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  • 1.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Modelling of near-surface ozone over South Asia2008Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 61-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hourly, three-dimensional, fields of tropospheric ozone have been produced for 12 consecutive months on a domain covering South Asia, using the regional Eulerian off-line chemistry transport model MATCH. The results were compared with background observations to investigate diurnal and seasonal variations of near-surface ozone in the region. MATCH reproduced the seasonality of near-surface ozone at most locations in the area. However, the current, and previous, studies indicate that the model consequently overestimate night-time concentrations, while it occasionally underestimates the day-time, near-surface, ozone concentrations. The lowest monthly-mean concentrations of near-surface ozone are typically experienced in June-September, coincident with the rainy season in most areas. The seasonality is not identical across the domain; some locations have a completely different trend. Large areas in Northern India and Nepal show a secondary minimum during the cold winter season (December-January). High concentrations of near-surface ozone are found over the oceans, close to the Indian subcontinent, due to the less efficient dry deposition to water surfaces; over parts of Tibet due to influence of free tropospheric air and little deposition to snow covered surfaces; and along the Gangetic valley due to the large emissions of precursors in this region. Monthly-mean ozone concentrations in the densely populated northern India range from 30-45 ppb(v). The model results were also used to produce maps of AOT40. The results point towards similar levels of AOT40 in India as in Europe: large areas of India show 3-month AOT40 values above 3 ppm(v) hours.

  • 2.
    Fogelqvist, Elisabet
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Krysell, Mikael
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    NATURALLY AND ANTHROPOGENICALLY PRODUCED BROMOFORM IN THE KATTEGATT, A SEMIENCLOSED OCEANIC BASIN1991Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 315-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of bromoform in seawater and atmosphere, as well as possible sinks and breakdown mechanisms, is discussed. A bromoform budget is calculated for the Kattegatt area between Sweden and Denmark, where the input of bromoform from a power plant is significant. Both anthropogenically (250 x 10(6) g yr-1) and biogenically (350 x 10(6) g yr-1, 0.016 g m-2 yr-1) produced bromoform is likely to have a great impact locally on the inventory and the release to the atmosphere. Using measured sur-face concentrations of bromoform, the total annual release from the Kattegatt to the atmosphere is estimated to 550 x 10(6) g (0.025 g m-2 yr-1).

  • 3. Silver, Jeremy D.
    et al.
    Christensen, Jesper H.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Rayner, Peter J.
    Brandt, Jorgen
    Multi-species chemical data assimilation with the Danish Eulerian hemispheric model: system description and verification2016Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 261-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4. Tilmes, S
    et al.
    Brandt, J
    Flatoy, F
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Flemming, J
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Christensen, J H
    Frohn, L M
    Hov, O
    Jacobsen, I
    Reimer, E
    Stern, R
    Zimmermann, J
    Comparison of five eulerian air pollution forecasting systems for the summer of 1999 using the German ozone monitoring data2002Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 91-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eulerian state-of-the-art air pollution forecasting systems on the European scale are operated routinely by several countries in Europe. DWD and FUB, both Germany, NERI, Denmark, NILU, Norway, and SMHI, Sweden, operate some of these systems. To apply such modeling systems, e.g. for regulatory purposes according to new EU directives, an evaluation and comparison of the model systems is fundamental in order to assess their reliability. One step in this direction is presented in this study: The model forecasts from all five systems have been compared to measurements of ground level ozone in Germany. The outstanding point in this investigation is the availability of a huge amount of data - from forecasts by the different model systems and from observations. This allows for a thorough interpretation of the findings and assures the significance of the observed features. Data from more than 300 measurement stations for a 5-month period (May-September 1999) of the German monitoring networks have been used in this comparison. Different spatial and temporal statistical parameters were applied in the evaluation. Generally, it was found that the most comprehensive models gave the best results. However, the less comprehensive and computational cheaper models also produced good results. The extensive comparison made it possible to point out weak points in the different models and to describe the individual model behavior for a full summer period in a climatological sense. The comparison also gave valuable information for an assessment of individual measurement stations and complete monitoring networks in terms of the representativeness of the observation data.

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