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  • 1.
    Bringfelt, Björn
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Heikinheimo, M
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Perov, Veniamin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Meteorologi.
    Lindroth, A
    A new land-surface treatment for HIRLAM - comparisons with NOPEX measurements1999Inngår i: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 98-9, s. 239-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the accuracy of forecasting near-surface atmospheric variables over a heterogeneous landscape, a framework of subgrid surface types and the ISBA parameterisation scheme for land surfaces have been tested in the operational weather forecast model HIRLAM, using a 5.5 km grid resolution. Surface energy fluxes measured during a single summer day at six fixed sites in the NOPEX area, representing agricultural fields, boreal forests and lakes, were used for verification. Both, in-situ field measurements and the HIRLAM simulation indicated that the Bowen ratio over forests was about twice as large as that of adjacent agricultural fields. This difference could be explained by the more effective turbulent mixing and larger surface resistance associated with the forest, thus making the sensible heat flux relatively large there. The use of initial soil moisture from a routine hydrological model gave improved agreement with measured surface fluxes and radiosonde temperature and humidity profiles compared to initialising from routine HIRLAM surface data. The differences in heat fluxes between the various surface types were also demonstrated by airborne flux measurements flown along a track at a height of ca. 100 m above the terrain. Modelled heat fluxes along the flight track were considerably smoothed due to the grid resolution used, e.g. the effect of a lake in reducing grid-averaged sensible heat flux could only be weakly detected, because the lake surface represented only 10% of the grid area. When the proportion of a contrasting surface type (lake) was altered from 10 to 100%, the surface fluxes calculated for the lake surface were almost unchanged; the results of the comparison did not provide evidence that more complex aggregation schemes for heat fluxes than straightforward area-weighted averaging would be required. The hourly variation of the modelled and simulated heat fluxes during the day studied could not be directly compared, because the simulated cloudiness did not exactly match that observed at the field sites. When the simulated net radiation was replaced with direct measurements, the model-based estimates of sensible and latent heat fluxes were closer to the corresponding field measurements. The divergence of sensible heat flux with height, as inferred from the tower measurements made over the forest, were supported by the aircraft measurements and the HIRLAM simulations. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Alexandersson, Hans
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen.
    OUR CHANGING CLIMATE1990Inngår i: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 50, nr 1-2, s. 55-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3. Halldin, S
    et al.
    Bergstrom, H
    Gustafsson, D
    Dahlgren, L
    SMHI.
    Hjelm, P
    Lundin, L C
    Mellander, P E
    Nord, T
    Jansson, P E
    Seibert, J
    Stahli, M
    Kishne, A S
    Smedman, A S
    Continuous long-term measurements of soil-plant-atmosphere variables at an agricultural site1999Inngår i: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 98-9, s. 75-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a major challenge in modem science to decrease the uncertainty in predictions of global climate change. One of the largest uncertainties in present-day global climate models resides with the understanding of processes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) system. Continuous, long-term data are needed to correctly quantify balances of water, energy and CO2 in this system and to correctly model them. It is the objective of this paper to demonstrate how a combined system of existing sensor, computer, and network technologies could be set up to provide continuous and reliable long-term SVAT-process data from an agricultural site under almost all weather conditions. A long-term climate-monitoring system within the framework of NOPEX was set up in 1993-1994 at the Marsta Meteorological Observatory (MMO). It is situated in a flat agricultural area where annual crops are cultivated on a heavy clay soil. It has successfully monitored relevant states and fluxes in the system, such as atmospheric fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapour and CO2, atmospheric profiles of wind speed, direction, and temperature, short- and long-wave radiation, soil temperature, soil-water contents, groundwater levels, and rainfall and snow depth. System uptime has been more than 90% for most of its components during the first 5 years of operation. Results from the first 5 years of operation has proven MMO to be an ideal site for intercomparison and intercalibration of radiometers and fast turbulence sensors, and for evaluation of other sensors, e.g., rain gauges. The long time series of radiation data have been valuable to establish numerical limits for a set of quality-control flags. MMO has served as a boundary-layer research station and results from NOPEX campaigns show how the dimensionless wind gradient depends not only on the traditional stability parameter z/L but also on the height of the convective boundary layer. Measurements at the observatory grounds and a neighbouring field show a considerable variability in surface properties, which must be accounted for when assessing budgets of heat and other scalars. Questions concerning long-term calibration plans, maintenance of sensors and data-collection system, and continuous development of the computer network to keep it up to date are, however, only partly of interest as a research project in itself. It is thus difficult to get it funded from usual research-funding agencies. The full value of data generated by the: MMO system can best be appreciated after a decade or more of continuous operation. Main uses of the data would be to evaluate how SVAT models handle the natural variability of climate conditions, quantification of water, carbon and energy budgets during various weather conditions, and development of new parameterisation schemes in global and regional climate models. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Jonsson, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Harding, Susanne
    Bärring, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Ravn, Hans Peter
    Impact of climate change on the population dynamics of Ips typographus in southern Sweden2007Inngår i: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 146, nr 1-2, s. 70-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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