evaluation of the spatial distribution of nitrogen oxides in the city of Curitiba, Brazil2019Inngår i: Air quality, atmosphere and health, ISSN 1873-9318, E-ISSN 1873-9326, Vol. 12, nr 7, s. 837-846Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Foltescu, Valentin
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Nomogram för uppskattning av halter av PM10 och NO2: Reviderad version (december 2004)2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nya förordningen om miljökvalitetsnormer för utomhusluft (SFS 2001:527) definierar normvärden och utvärderingströsklar för bl a NO2 och PM10. SMHI har av Naturvårdsverket och Vägverket fått i uppgift att ta fram en enkel metod att användas för en första ut-värdering av luftföroreningshalterna. Metoden består av s k nomogram för skattning av årsmedelvärden genererade av emissionerfrån en individuell gata eller väg. Till det lokalt genererade värdet ska läggas ett bakgrundsvärde. Empiriska relationer byggda på historiska mätserier har också tagits fram för att från medelvärdet kunna uppskatta extremvärden i form av percentiler.Utvärderingsmetodiken som beskrivs i denna rapport är avsedd att användas för en första uppskattning av föroreningshalterna på platser där mätningar saknas. Om de uppskattade halterna ligger under denedre utvärderingströsklarna, räcker nomogrammens resultat som underlag. Om de uppskattade halterna är högre, behövs en noggrannare utvärdering med hjälp av modeller och/eller mätning. Ibilaga 1 beskrivs metoden praktiskt.

  • 6.
    Funquist, Lennart
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Svensson, Urban
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    THE MATHEMATICAL-MODELING OF BAROCLINIC WAVES AND FRONTS IN THE OCEAN1987Inngår i: Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN 0307-904X, E-ISSN 1872-8480, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 11-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    COASTAL UPWELLING IN THE BALTIC SEA - SATELLITE AND INSITU MEASUREMENTS OF SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES INDICATING COASTAL UPWELLING1987Inngår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 449-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Lovenheim, Boel
    Johansson, Christer
    Modeling Effects of Climate Change on Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Planning Scenarios2012Inngår i: Advances in Meteorology, ISSN 1687-9309, E-ISSN 1687-9317, artikkel-id 240894Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ a nested system of global and regional climate models, linked to regional and urban air quality chemical transport models utilizing detailed inventories of present and future emissions, to study the relative impact of climate change and changing air pollutant emissions on air quality and population exposure in Stockholm, Sweden. We show that climate change only marginally affects air quality over the 20-year period studied. An exposure assessment reveals that the population of Stockholm can expect considerably lower NO2 exposure in the future, mainly due to reduced local NOx emissions. Ozone exposure will decrease only slightly, due to a combination of increased concentrations in the city centre and decreasing concentrations in the suburban areas. The increase in ozone concentration is a consequence of decreased local NOx emissions, which reduces the titration of the long-range transported ozone. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of a planned road transit project on future air quality in Stockholm. The construction of a very large bypass road (including one of the largest motorway road tunnels in Europe) will only marginally influence total population exposure, this since the improved air quality in the city centre will be complemented by deteriorated air quality in suburban, residential areas.

  • 9.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Funquist, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Murthy, Ray
    SMHI.
    Calculations of horizontal exchange coefficients using Eulerian time series current meter data from the Baltic Sea1986Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, C
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Foltescu, Valter
    SMHI.
    Urban scale modeling of particle number concentration in Stockholm2005Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, nr 9, s. 1711-1725Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional dispersion model has been implemented over the urban area of Stockholm (35 x 35 km) to assess the spatial distribution of number concentrations of particles in the diameter range 3-400 nm. Typical number concentrations in the urban background of Stockholm is 10 000 cm(-3), while they are three times higher close to a major highway outside the city and seven times higher within a densely trafficked street canyon site in the city center. The model, which includes an aerosol module for calculating the particle number losses due to coagulation and dry deposition, has been run for a 10-day period. Model results compare well with measured data, both in levels and in temporal variability. Coagulation was found to be of little importance in terms of time averaged concentrations, contributing to losses of only a few percent as compared to inert particles, while dry deposition yield particle number losses of up to 25% in certain locations. Episodic losses of up to 10% due to coagulation and 50% due to deposition, are found some kilometers downwind of major roads, rising in connection with low wind speed and suppressed turbulent mixing. Removal due to coagulation and deposition will thus be more significant for the simulation of extreme particle number concentrations during peak episodes. The study shows that dispersion models with proper aerosol dynamics included may be used to assess particle number concentrations in Stockholm, where ultrafine particles principally originate from traffic emissions. Emission factors may be determined from roadside measurements, but ambient temperature must be considered, as it has a strong influence on particle number emissions from vehicles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, C
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Olivares, G
    Simulation of NOx and ultrafine particles in a street canyon in Stockholm, Sweden2004Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 38, nr 14, s. 2029-2044Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model has been used to assess the concentrations of NO, and particle number in a street canyon in Stockholm with a high traffic volume. Comparisons of a simulated 11-week long time series of NOx with measurements (both sides of the street, urban background excluded) show good agreement, especially if emissions are distributed to be three times higher along the side of the street where the traffic is uphill, as compared to the downhill side. The simulation of number concentrations of inert particles indicates a similar asymmetry in emissions. A month-long measurement of particle size distribution (7-450 nm) at street level indicates that the ratio of nucleation size mode particle (7-20 nm) to total particle number (7-450 nm) is decreasing for increased particle surface area. Given the strong dominance of the locally generated particles over the urban background, this is interpreted as a local change in the size distribution. The results of a monodisperse aerosol dynamic model, coupled to the CFD model that simulates also the turbulence generated by vehicle movements, show that coagulation and deposition may reduce total particle inside the canyon with approximately 30% during low wind speeds. Most of the removal occurs shortly after emission, before the particles reach the leeward curb-side. Losses between the leeward curb-side and other locations in the street, e.g. roof levels, is estimated to be smaller, less than 10%. Coagulation is the dominating removal process under low wind speed conditions and deposition for higher wind speeds, the summed removal being smaller for high wind velocities. Deposition is enhanced over the road surface due to the velocities generated by vehicle movements. Although coagulation and deposition removal is most effective on the smallest ultrafine particles, this effect is not sufficient to explain the observed change in size distribution. It is suggested that also the formation of particles in the exhaust plumes is influenced by a larger particle surface area in the ambient air. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, C
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Olivares, G
    Model simulations of NOx and ultrafine particles close to a Swedish highway2004Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, nr 24, s. 6730-6740Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the results from a 6-week monitoring campaign in an area close to a major highway north of Stockholm, Sweden, NOx emission factors representative for vehicle speeds of 100-120 km per h were determined to 0.61 g/veh-km for light duty and to 7.1 g/veh,km for heavy duty vehicles. The corresponding factors for particle number were 1.4 x 10(14) and 52 x 10(14) particles/veh,km, determined for an ambient temperature interval of +7 to +17 degreesC. The removal effects of coagulation and dry deposition on total number concentrations were assessed by numerical model simulations. Velocity and turbulence fields, including those produced by the vehicles, were simulated in a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Coagulation was found to be of little importance over the first 100 m downwind of the highway. The high friction velocities over the road surface created by vehicle movements enhanced deposition locally, contributing to the removal of approximately 10% of the particles originally emitted. Beyond a point 10 m downwind of the highway the removal rate was low and the ultrafine particles were almost inert while being advected over the next hundred meters. As a consequence, it seems reasonable to use monitored data from stations close to highways to estimate emission factors for particle number, assuming that the particles are inert. Those "effective" emission factors should be applicable for urban models with a larger spatial resolution.

  • 13.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, C
    Strom, J
    Kristensson, A
    Swietlicki, E
    Pirjola, L
    Hansson, H C
    Model simulation of ultrafine particles inside a road tunnel2003Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 37, nr 15, s. 2023-2036Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A monodispersive aerosol dynamic model, coupled to a 3D hydrodynamical grid model, has been used to study the dynamics of ultrafine particles inside a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden. The model results were compared to measured data of particle number concentrations, traffic intensity and tunnel ventilation rate. Coagulation and depositional losses to the tunnel walls were shown to be important processes during traffic peak hours, together contributing to losses of 77% of the particles smaller than 10nm and 41% of the particles of size 10-29nm. Particle growth due to water uptake or the presence of a micron-sized, resuspended particle fraction did not have any significant effect on the number of particles lost due to coagulation. Model simulation of particle number concentration response to temporal variations in traffic flow showed that constant emission factors could be used to reproduce the concentration variations of the particles larger than 29nm, while vehicle-speed-dependent factors are suggested to reproduce the variation of the smallest fractions. The emission factors for particle number concentrations estimated from the model simulation are in general higher and show a larger contribution from light-duty vehicles than what has been reported from a tunnel in California. The model study shows that combined measurements and model simulations in road tunnels can be used to improve the determinations of vehicle emission factors for ultrafine particles under realistic driving conditions. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet.
    Törnquist, L.
    NORDIC - A database for evaluation of dispersion models on the local, urban and regional scale2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, H.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    SIMAIR-Evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 1029-1036Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all Swedish cities need to determine air pollution levels especially PM10-close to major streets. SIMAIR is an internet tool that can be used by all Swedish municipalities to assess PM10, NO(2), CO and benzene levels and how they compare to the EU directive. SIMAIR is delivered to the municipalities with all required input data pre-loaded and is meant to be used prior to decisions if and where, monitoring campaigns are required. The system includes a road and vehicle database with emission factors and a model to calculate non tailpipe PM10 emissions. Regional and urban background contributions are pre-calculated and stored as hourly values oil a 1 x 1 km(2) grid. The local contribution is calculated by the user, selecting either an open road or a street canyon environment. A comparison between measured and simulated concentrations in four street locations shows that SIMAIR is able to Calculate statistics of yearly mean values, 90-percentile and 98-percentile daily mean values and the number of days exceeding the limit value that are well within +/- 50% that EU requires for model estimates of yearly mean values. In comparison, all Values except one are within +/- 25% which is the quality objective for fixed measurements according to the EU directive. The SIMAIR model system is also able to separate the percentual contribution of the long-range transport from Outside the city, the city contribution and the local contribution from the traffic of an individual street. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Kahelin, H
    Schmidt-Thome, P
    Johansson, C
    Anthropogenic and natural levels of arsenic in PM10 in Central and Northern Chile2002Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, nr 23, s. 3803-3817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A few copper and gold smelters in Chile are behind a large fraction of global arsenic emissions, raising concerns for increased concentrations of arsenic in PM10 in Central and Northern Chile. This concern is amplified by the fact that Northern Chile soils and rivers in general are characterized by a high arsenic content. A monitoring and modeling study has been performed to quantify the regional impact of the smelter emissions. Measured atmospheric arsenic concentrations from 2.4 to 30.7 ng m(-3) were found at seven rural stations, located tens to hundreds of kilometers away from the nearest smelter. Analyses of topsoil and subsoil samples taken from PM 10 monitoring stations revealed levels up to 291 mg kg(-1), the highest values found in the northern Atacama desert in Chile. An absolute principal component analysis of selected trace elements in PM10 shows that the regional impact of anthropogenic smelter emissions on airborne arsenic concentrations is more important than the effect of soil dust resuspension. The dominance of the smelter emissions is larger in Central Chile than in the northern parts. The impact of resuspended soil dust on airborne arsenic levels in rural areas was estimated not to exceed 5 ng m(-3). The model calculations support the dominant role of anthropogenic emissions and give spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric concentrations consistent with the monitored levels at five of the seven stations. At two of the northernmost stations indications were found of unidentified sources other than the smelters and the resuspended soil dust, contributing to about 5 ng m(-3) of total arsenic levels. The study confirms that a strong control or elimination of arsenic emissions from the smelters would lead to arsenic in PM10 levels in Northern and Central Chile comparable to non-polluted areas in other countries. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Pershagen, Goran
    Willers, Saskia
    Bellander, Tom
    High-resolution modeling of residential outdoor particulate levels in Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 306-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale exposure assessments that include both between- and within-city differences in air pollution levels are lacking. The objective of this study was to model long-term particle exposure for the whole of Sweden, separating long-range transport from local sources, which were further separated into combustion and road dust. Annual regional, urban and local traffic PM exposure contributions were modeled for 26,000 addresses from a national survey, using a European scale model, an urban model and a local traffic model. Total PM10 was overall dominated by the regional contribution, ranging from 3.5 mu g/m(3) (northernmost) to 13.5 mu g/m(3) (southernmost). Local traffic and urban sources contributed nationally on average to 16% of total PM10, but for urban populations this contribution was larger (for Stockholm around 30%). Generalized to the Swedish adult population, the average residential exposure contributions from regional, urban and local traffic PM10 were 10.2, 1.3 and 0.2 mu g/m(3), respectively. Corresponding exposure to PM, was 5.1, 0.5 and 0.03 mu g/m(3), respectively. Long-range transport dominates average Swedish residential PM1 and PM10 levels, but for urban populations the contributions from urban and local traffic sources are important and may even dominate for residences close to heavily trafficked roads. The study shows the importance of considering both national and city-scale gradients. The approach to exposure modeling at home addresses of a Swedish cohort includes both the regional scale and the urban and local traffic contributions to total PM exposure. With this we can resolve both between- and within-city gradients in national exposure assessments. The within-city exposure is further divided into a submicron (combustion) and a supermicron (road dust generated by studded tires) part. This gives new possibilities to study health impacts of different particles generated in Scandinavian cities. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2013) 23, 306-314; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.122; published online 23 January 2013

  • 18. Gramsch, Ernesto
    et al.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Wahlin, Peter
    Oyola, Pedro
    Moreno, Francisco
    Predominance of soot-mode ultrafine particles in Santiago de Chile: Possible sources2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 14, s. 2260-2267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A monitoring campaign was performed in Santiago de Chile during a winter month of 2003 and 2006 (July) using several instruments to measure the size distribution of particulate material. For the first time, the size distribution of ultrafine particles was measured in Santiago, and an estimation of its sources was done by analyzing its temporal variation. The study was performed in three sites: one of them is located in the eastern part of Santiago, a sector with low particle concentration and about 100 m from a busy street. The other site is located in the western part, which is the sector that has the highest concentration of fine and coarse particle matter during winter, also located far from a street. The third site is located within 5 in from the busiest street in Santiago. In all stations traffic is the dominating source for fine and ultrafine particles and the size distribution is peaked towards 60-100 nm (soot mode). Only in the site near the street, it is possible to see a clear peak towards smaller sizes (10-30 nm). The size distribution measurements presented here indicate that aerosol dynamics play a more important role for the Santiago case as compared to cleaner cities in Europe. Changes in the particle size during different hours of the day reflect both variations in meteorological mixing conditions as well as effects of aerosol dynamic processes such as coagulation, condensation and dry deposition. A relative increase in the number of the larger ultrafine particles (d >= 70 nm), as compared to the number of smaller particles (d < 70 nm) correlated with wind speed is an indication of pollution transport with aged particles from other parts of the city. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19. Hedberg, E
    et al.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, C
    Source contributions to PM10 and arsenic concentrations in Central Chile using positive matrix factorization2005Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 549-561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sampling of particles (PM10) was conducted during a one-year period at two rural sites in Central Chile, Quillota and Linares. The samples were analyzed for elemental composition. The data sets have undergone source-recepior analyses in order to estimate the sources and their abundance's in the PM10 size fraction. by using the factor analytical method positive matrix factorization (PMF). The analysis showed that PM10 was dominated by soil resuspension at both sites during the summer months, while during winter traffic dominated the particle mass at Quillota and local wood burning dominated the particle mass at Linares. Two copper smelters impacted the Quillota station, and contributed to 10% and 16% of PM10 as an average during summer and winter. respectively. One smelter impacted Linares by 8% and 19% of PM10 in the summer and winter, respectively. For arsenic the two smelters accounted for 87% of the monitored arsenic levels at Quillota and at Linares one smelter contributed with 72% of the measured mass. In comparison with PMF, the use of a dispersion model tended to overestimate the smelter contribution to arsenic levels at both sites. The robustness of the PMF model was tested by using randomly reduced data sets, where 85%, 70%, 50% and 33% of the samples were included. In this way the ability of the model to reconstruct the sources initially found by the original data set could be tested. On average for all sources the relative standard deviation increased from 7% to 25% for the variables identifying the sources, when decreasing the data set from 85% to 33% of the samples, indicating that the solution initially found was very stable to begin with. But it was also noted that sources due to industrial or combustion processes were more sensitive for the size of the data set, compared to the natural sources as local soil and sea spray sources. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Norman, Michael
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Spatial & temporal variations of PM10 and particle number concentrations in urban air2007Inngår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 127, nr 1-3, s. 477-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The size of particles in urban air varies over four orders of magnitude (from 0.001 mu m to 10 mu m in diameter). In many cities only particle mass concentrations (PM10, i.e. particles < 10 mu m diameter) is measured. In this paper we analyze how differences in emissions, background concentrations and meteorology affect the temporal and spatial distribution of PM10 and total particle number concentrations (PNC) based on measurements and dispersion modeling in Stockholm, Sweden. PNC at densely trafficked kerbside locations are dominated by ultrafine particles (< 0.1 mu m diameter) due to vehicle exhaust emissions as verified by high correlation with NOx. But PNC contribute only marginally to PM10, due to the small size of exhaust particles. Instead wear of the road surface is an important factor for the highest PM10 concentrations observed. In Stockholm, road wear increases drastically due to the use of studded tires and traction sand on streets during winter; up to 90% of the locally emitted PM10 may be due to road abrasion. PM10 emissions and concentrations, but not PNC, at kerbside are controlled by road moisture. Annual mean urban background PM10 levels are relatively uniformly distributed over the city, due to the importance of long range transport. For PNC local sources often dominate the concentrations resulting in large temporal and spatial gradients in the concentrations. Despite these differences in the origin of PM10 and PNC, the spatial gradients of annual mean concentrations due to local sources are of equal magnitude due to the common source, namely traffic. Thus, people in different areas experiencing a factor of 2 different annual PM10 exposure due to local sources will also experience a factor of 2 different exposure in terms of PNC. This implies that health impact studies based solely on spatial differences in annual exposure to PM10 may not separate differences in health effects due to ultrafine and coarse particles. On the other hand, health effect assessments based on time series exposure analysis of PM10 and PNC, should be able to observe differences in health effects of ultrafine particles versus coarse particles.

  • 21. Ketzel, Matthias
    et al.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, Christer
    Duering, Ingo
    Pohjolar, Mia
    Oettl, Dietmar
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Wahlin, Peter
    Lohmeyer, Achim
    Haakana, Mervi
    Berkowicz, Ruwim
    Estimation and validation of PM2.5/PM10 exhaust and non-exhaust emission factors for practical street pollution modelling2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 41, nr 40, s. 9370-9385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to carry out efficient traffic and air quality management, validated models and PM emission estimates are needed. This paper compares current available emission factor estimates for PM10 and PM2.5 from emission databases and different emission models, and validates these against eight high quality street pollution measurements in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Austria. The data sets show large variation of the PM concentration and emission factors with season and with location. Consistently at all roads the PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors are lower in the summer month than the rest of the year. For example, PM10 emission factors are in average 5-45% lower during the month 6-10 compared to the annual average. The range of observed total emission factors (including non-exhaust emissions) for the different sites during summer conditions are 80-130mgkm(-1) for PM10, 30-60mgkm(-1) for PM2.5 and 20-50mgkm(-1) for the exhaust emissions. We present two different strategies regarding modelling of PM emissions: (1) For Nordic conditions with strong seasonal variations due to studded tyres and the use of sand/salt as anti-skid treatment a time varying emission model is needed. An empirical model accounting for these Nordic conditions was previously developed in Sweden. (2) For other roads with a less pronounced seasonal variation (e.g. in Denmark, Germany, Austria) methods using a constant emission factor maybe appropriate. Two models are presented here. Further, we apply the different emission models to data sets outside the original countries. For example, we apply the "Swedish" model for two streets without studded tyre usage and the "German", model for Nordic data sets. The "Swedish" empirical model performs best for streets with studded tyre use, but was not able to improve the correlation versus measurements in comparison to using constant emission factors for the Danish side. The "German" method performed well for the streets without clear seasonal variation and reproduces the summer conditions for streets with pronounced seasonal variation. However, the seasonal variation of PM emission factors can be important even for countries not using studded tyres, e.g. in areas with cold weather and snow events using sand and de-icing materials. Here a constant emission factor probably will under-estimate the 90-percentiles and therefore a time varying emission model need to be used or developed for such areas. All emission factor models consistently indicate that a large part (about 50-85% depending on the location) of the total PM10 emissions originates from non-exhaust emissions. This implies that reduction measures for the exhaust part of the vehicle emissions will only have a limited effect on ambient PM10 levels. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22. Krecl, Patricia
    et al.
    Cipoli, Yago Alonso
    Targino, Admir Creso
    Toloto, Matheus de Oliveira
    Segersson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Parra, Alvaro
    Polezer, Gabriela
    Moreton Godoi, Ricardo Henrique
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Modelling urban cyclists' exposure to black carbon particles using high spatiotemporal data: A statistical approach2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 679, s. 115-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23. Kristensson, A
    et al.
    Johansson, C
    Westerholm, R
    Swietlicki, E
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Wideqvist, U
    Vesely, V
    Real-world traffic emission factors of gases and particles measured in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden2004Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 657-673Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden give the real-world traffic emission factors for a number of gaseous and particle pollutants. These include 49 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, NOX, benzene, toluene, xylenes, aldehydes, elements and inorganic/organic carbon contained in particles, the sub-micrometer aerosol number size distribution, PM2.5 and PM10. The exhaust pipe emission factors are divided with the help of automated traffic counts into the two pollutant sources, the heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and light-duty vehicles (LDV). The LDV fleet contains 95% petrol cars and the total fleet contains about 5% HDV. When data permitted, the emission factors were further calculated at different vehicle speeds. The current work shows that average CO, NOX and benzene emission factors amounted to 5.3, 1.4 and 0.017 g veh(-1) km(-1), respectively. Since the mid-90s CO and benzene decreased by about 15%, carbonyls by about a factor 2, whereas NOX did not change much. PAR emission factors were 2-15 times higher than found during dynamometer tests. Most particles are distributed around 20 nm diameter and the LDV fleet contributes to about 65% of both PM and particle number. In general, the gaseous emissions are higher in Sweden than in USA and Switzerland, foremost due to the lower fraction catalytic converters in Sweden. The PM and number emissions of particles are also slightly higher in the Swedish tunnel. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24. Olivares, Gustavo
    et al.
    Strom, Johan
    Johansson, Christer
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Estimates of black carbon and size-resolved particle number emission factors from residential wood burning based on ambient monitoring and model simulations2008Inngår i: JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, ISSN 1096-2247, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 838-848Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we derive typical emission factors for coarse particulate matter (PM10), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), black carbon (BC), and number particle size distributions based on a combination of measurements and air quality dispersion modeling. The advantage of this approach is that the emission factors represent integrated emissions from several vehicle types and different types of wood stoves. Normally it is very difficult to estimate the total emissions in cities on the basis of laboratory measurements on single vehicles or stoves because of the large variability in conditions. The measurements were made in Temuco, Chile, between April 18 and June 15, 2005 at two sites. The first one was located in a residential area relatively far from major roads. The second site was located in a busy street in downtown Temuco where wood consumption is low. The measurements support the assumption that the monitoring sites represent the impact of different emission sources, namely traffic and residential wood combustion (RWC). Fitting model results to the available measurements, emission factors were obtained for PM,, (RWC = 2160 +/- 100 mg/kg; traffic = 610 +/- 51 mg/veh-km), NOx (RWC = 800 +/- 100 mg/kg; traffic 4400 +/- 100 mg/veh-km), BC (RWC 74 +/- 6 mgjkg; traffic = 60 +/- 3 mg/veh-km) and particle number (N) with size distribution between 25 and 600 nm (N25-600) (RWC = 8.9 +/- 1 x 10(14) pt/kg; traffic = 6.7 +/- 0.5 x 10(14) pt/veh-km). The obtained emission factors are comparable to results reported in the literature. The size distribution of the N emission factors for traffic was shown to be different than for RWC. The main difference is that although traffic emissions show a bimodal size distribution with a main mode below 30 nm and a secondary one around 100 nm, RWC emissions show the main mode slightly below 100 nm and a smaller nucleation mode below 50 nm.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Jonas
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gamerith, Valentin
    Gruber, Gunter
    Hoppe, Holger
    Kutschera, Peter
    Downscaling of Short-Term Precipitation from Regional Climate Models for Sustainable Urban Planning2012Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 866-887Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for downscaling precipitation from RCM projections to the high resolutions in time and space required in the urban hydrological climate change impact assessment is outlined and demonstrated. The basic approach is that of Delta Change, developed for both continuous and event-based applications. In both cases, Delta Change Factors (DCFs) are calculated which represent the expected future change of some key precipitation statistics. In the continuous case, short-term precipitation from climate projections are analysed in order to estimate DCFs associated with different percentiles in the frequency distribution of non-zero intensities. The DCFs may then be applied to an observed time series, producing a realisation of a future time series. The event-based case involves downscaling of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on extreme value analysis of annual maxima using the Gumbel distribution. The resulting DCFs are expressed as a function of duration and frequency (i.e., return period) and may be used to estimate future design storms. The applications are demonstrated in case studies focusing on the expected changes in short-term precipitation statistics until 2100 in the cities of Linz (Austria) and Wuppertal (Germany). The downscaling framework is implemented in the climate service developed within the EU-project SUDPLAN.

  • 26.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet.
    Kartläggning av partiklar i Sverige - halter, källbidrag och kunskapsluckor2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte. År 1999 startade Naturvårdsverket ett projekt för kartläggning av partikelhalter i Sverige samt identifikation av de viktigaste källorna. Kartläggningsprojektet byggde på mätningar under två år (1999-2001). Resultaten har varit till stor nytta och legat till grund för bland annat införande av nya miljömål och miljökvalitetsnormer, åtgärdsförslag och vetenskapliga publikationer. För första gången kunde haltnivåer av PM10 och PM2.5 beskrivas systematiskt i regional och urban bakgrund samt gaturum i Sverige. Tre huvudkällor till höga partikelhalter i Sverige kunde identifieras; långdistanstransport, uppvirvling av vägdamm och vedeldning.Sedan dess har kunskapen om partiklar ökat. Miljökvalitetsnormer har införts i Sverige och miljömål har formulerats. Idag finns mer mätdata tillgängliga och för vissa områden finns även längre tidsserier. Intresset för sjöfartens bidrag till luftföroreningar och partiklar har ökat, eftersom dess relativa bidrag jämfört med landbaserade emissioner ökar. Nya studier inriktade på förståelse av olika processer har genomförts. Modeller har utvecklats och förbättrats, därigenom har också möjligheten att kvantifiera olika källors bidrag ökat. Behovet att använda modeller i arbetet med miljömål och miljökvalitetsnormer har också blivit större.Syftet med denna studie är att presentera huvuddragen av den kunskap som kommit fram under de senaste tio åren om partikelhalter i Sverige, framförallt PM10 och PM2.5, men också peka på kunskapsluckor.

  • 27.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Länsstyrelsen Dalarnas Län.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Umeå Universitet.
    SIMAIRscenario - ett modellverktyg för bedömning av luftföroreningars hälsoeffekter och kostnader2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    SIMAIRscenario är ett nytt webbaserat modellverktyg för bedömning av luftföroreningars hälsoeffekter och kostnader. Det tillhör SIMAIR familjen, som är ett nationellt modellsystem för emissioner och luftkvalitet. I SIMAIRscenario kan följande göras:  Importera haltfält från olika spridningsmodeller som t.ex. SIMAIR och Airviro.  Bearbeta dessa med hjälp av olika matematiska operatorer.  Importera och lagra detaljerade befolkningsdata för hela Sverige och bearbeta dessa med hjälp av olika matematiska operatorer.  Presentera halter och befolkningsdata på karta.  Utföra exponeringsberäkningar för olika halt- och befolkningsfält och presentera beräkningsresultaten på karta och i tabeller.  Beräkna risker i form av extra hälsoutfall och göra ekonomisk värdering av dessa. Med hjälp av SIMAIRscenario kan nyttan av förbättrad luftkvalitet mellan ett basfall och ett scenariofall beräknas, uttryckt som hälsovinst och kostnadsvinst. Verktyget är därför speciellt lämpad som ett planeringsverktyg för olika alternativa förändringar av emissioner och halter. Exempel på en sådan tillämpning ges i rapporten. I denna rapport presenteras SIMAIRscenario tillsammans med översiktliga beskrivningar av kunskapsläget vad gäller hälsoeffekter från luftföroreningar och ekonomiska värderingar av dessa. Varje del i beräkningarna innehåller osäkerheter. Det gäller såväl för haltberäkningar som för hälsouppskattningar och ekonomiska värderingar. Det är därför angeläget att genomföra analyser av dessa och också ta fram en metodik för att kvantifiera osäkerheten i de olika beräkningsstegen. Detta är dock en komplicerad problemställning som inte rymts i det här redovisade projektet. SMHI föreslår att en sådan metodik utvecklas som ett eget projekt.

  • 28.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Spridning av förbränningsemissioner från småskalig biobränsleeldning - analys av PM2.5 data från Lycksele med hjälp av två Gaussiska spridningsmodeller2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under ca 3 månader vintern 2001/2002 utfördes mätningar av luftkvalitet och meteorologi i Lycksele. En emissionsdatabas (EDB Tot03) för Lycksele har tidigare tagits fram (SLBanalys, 2002). Dessa data utgör grundkomponenter för den spridningsmodellering som här redovisas. Redovisningen begränsas till emissioner av förbränningspartiklar och två lokala spridningsmodeller. Arbetet har utförts med stöd från Energimyndigheten (Projektnummer: P12658-1) och ingår som en del i "Omgivningsklustret" i projektet "Biobränsle Hälsa och Miljö". Detaljerade studier görs i Lycksele och Växjö. Denna rapport redovisar resultat från den spridningsmeteorologiska utvärderingen av mätkampanjen i Lycksele. Arbetet syftar till att utveckla verktyg för kommunal och regional planering, vad avser luftkvalitetsaspekter av biobränsleanvändning.Resultaten av denna undersökning kan sammanfattas på följande sätt: Signifikanta lokala haltbidrag, av förbränningspartiklar från vedeldning, uppmättes huvudsakligen under kalla dagar, då dygnmedeltemperaturen var under –10 grader. Antalet sådana dagar var knappt 30. Modellerna beskriver relativt väl dessa halter. Avvikelsen är störst vid Norrmalm. Under övrig tid var de lokala haltbidragen små. PM2.5 halterna var då i genomsnitt bara ca 2 g/m3 högre än bakgrundshalterna, uppmätta vid Vindeln. Modellerna överskattar då halterna, troligtvis beroende på för höga emissioner orsakat av för hög eldningsaktivitet. Det finns ett starkt samband mellan halter och temperatur. Temperaturberoende korrektionsfunktioner har tagits fram för att beskriva eldningsaktiviteten under mätperioden. Modellerna överensstämmer relativt väl med alla mätdata då eldningsaktiviteten beskrivs med hjälp av dessa funktioner. Emissionsdatabasen (EDB Tot03) överskattar därför troligtvis emissionerna av förbränningspartiklar från småskalig vedeldning. Analysen i denna rapport uppskattar emissionerna under beräkningsperioden till ca 30-50% jämfört med de i emissionsdatabasen. De högsta haltbidragen av förbränningspartiklar från vedeldning i Lycksele inträffar nära utsläppen, inom några 100 meters avstånd från främst närliggande samverkande icke miljögodkända pannor. Kaminernas betydelse för förhöjda halter är osäkra, vilket kommer att utredas i mer detalj när nya emissionsfaktorer erhållits.

  • 29.
    Segersson, David
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, Christer
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Nylen, Anders Engstrom
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Health Impact of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon Exposure Due to Different Source Sectors in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Umea, Sweden2017Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id 742Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30. Stockfelt, Leo
    et al.
    Andersson, Eva M.
    Molnar, Peter
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Segersson, David
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Barregard, Lars
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Long-term effects of total and source-specific particulate air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease in Gothenburg, Sweden2017Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 158, s. 61-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31. Willers, Saskia M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Charlotta
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Pershagen, Goran
    Bellander, Tom
    Fine and coarse particulate air pollution in relation to respiratory health in Sweden2013Inngår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 924-934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health effects have repeatedly been associated with residential levels of air pollution. However, it is difficult to disentangle effects of long-term exposure to locally generated and long-range transported pollutants, as well as to exhaust emissions and wear particles from road traffic. We aimed to investigate effects of exposure to particulate matter fractions on respiratory health in the Swedish adult population, using an integrated assessment of sources at different geographical scales. The study was based on a nationwide environmental health survey performed in 2007, including 25 851 adults aged 18-80 years. Individual exposure to particulate matter at residential addresses was estimated by dispersion modelling of regional, urban and local sources. Associations between different size fractions or source categories and respiratory outcomes were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for individual and contextual confounding. Exposure to locally generated wear particles showed associations for blocked nose or hay fever, chest tightness or cough, and restricted activity days with odds ratios of 1.5-2 per 10-mu g.m(-3) increase. Associations were also seen for locally generated combustion particles, which disappeared following adjustment for exposure to wear particles. In conclusion, our data indicate that long-term exposure to locally generated road wear particles increases the risk of respiratory symptoms in adults.

  • 32. Willers, Saskia M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Charlotta
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Pershagen, Goran
    Bellander, Tom
    Traffic Related Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Sweden: The Roadside Study2009Inngår i: EPIDEMIOLOGY, ISSN 1044-3983, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. S29-S30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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