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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Fogelqvist, Elisabet
    SMHI.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Fyrberg, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Palmén, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Sjöberg, Björn
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Zagradkin, Danuta
    SMHI.
    Haven runt Sverige 1991. Rapport från SMHI, Oceanografiska Laboratoriet, inklusive PMK - utsjöprogrammet: The conditions of the seas around Sweden. Report from the activities in 1991, including PMK - The National Swedish Programme for Monitoring of Environmental Quality Open Sea Programme1992Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Fogelqvist, Elisabet
    SMHI.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Fyrberg, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Palmén, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Zagradkin, Danuta
    SMHI.
    Yhlén, Bengt
    SMHI.
    Program för miljökvalitetsövervakning – PMK: Utsjöprogram under 19901991Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Sjöberg, Björn
    SMHI, Core Services.
    The conditions of the seas around Sweden: Report from activities in 19921993Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Sjöberg, Björn
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Krysell, Mikael
    SMHI, Core Services.
    The conditions of the seas around Sweden: Report from the activities in 19931994Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Long term trends in the seas surrounding Sweden: Part one - Nutrients2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this work is to present data as typical concentration values for different nutrients in the various sea areas, and how these have varied over time. The data presented cover a 30 year period which include both increased eutrophication and years with efforts to reduce antropological input of nutrients to the sea. Trends over 30 years have been calculated for various nutrient parameters. SMHI is the Swedish National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) to where several countries have supplied hydrographical data originating from various platforms (vessels, buoys etc.). Stations that have been in regular use for most parts of the last 30 years are included in the analysis. Due to different water characteristics, 14 sea areas are selected to represent the waters surrounding Sweden. In this report all available data from 1976 up till 2005 is used and presented in diagrams and tables. The figures of the parameters are presented as time series. Each parameter is divided into winter, summer, surface and bottom values. In the tables, information on a yearly basis is given to indicate changes that vary over time. Both a classical linear regression method and a non-parametric method (the Mann-Kendall) are used in the trend analysis to account for normal and non-normal distribution of the data. The trend magnitude and significance are also calculated. An overview of the results of significant trends of all the areas in the surface and the bottom for the winter and the summer are presented as arrows in a summary figure.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Pia
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hansson, Martin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bjurström, Joel
    Simonsson, Daniel
    Naturtypsbestämning av miljöövervakningsstationer SMHI pelagial miljöövervakning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sampling stations in the national environmental monitoring in the marine environment is not defined when it comes to habitat. This means that the environmental monitoring data collected cannot be properly used in the assessments connected to the Habitats Directive or the Marine Framework Strategy Directive. SwAM has funded and commissioned SMHI to explore the possibilities to in a simple manner classify the habitats for the SMHI monitoring stations. The project was intended to test the equipment and through drop video examine if it is possible, and if so, determine habitats for the open sea stations during the expedition in December, 2016. SMHI has designed a rig and conducted sampling at 11 of 25 monitoring stations. Lighting problems and weather conditions reduced the number of sampled stations. SMHI:s opinion is that the rig, with adjusted light source, is a good tool for visual investigation of the habitats at the monitoring stations in the open sea. However, we have proposed a number of adjustments to the rig to increase the quality of the images and videos and to increase the possibility to carry out further assessments of the material. Most of the images show very fine-grained material like silt / clay. A few species have been recorded and almost no vegetation. Most of the stations did not meet the criteria for the Habitat Directive . At two stations habitat was registered as 1160 Bays and sounds, containing1110 Sandbanks. For HUB Underwater biotopes, AB.H3O Baltic aphotic muddy sediments Characterized by infaunal echinoderms was registered at the station P2 and AB.M4U Baltic aphotic mixed substrate Characterized by no macro community was registered on stations BY5 and BY4. SMHI recommends a review of the collected material together with ArtDatabanken and / or additional expert to ensure the performed assessment, to ensure recommendations and to quality control and define the material to be reported to a data host. SMHI recommend additional visual sampling of the remaining stations, as well as additional sampling on stations where the quality of the image was inadequate, or where ArtDatabanken or a possible additional expert recommend additional sampling. Additional experts may recommend adding sediment sampling to the visual method at some stations. Performing visual sampling of all 25 stations, with one landing per station, will extend the expedition with approximately 11,5-13, hours.

  • 7.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Oceanographic applications of coastal radar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents the 2010 Coastal Radar Workshop organised by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute with support from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim of the report is to provide background information on coastal oceanographic radar for a wider professional audience and to provide a basis for further Nordic cooperation in the field of oceanographic (coastal) radar with the ultimate aim of establishing a Nordic network covering (initially) the shared waters of the Skagerrak and Kattegat.Information on currents in near real time is seldom available when needed by many day to day applications and services. Data are needed for safe and efficient ship routing in narrow areas of hightraffic such as in the northern Kattegat, Danish Straits, Bornholm Strait and the Gulf of Finland. At the entrances of major ports and where [environmentally] dangerous cargos are carried currentinformation can be of crucial importance. For this reason the Swedish Maritime Administration maintains current observations in critical areas. However, these are point measurements and in the waters mentioned above topography may alter currents both in strength and direction in nearby areas. Hence, complementary spatial information on the behaviour of currents is preferable.Access to high quality, spatially resolved current information is critical both for effective oil spill containment and greatly increases the chances for successful outcomes of search and rescue operations. Combining data from models and observations will reduce the search area in rescue operations and make planning and combat of oil spill operations more efficient. In addition, areal near real time current observations are likely to promote research and development related to fish larvae transports, the spread of alien species, improve oceanographic models and lead to the better understanding of ocean and coastal sea processes.The present workshop highlights and extends the knowledge base on European and US experiences, user needs and available technical systems for areal current observations. Taking into account thatNordic views are usually coherent, opportunities to coordinate and cooperate in establishing and running an operational pilot system at a Nordic level seem realistic. The workshop intends to lay the foundation for carrying this work further.

  • 8.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Temporal and spatial monitoring of eutrophication variables in CEMP2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The OSPAR Revised Eutrophication Monitoring Programme (ETG 05/3/Info.1-E) requests that nutrient "monitoring should include sufficient samples to confirm that the maximum winter nutrient concentration has been determined", while para. 7 of the Terms of Reference for the preparation of guidance on the spatial and temporal resolution of monitoring for nutrients and eutrophication effects (ICG 003) states that "there are at least nine different water types covered by the OSPAR Maritime Area"..."guidance must, therefore, be at least complex enough to cover each type with sufficient clarity to guide contracting parties in their evaluation of the temporal and spatial coverage required to adequately assess the relevant water body".This document summarises the national reports submitted to the OSPAR Intersessional Correspondence Group on Eutrophication Monitoring, and highlights common problems faced in the monitoring of (primarily) inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll. In addition, it presents tests of different approaches to solving the spatial and temporal sampling problems associated with delivering marine eutrophication data.Based on tests of model data, monthly sampling appears adequate to give a good estimate of annual mean concentrations. Buoy data suggests that this would not be sufficient where there is tidal variability. It was not possible to determine maximum concentrations through a practical ship sampling scheme, or by using extreme value statistics.The optimum sampling programme to observe rapid events is likely to be a combination of ferrybox systems, which appear to be reliable and give both good spatial and temporal coverage, combined with buoy observations. To ensure data of sufficient quality, these must be controlled against conventional research vessel observations. Research vessels still have a role in seasonal mapping, and in providing data of sufficient quality for trend analysis from a large area. This is likely to remain so, at leastuntil technologies such as gliders and optical nutrient sensors become widely available and capable of delivering reliable, high quality data.

  • 9.
    Axe, Philip
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lindow, Helma
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hydrographic Conditions Around Offshore Banks2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the results of an investigation into hydrographic and hydrochemical conditions over ten offshore banks around the coast of south Sweden. Four of these banks are situated in the Kattegat. The remainder lie in the southern and western Baltic Proper. The investigation included field sampling, where each bank was visited on one occasion, and the temperature and salinity structure mapped while the concentrations of nutrients were measured. These data were analysed, and results compared and complemented with predictions from operational numerical models (for currents and waves). The banks are areas with strong horizontal gradients in temperature and salinity. They influence the large scale circulation, steering mean currents through the deeper water, resulting in the mean currents over the banks being weak. The influence of short term wind events are significant however, with intense, short-lived currents occurring over the banks. Nutrient concentrations in the waters above the banks were very similar to those in the adjacent basins. Immediately over the bottom however, silicate concentrations were often higher than at similar depths away from the banks. Similarly, oxygen saturation immediately above the bottom was frequently lower than in mid-water at the same depth. In the Kattegat, large areas are at risk from seasonal oxygen deficiency. The shallow nature of the banks however often means that they escape the worst impacts.

  • 10.
    Axe, Philip
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Wesslander, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kronsell, Johan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Confidence rating for OSPAR COMP2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the adoption of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive, EU Member States are obliged to achieve “Good” or “Good Environmental” Status within a certain time frame, or be obliged to take remedial action. There is therefore a need to quantify the quality of the monitoring programmes on which such status assessments are based, as a part of assessing the confidence in the status assessment. Within the framework of the OSPAR Convention on the Protection of the North East Atlantic, Germany and the Netherlands presented a suggestion for how such an assessment could be made. This report documents the application of this methodology to stations in the Swedish National Monitoring Programme within the OSPAR area, and also within the Sound, which may in future be included in the Greater North Sea region under the Marine Strategy Directive. The variability of eutrophication parameters with salinity was examined. In the Kattegat, inorganic nutrient variability was least at the highest salinities, suggesting that a reliable status assessment could be made more easily with data from this region, for example, rather than in the dynamic near coast region. Assessing the coverage of the existing monitoring programme, it was found that horizontal gradients in assessment parameters (generally seasonal averages) varied by less than about 30% between stations, which suggests that the programme has reasonable spatial coverage, though additional stations would improve matters. Looking at each station individually, the current vertical sampling resolution appears adequate for most parameters, apart from chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients during the growing season. Temporal coverage is adequate for the total nutrient concentrations, but is insufficient for the inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll a, as well as for the deep water oxygen concentration in the Sound. The poor temporal coverage of chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients could be relatively easily improved by the addition of a two channel (nitrate + nitrite, and orthophosphate) autoanalyser onto the existing ferrybox platforms in use in these waters. Addressing these problems using traditional measuring platforms and buoys would be more costly. The poor temporal coverage of chlorophyll a and inorganic nutrients could be relatively easily improved by the addition of a two channel (nitrate + nitrite, and orthophosphate) autoanalyser onto the existing ferrybox platforms in use in these waters. Addressing these problems using traditional measuring platforms and buoys would be more costly.

  • 11.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    BSRA-15: A Baltic Sea Reanalysis 1990–20042013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oceanographic observations are often of high quality but are available only with low resolution in time and space. On the other hand, model fields have high resolution in time and space but are not necessarily in agreement with observations. To bridge the gap between these very different kinds of data sets, a reanalysis can be made, which means that fixed versions of the numerical model and the data assimilation system are used to analyse a period of several years. This report describes an oceanographic reanalysis covering the period 1990 to 2004 (15 whole years). The horizontal resolution is 3 nautical miles in the Baltic Sea and 12 nautical miles in the North Sea, and the vertical resolution varies between 4 meters near the surface to 60 meters in the deepest part (up to 24 vertical layers). The time resolution of the reanalysis product is 6 hours. The numerical ocean model used is HIROMB (High-Resolution Operational Model for the Baltic), version 3.0. The data assimilation method used in this reanalysis is the Successive Corrections Method (SCM) for salinity and temperature, whereas ice observations in terms of ice charts were simply interpolated. The result looks good in terms of sea levels, ice fields, and salinity and temperature structure, whereas currents have not been validated. This oceanographic reanalysis was probably the first one ever for the Baltic Sea (when it was done in 2005) and may serve as a starting point before longer, more advanced reanalyses are produced.

  • 12.
    Bäck, Örjan
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Wenzer, Magnus
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mapping winter nutrient concentrations in the OSPAR maritime area using Diva2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Diva software (Data Interpolating Variational Analysis) software was used to create interpolated gridded fields for nutrient concentrations in the OSPAR maritime area to support the ongoing process to develop common indicators for the MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Data were downloaded from the ICES database and maps created for DIN, DIP and silicate for the winter months (December – February) covering the period 2006-2013. Lack of data in areas I and V shifted focus to regions II, III and IV. The most prominent results from the analysis are the high values of nutrient concentrations found along the southern shore of the North Sea. The lack of data both at a large scale in OSPAR areas I and V and at a smaller scale near the coast, in particular close to river outlets, is the biggest source of error in the Diva analyses. It is evident that there is a need to increase the data coverage for the future work with indicators and for assessment purposes.

  • 13.
    Carlberg, Stig
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Engström, Sven
    SMHI.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Palmén, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Fyrberg, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Yhlén, Bengt
    SMHI.
    Szaron, Jan
    SMHI.
    Program för miljökvalitetsövervakning – PMK: Utsjöprogram under 19891990Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Carlberg, Stig
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Engström, Sven
    SMHI.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Palmén, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Thelén, Eva-Gun
    SMHI.
    Fyrberg, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Program för miljökvalitetsövervakning – PMK: Utsjöprogram under 19861987Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Carlberg, Stig
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Engström, Sven
    SMHI.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Palmén, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Thelén, Eva-Gun
    SMHI.
    Fyrberg, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Zagradkin, Danuta
    SMHI.
    Program för miljökvalitetsövervakning – PMK: Utsjöprogram under 19871988Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Carlberg, Stig
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Engström, Sven
    SMHI.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Palmén, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Thelén, Eva-Gun
    SMHI.
    Fyrberg, Lotta
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Zagradkin, Danuta
    SMHI.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Szaron, Jan
    SMHI.
    Program för miljökvalitetsövervakning – PMK: Utsjöprogram under 19881989Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Carlberg, Stig
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Engström, Sven
    SMHI.
    Fonselius, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Palmén, Håkan
    SMHI.
    Thelén, Eva-Gun
    SMHI.
    Thorstenson, Bodil
    SMHI.
    Program för miljökvalitetsövervakning – PMK1986Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Dieterich, Christian
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Wang, Shiyu
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Väli, Germo
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Liu, Ye
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Evaluation of the SMHI coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean model RCA4-NEMO2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThe regional, coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean model RCA4-NEMO developed at the SMHI is evaluated on the basis of an ERA40 hindcast. While the development of the regional climate model is continuing a first assessment is presented here to allow for an orientation about the status guo. RCA4-NEMO in its present form consists of two model components. The regional atmosphere model RCA4 covers the whole of Europe and is interactvely coupled to a North Sea and Baltic Sea ice-ocean model based on NEMO. RCA4-NEMO is currently being used to downscale CMIP5 scenarios for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region for this century. As a part of the validation of RCA4-NEMO we present an analysis and discussion of the hindcast period 1970-1999. The model realization is compared to observational records. Near surface temperatures and heat fluxes compare reasonably well with records of in-situ measurments and satellite derived estimates. For salinities and freshwater fluxes the agreement with observations in not satisfactory yet. The momentum fluxes transferred from the atmosphere to the ice-ocean model are identified as on of the sensitive processes in the coupling of both model components. Except for the freshwater exchange between atmosphere and ocean the climatological near surface properties and corresponding fluxes compare well with climatological estimates for the period 1970-1999.

  • 19.
    Eilola, Kari
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lindqvist, Stina
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Edman, Moa
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Bartoli, Marco
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Burska, Dorota
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hellemann, Dana
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hietanen, Susanna
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hulth, Stefan
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janas, Urszula
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Kendzierska, Halina
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Pryputniewicz-Flis, Dorota
    Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Voss, Maren
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Zilius, Mindaugas
    Klaipeda University, Lithuania.
    Linking process rates with modellingdata and ecosystem characteristics2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is related to the BONUS project “Nutrient Cocktails in COAstal zones of the Baltic Sea” alias COCOA. The aim of BONUS COCOA is to investigate physical, biogeochemical and biological processes in a combined and coordinated fashion to improve the understanding of the interaction of these processes on the removal of nutrients along the land-sea interface. The report is especially related to BONUS COCOA WP 6 in which the main objective is extrapolation of results from the BONUS COCOA learning sites to coastal sites around the Baltic Sea in general. Specific objectives of this deliverable (D6.4) were to connect observed process rates with modelling data and ecosystem characteristics.

    In the report we made statistical analyses of observations from BONUS COCOA study sites together with results from the Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM). Eight structural variables (water depth, temperature, salinity, bottom water concentrations of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate and phosphate, as well as nitrogen content in sediment) were found common to both the experimentally determined and the model data sets. The observed process rate evaluated in this report was denitrification. In addition regressions were tested between observed denitrification rates and several structural variables (latitude, longitude, depth, light, temperature, salinity, grain class, porosity, loss of ignition, sediment organic carbon, total nitrogen content in the sediment,  sediment carbon/nitrogen-ratio, sediment chlorphyll-a as well as bottom water concentrations of oxygen, ammonium, nitrate, and dissolved inorganic  phosphorus and silicate) for pooled data from all learning sites.

    The statistical results showed that experimentally determined multivariate data set from the shallow, illuminated stations was mainly found to be similar to the multivariate data set produced by the SCM model. Generally, no strong correlations of simple relations between observed denitrification and available structural variables were found for data collected from all the learning sites. We found some non-significant correlation between denitrification rates and bottom water dissolved inorganic phosphorous and dissolved silica but the reason behind the correlations is not clear.

    We also developed and evaluated a theory to relate process rates to monitoring data and nutrient retention. The theoretical analysis included nutrient retention due to denitrification as well as burial of phosphorus and nitrogen. The theory of nutrient retention showed good correlations with model results. It was found that area-specific nitrogen and phosphorus retention capacity in a sub-basin depend much on mean water depth, water residence time, basin area and the mean nutrient concentrations in the active sediment layer and in the water column.

  • 20.
    Fransson, L.
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Stehn, L.
    SMHI.
    Sea ice properties studied from the ice-breaker Tor during BEPERS-881989Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Funquist, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    An operational Baltic Sea circulation model: Part 1. Barotropic version1993Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Funquist, Lennart
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eckhard, Kleine
    SMHI.
    An introduction to HIROMB, an operational baroclinic model for the Baltic Sea2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A3-dimensional baroclinic model of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, designed for a daily operational use is described in detail. The model is based on a similar model running in operational mode at the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in Hamburg, Germany. The operational forecasts started in 1995 with a daily 24-hour forecast and was later extended to 48 hours. The model is mainly forced by SMHI's operational atmospheric model (HIRLAM), but also by river runoff from an operational hydrological model and wave radition stress from a wind wave model. The present version of the model is set up on a nested grid where a 12 nautical mile (nm) grid covers the whole area while Skagerrak, Kattegat, the Belt Sea and the Baltic Sea are covered with a 1 nm grid. A parallelized version of the model has been developed and runs on a distributed memory parallel computer.

  • 23.
    Funquist, Lennart
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kleine, Eckhard
    SMHI.
    Application of the BSH model to Kattegat and Skagerrak1995Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Funquist, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Murthy, Ray
    SMHI.
    Calculations of horizontal exchange coefficients using Eulerian time series current meter data from the Baltic Sea1986Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2013: Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A climatology atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea was first published in 2011 in SMHI Report Oceanography No 42. Since 2011, annual updates have been made as additional data have been reported to ICES. In this report the results for 2012 have been updated and the preliminary results for 2013 are presented. Oxygen data from 2013 have been collected during the annual Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) and from national monitoring programmes with contributions from Sweden, Poland, Finland, Estonia Lithuania, and Latvia. For the autumn period, August to October, each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representing the depth at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions are found. The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transformed to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period. The updated results for 2012 and the preliminary results for 2013 show that the extreme oxygen conditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continue. Both the areal extent and the volume of anoxia have, after the regime shift, been constantly elevated to levels only observed occasionally before the regime shift. In the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga ~15% of the bottom areas was affected by anoxia and ~30% by hypoxia during 2013.

  • 26.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2014: Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A climatological atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea was first published in 2011 in SMHI Report Oceanography No 42. Since 2011, annual updates have been made as additional data have been reported to ICES. In this report the results for 2013 have been updated and the preliminary results for 2014 are presented. Oxygen data from 2014 have been collected during the annual Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) and from national monitoring programmes with contributions from Sweden, Poland, Estonia Lithuania, and Germany. For the autumn period, August to October, each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representing the depth at which hypoxic respectively anoxic conditions are found. The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transformed to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period. The updated results for 2013 and the preliminary results for 2014 show that the extreme oxygen conditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continue. Both the areal extent and the volume with anoxic conditions have, after 1999, been constantly elevated to levels only observed occasionally before the regime shift. In the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga approximately 15% of the bottom area was affected by anoxia and around 25% by hypoxia during 2014. En klimatologisk atlas över syresituationen i Östersjöns djupvatten publicerades 2011 i SMHIs Report Oceanography No 42. Sedan 2011 har årliga uppdateringar gjorts då kompletterande data från länder runt Östersjön har rapporerats till ICES. I denna rapport har resultaten från 2013 uppdaterats. De preliminära resultaten för 2014 baseras på data insamlade under Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) och nationell miljööver-vakning med bidrag från Estland, Litauen, Tyskland, Polen och Sverige.Förekomsten av hypoxi (syrebrist) och anoxi (helt syrefria förhållanden) under höstperioden, augusti till oktober, har undersökts i varje mätprofil. Djupet där hypoxi eller anoxi först påträffas i en profil har interpolerats mellan provtagningsstationer och kombinerats med en djupdatabas för beräkning av utbredning och volym av hypoxiska och anoxiska förhållanden. Resultaten har överförts till kartor och diagram för att visualisera syre-situationen i Östersjöns djupvatten.Resultaten för 2013 och de preliminära resultaten för 2014 visar att de extrema syreförhållanden som observerats i Egentliga Östersjön efter regimskiftet 1999 fortsätter. Utbredningen av anoxi fortsätter att vara konstant förhöjd till nivåer som bara observerats i Östersjön vid enstaka år före 1999. Under 2013 beräknas ungefär 15 % av bottnarna i Egentliga Östersjön, Finska viken och Rigabukten vara påverkade av anoxiska förhållanden och cirka 25% av hypoxi.

  • 27.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2015: Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-2015. The major inflow in December 20142016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A climatological atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea was first published in 2011 in SMHI Report Oceanography No 42. Since 2011, annual updates have been made as additional data have been reported to ICES. In this report the results for 2014 have been updated and the preliminary results for 2015 are presented. Oxygen data from 2015 have been collected during the annual Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) and from national monitoring programmes with contributions from Sweden, Finland, Poland, Estonia and Germany. For the autumn period, August to October, each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representing the depth at which hypoxic respectively anoxic conditions are found. The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transformed to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period. The updated results for 2014 and the preliminary results for 2015 show that the extreme oxygen conditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continue. Both the areal extent and the volume with anoxic conditions have, after 1999, been constantly elevated to levels only observed occasionally before the regime shift. Despite the major inflow to the Baltic Sea in December 2014 approximately 16% of the bottom area was affected by anoxia and 29% by hypoxia during 2015.

  • 28.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2016 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20162016Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Areal Extent and Volume of Anoxia and Hypnoxia in the Baltic Sea, 1960-20112011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A climatology atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea from 1960 to 2011 has been created based on all available data from ICES. Additional data collected during the Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) have been added to the year 2011. For the autumn period, each profile in the data set was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of the onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representing the depth at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions are found. The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transformed to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period. From the analysed oxygen data 1960-2011 a distinct regime shift has been identified in 1999. During the first regime, 1960 to 1999, hypoxia affected large areas and volumes while anoxic conditions affected only minor deep areas. After the regime shift in 1999 both the areal extent and volume of hypoxia and anoxia are elevated to levels never recorded before. The bottom areas of the Baltic Proper (including the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga) affected by anoxic conditions have increased from 5%, before the regime shift, to 15% after, i.e. by a factor of 3. The extent of hypoxia has increased from 22% to 28%, i.e. by a factor of ~1.3. Excluding the results from 2011, which are preliminary, the largest areal extent of anoxia, 18%, in the Baltic Proper was recorded in 2005 and the largest affected water volume, 10%, was recorded in 2001. The cause and ecosystem effects of the new behaviour of the Baltic Sea that has been recognized after the regime shift, with continuously extreme oxygen conditions, are still not fully understood. However, there are several likely contributory and concurrent causes to the recent development such as changes in winds, changes in frequency and characteristics of inflows, increased loading of organic matter to the deep water, altered vertical mixing and stratification, and changed freshwater runoff. Historically, the oxygen development in the deep water of the Baltic Sea has been investigated in detail and most of the processes involved, both physical and chemical, have been described. But the development during the 2000s is alarming and should be investigated thoroughly. The areal extent and volume of hypoxia have today probably reached the maximal possible extent due to the permanent stratification in the Baltic Proper. However, the extent and volume of anoxic conditions can still increase, which further can enhance the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea due to released phosphorus from sediments that previously have been oxygenated. Sammanfattning En klimatologisk atlas av syresituationen i Östersjöns djupvatten från 1960 till 2011 har skapats baserad på all tillgänglig data från ICES. Ytterligare data från Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) har inkluderats separat för 2011. Förekomsten av hypoxi (syrebrist) och anoxi (helt syrefria förhållanden) under höstperioden har undersökts i varje mätprofil. Djupet då hypoxi eller anoxi först påträffas i en profil har interpolerats mellan provtagningsstationer och kombinerats med en djupdatabas för beräkning av utbredning och volym av hypoxiska och anoxiska förhållanden. Resultaten har överförts till kartor och diagram för att visualisera syresituationen i Östersjöns djupvatten. Utifrån analyserade data från perioden 1960-2011 har ett distinkt regimskifte skett 1999. Under den första regimen, från 1960 till 1999, påverkade hypoxi stora områden och volymer, medan anoxi enbart påverkade mindre djupområden. Efter regimskiftet 1999 har andelen hypoxi och anoxi förhöjts till nivåer som aldrig tidigare observerats i Östersjöns djupvatten. Utbredningen av bottnar påverkade av anoxi har i medeltal ökat från 5% av Egentliga Östersjöns (inklusive Finska viken och Rigabukten) bottenarea till 15%, i och med regimskiftet, d.v.s. med en faktor 3. Utbredningen av hypoxi har också ökat från 22% till 28% d.v.s. med en faktor ~1.3. Den största utbredningen av anoxi, 18%, i Egentliga Östersjön observerades 2005 och den största påverkade vattenvolymen, 10%, noterades 2001. Utvecklingen i Östersjön med fortsatt extrema syreförhållanden efter regimskiftet och dess orsaker och konsekvenser för Östersjöns ekosystem är idag inte helt klarlagd. Det finns emellertid flera troliga orsaker som kan samverka såsom; förändrade vindförhållanden, förändrad frekvens och karaktäristik av inflöden, ökad belastning av organiskt material till djupvattnet, förändrad vertikal omblandning samt skiktning och ändrad tillrinning till Östersjön. Historiskt så har syreförhållanden i Östersjön undersökts i detalj och de flesta processer, både fysiska och kemiska finns beskrivna. Men utvecklingen under 2000-talet är alarmerande och måste noggrant undersökas. Utbredningen och volymen av hypoxi har idag (2011) antagligen nått den övre gränsen för vad som är fysiskt möjligt med den permanenta skiktning som finns i Östersjön. De anoxiska förhållandena kan dock fortsatt öka om den negativa utvecklingen fortsätter, vilket ytterligare kan förvärra övergödningsproblematiken i Östersjön då mer fosfor kan frigöras från bottnar som tidigare varit syresatta.

  • 30.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Szaron, Jan
    SMHI.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2012: Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    En klimatologisk atlas av syresituationen i Östersjöns djupvatten publicerades 2011 i SMHIs Report Oceanography No 42. Resultaten för 2011 var preliminära och har i denna rapport uppdaterats då ny data har rapporterats till ICES. Resultaten för 2012 är preliminära och är baserade på syredata insamlade under Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) med bidrag från Sverige, Polen, Estland och Finland. Data från SMHIs egna ordinarie expeditioner har också inkluderats.Förekomsten av hypoxi (syrebrist) och anoxi (helt syrefria förhållanden) under höstperioden, augusti till oktober, har undersökts i varje mätprofil. Djupet då hypoxi eller anoxi först påträffas i en profil har interpolerats mellan provtagningsstationer och kombinerats med en djupdatabas för beräkning av utbredning och volym av hypoxiska och anoxiska förhållanden. Resultaten har överförts till kartor och diagram för att visualisera syresituationen i Östersjöns djupvatten.Resultaten för 2011 och de preliminära resultaten för 2012 visar att de extrema syreförhållanden som observerat i Egentliga Östersjön efter regimskiftet 1999 fortsätter. Andelen områden påverkade av hypoxi och anoxi fortsätter att vara förhöjda till nivåer som aldrig tidigare observerats i Östersjöns djupvatten.

  • 31.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2017 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A climatological atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea was firstpublished in 2011 in SMHI Report Oceanography No 42. Since 2011, annual updates have beenmade as additional data have been reported to ICES. In this report the results for 2016 havebeen updated and the preliminary results for 2017 are presented. Oxygen data from 2017 havebeen collected during the annual Baltic International Acoustic Survey (BIAS) and from nationalmonitoring programmes with contributions from Sweden, Finland and Poland.For the autumn period each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia(oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia andanoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representingthe depth at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions respectively are found. The volume and areaof hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transformed to mapsand diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period.The updated results for 2016 and the preliminary results for 2017 show that the severe oxygenconditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continue. Both the areal extent andthe volume with anoxic conditions have, after 1999, been constantly elevated to levels onlyobserved occasionally before the regime shift. Despite the frequent inflows to the Baltic Seaduring the period 2014-2016 approximately 18% of the bottom area was affected by anoxia and28% by hypoxia during 2017. The hydrogen sulphide has, due to the inflows, disappeared fromthe Eastern and Northern Gotland Basin. However, the oxygen concentrations in the deep waterare still near zero and signs of increasing hydrogen sulphide close to the bottom have beenobserved during 2017.Sammanfattning

  • 32.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2018 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A climatological atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea was first published in 2011 in SMHI Report Oceanography No 42. Since 2011, annual updates have been made as additional data have been reported to the ICES data center. In this report the results for 2017 has been updated and the preliminary results for 2018 are presented. Oxygen data from 2018 have been collected from various sources such as international trawl survey, national monitoring programmes and research projects with contributions from Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Russia, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. For the autumn period each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representing the depth at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions respectively are found. The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transferred to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period. The updated results for 2017 and the preliminary results for 2018 show that the severe oxygen conditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continue. Both the areal extent and the volume with anoxic conditions have, after 1999, been constantly elevated to levels only observed occasionally before the regime shift. Despite the frequent inflows to the Baltic Sea during the period 2014-2016 approximately 22% of the bottom area was affected by anoxia and 32% by hypoxia during 2018. The preliminary results indicate that this is the largest area affected by anoxia during the analysed period, starting 1960. The hydrogen sulphide that had disappeared from the Eastern and Northern Gotland Basin due to the inflows in 2014-2016 is now steadily increasing in the deep water again.

  • 33.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    An, B.W.
    SMHI.
    Haapala, J.
    SMHI.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    A 3D Ocean Modelling Configuration for Baltic & North Sea Exchange Analysis: BaltiX V 1.12013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for having a reliable numerical representation of the exchanges between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea from many points of view. First, the North Sea is the salt provider of the BalticSea, but also the oxygen provider of the lowermost layers of the Baltic Sea. This means that any numerical analysis which has for goal to study the long term changes in this exchange can not rely on a model of the Baltic Sea that has an open boundary condition at the entrance of the Baltic Sea (i.e.: the Kattegat area). In order to represent the long term changes in the exchanges between the NorthSea and the Baltic Sea, one needs to consider the coupling between these two basins which have a very different dynamical behaviour which means one needs to consider them as a whole. This meansthat any regional model should have its open boundary condition further away from the entrance of the Baltic Sea, that is in a place that is remote enough to allow a buffer large enough in the North Sea,so that the SSH variability at the entrance of the Baltic Sea is well represented [7].Second, the Baltic Sea outflow has a great influence on the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC hereafter) which is also interesting to study, and which can only be well represented if the wind effect over the Baltic Sea is taken into account [9].Many models were successfully applied to the Baltic Sea or/and to the North Sea/Baltic Sea area. On can cite the Rossby Centre Ocean model RCO [15], which successfully represents the thermo-haline as well as the ice structures and variability of the Baltic Sea. One can also cite HIROMB [6], which is a North & Baltic Seas numerical representation used in operational oceanography.However, all these modelling structures lack in at least one of the following points :They include only the Baltic Sea area, which makes impossible the study of the exchanges withthe North Sea.- They were mostly used for operational purpose, and do not have stability properties in terms ofBaltic salt content which does not make them suitable for long term studies.- They do not follow anymore the framework of a community model, and therefore do not benefit of the recent scientific or technical developments implemented in most ocean modelling platform.- A Baltic & North Sea setup is also necessary for long term coupled simulations.There was therefore a need to build a new Baltic & North Sea configuration, based on a community modelling framework, and designed to follow this framework eventually.BaltiX is a Baltic & North Sea configuration based on the NEMO [14] ocean engine. Its development was started in 2011 at SMHI (Swedish Meteorological & Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden). It follows closely the development of the NEMO ocean engine, and BaltiX is updated each time an update is done in it.In the present report, Section 2 describes the configuration and explains the choices that have been made to build it. Based on a simulation done for the period 1961-2007, we then present several results. Section 3 presents a barotropic analysis of the results provided by the configuration, and Section 4 presents results in terms of salinity and temperature variability. Section 5 has been specifically written to present the sea-ice model coupled to BaltiX and its effects in terms of sea-ice variability. A last part provides a short conclusion to the present report.

  • 34.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Ice reconnaissance and forecasts in Storfjorden, Svalbard1988Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Kattegat and Skagerrak OSPAR ASSESSMENT 20022003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Long time series covering the last 30 years show that with few exceptions the environmental conditions has not improved in Skagerrak and Kattegat since the 1970s. One exception is that the levels of DIP decreased during the 1990s and reached the same level as in the 1970s. However, it is difficult to evaluate the statistical significance of this trend. A general point of view which supports the conclusion about a decrease in DIP is that even though the river runoff during the period 1998 to 2000 approached the runoff found during 1985 to 1988, the DIP concentrations is not as high during 1998-2000 as compared to 1985-1988. Another parameter, which indicates a reversal of the inferior environmental conditions, is the deepwater oxygen concentration in Kattegat during the 1990s. However, the situation is far from acceptable, since this area is still severely affected by seasonal hypoxia. The monitoring data show that concentrations of DIP, DIN, deepwater oxygen and to some extent chlorophyll a co-vary with the variations in runoff from adjacent land areas, which in turn are related to the nutrient load. Periods of high runoff to the Swedish West Coast and the Baltic Sea rise the levels of the above mentioned parameters, whereas the concentrations decrease during dry periods. Typically, these periods are lasting for some years forcing the DIP, DIN, deepwater oxygen and Chlorophyll a to vary with an amplitude of approximately with 0.1 µM, 1 µM, 1 mg/l and 1 µg/l, respectively. The assessment clearly indicates that the Swedish parts of the Kattegat and Skagerrak are affected by eutrophication. Several of the investigated parameters in this assessment points towards eutrophication, such as for zoobenthos, organic carbon and nitrogen in sediments, some macroalgae, plankton, nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll and algae toxins. The anthropogenically-derived nutrients brought to the two sea areas have origin both from domestic and transboundary sources. Due to the complex hydrographic situation in the Kattegat and Skagerrak with huge exchanges of water masses from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea as well as high atmospheric nitrogen deposition (cf. Table 7), Swedish abatement measures will only affect the Swedish coastal area. At present there are no clear signs that the eutrophication status in the two sea areas will improve in the near future.

  • 36.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Kattegat and the Skagerrak: OSPAR ASSESSMENT 20022003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and wide distribution of eutrophication effects due to excess nutrient loading in certain parts of the North Sea are an issue of concern. Elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are clearly detectable in many estuaries and along most of the coastline from northern France to Denmark, sections of the south-eastern English coast, and in parts of the Skagerrak and the Kattegat. It is generally acknowledged that the high nutrient load can cause increased biomass and extensive phytoplankton blooms. These may occasionally include harmful species. Negative impacts include periodic disturbances such as oxygen depletion and subsequent increased mortality of benthic organisms, as well as long-term changes in the abundance and diversity of animal and plant communities.The Contracting Parties of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) have agreed to take all possible steps to prevent and eliminate pollution and to take the necessary measures to protect the maritime area against adverse effects of human activities. OSPAR’s objective with regard to eutrophication is to combat eutrophication in the OSPAR maritime area, in order to achieve a healthy marine environment where eutrophication does not occur by 2010.Following this, the Commission has undertaken to identify by 2002 the eutrophication status of all parts of the Convention Area which will reported to the OSPAR Ministerial Meeting in 2003. This report comprises an assessment of the eutrophication status of the Swedish parts of the Kattegat and Skagerrak as a contribution to this joint evaluation.

  • 37.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lindahl, Odd
    Kristineberg Marine Research Station.
    Rosenberg, Rutger
    SMHI.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Kattegat and the Skagerrak: OSPAR ASSESSMENT 20072007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface area of the Kattegat and the Skagerrak, located in the eastern North Sea, is about 22 000 km2 and 32 000 km2, and the mean depth is about 23 m and 210 m, respectively. The Skagerrak and the Kattegat forms the inner end of the Norwegian trench, which has the characteristics of a deep (700 m) fjord connecting the Baltic Sea with theNorwegian Sea (e.g. Rodhe, 1987). The sill depth of the fjord is about 270 m. The Kattegat offshore and inshore waters were identified as problem areas, whereas the Inshore Skagerrak waters the OSPAR categories I - IV indicate a slight incoherence in the assessment, although with an overalljudgement to be identifi ed as a problem area. The offshore Skagerrak was identified as a non problem area, according to the OSPAR Comprehensive Procedure. (OSPAR Commission, 2005).

  • 38.
    Johansen, Marie
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Andersson, Pia
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Long term trends in the seas surrounding Sweden: Part two - Pelagic biology2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents trends in the phytoplankton community. Data on the occurrence of both chlorophyll a (hereafter Chl a) as well as phytoplankton community structure and biovolume are presented.Water transparency in terms of Secchi depth is also presented, as a secondary effect of phytoplankton occurrence. Due to differing water characteristics, 14 sea areas have been selected to represent the waters surrounding Sweden. These areas are identical to the ones chosen in the earlier nutrient report to facilitate comparison. In this report all available data up to and including 2008 are presented as graphs and tables. Each variable is divided into three different seasons: spring, summer and autumn. Trends are only shown for comparable depths. A classical linear regression method is used for phytoplankton groups, Chl a and Secchi depth. The trend magnitude and signifi cance are also calculated for Chl a and Secchi depth. Anoverview of the results are presented for Chl a and Secchi depth.The data presented in this report encourage further development of phytoplankton indicators that not only consider total biovolume or Chl a but rather consider different groups or species in the future. Thesechanges can be important indicators for both eutrophication but can also enhance the understanding of food web interactions.

  • 39.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    The Chattonella-bloom in year 2001 and effects of high freshwater input from river Göta Älv to the Kattegat-Skagerrak area2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In autumn year 2000 and winter-spring 2001 the precipitation in the catchment area of Lake Vänern was higher than normal. During spring 2001, the flow in river Göta älv was around 1200 m3/s, nearly three times higher than the average indicating extreme conditions. The flow in the smaller rivers entering the Bohus coast is minor compared to river Göta Älv. To investigate possible effects on the marine environment in the area close to the river mouth an investigation with weekly sampling at four locations was initated by SMHI. Physical and chemical variables in the water was measured as well as phytoplankton composition and abundance. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Water Quality Association of the Bohus Coast co-funded the investigation together with SMHI. Effects on the water quality such as low surface salinities, high concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved phosphate and silicate compared to monthly averages 1990-99 was observed close to the river mouth but not off shore. Effects on the Secchi depth were not observed. On a few occassion high phytoplankton biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, was observed. At other locations along the Bohus coast effects where absent or small. Primary productivity measurements at the mouth of the Gullmar Fjord, showed no effects from the river outflow. During the investigation a bloom of the harmful alga Chattonella sp. occurred in the Kattetat and the Skagerrak.. The bloom of this small flagellate, which is described in the report, is probably not connected to the river input. A unique or unusual feature of the Chattonella-bloom is that it occured in cold water right after the diatom spring bloom in early March. In conclusion the effects of the extreme flooding were less than expected, the fresh water from the river were quickly mixed with the water in the sea and only small effects were seen. No connection between the flooding and the Chattonella bloom was detected.

  • 40.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Funquist, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kaitala, Seppo
    FIMR, Finnish Institute for Marine Research/SYKE Marine Centre.
    Sørensen, Kai
    NIVA, Norwegian Institute for Water Research.
    Infrastructure for marine monitoring and operational oceanography2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated systems for observing physical, chemical and biological conditions in the sea are being implemented worldwide as part of the Global Ocean Observing System. This report describes their use in the Baltic and the Skagerrak-Kattegat areas. An evaluation of the use of FerryBox systems in the waters around Sweden shows that the quality of data from near surface waters is high, and that the frequent sampling makes possible observations of short term phenomena such as algal blooms. These events are often overlooked by infrequent sampling using research vessels, which leads to erroneous estimates of phytoplankton biomass, ecosystem carrying capacity etc. Data come from the Helsinki Lübeck route, operated by the Finnish Institute for Marine Research and from routes in the Skagerrak- Kattegat operated by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research. FerryBox data were compared with data from traditional sampling, principally from RV Argos operated by SMHI, but also from the HELCOM databank at ICES.Observations using automated systems such as satellites, stationary platforms (buoys and piles) and FerryBox systems may contribute substantially to improving the quality of results from models describing the physical and biogeochemical conditions in Scandinavian waters. Boundary conditions for models can be obtained using measurements in the eastern North Sea and in the Skagerrak, while data assimilation from a network of buoys, FerryBoxsystems and research vessels improves the quality of model results. Today, between four and six automated oceanographic observation systems are in operation in Swedish waters, which can be compared to more than 700 for meteorological purposes. A dramatic increase in the number of observations is necessary for effective data assimilation. To make the observations useful for biogeochemical models, parameters such as inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and oxygen must be added to the basic parameters salinity and temperature.A detailed proposal for a new infrastructure for marine monitoring and operational oceanography in Sweden is put forward. FerryBox systems should be operated in collaboration with institutes in Finland, Estonia, Poland, Germany, Denmark and Norway. Coastal buoys contribute to the monitoring needs of the EU Water Framework Directive while offshore buoys are for long term climate and ecological research and for fulfilment of the EU Marine Strategy Directive . Products combining satellite data with in-situ observations should be developed. These automated systems augment monitoring using research vessels but do not replace it. SMHI, the Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, the Swedish Water Authorities, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Swedish Navy, Coast guard, Maritime Administration and Board of Fisheries are proposed to govern and operate the system, with SMHI as the lead partner. The function -National data host for operational oceanographic data- is proposed, to be established at the National Oceanographic Data Centre at SMHI.A number of indicators for describing the status of the pelagic environment around Sweden are proposed. Some already exist while some are new. New ones include indicators for acidification, changes in plankton community structure and physical climate indicators. Basin wide indicators are based on measurements using a combination of sampling platforms. Other indicators are more specific, e.g. for transport between basins and inflow of water to the deep basins of the Baltic Proper.This report was commissioned by the Swedish National Environment Protection Agency

  • 41.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi
    Göteborg University, Clinical Bacteriology, Institution of Laboratory Medicine, SE-413 46 Gothenburg, Sweden & Kristianstad University, Institution of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, SE-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Loo, Lars-Ove
    Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University, Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, SE-452 96 Strömstad, Sweden..
    Temporal and spatial distribution of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.), at the Swedish West Coast, NE Atlantic, years 1988-20052007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this report is to compile and present available data on algal toxins in blue mussels from the west coast of Sweden. The hazards associated with the consumption of mussels are mostly dependent on the occurrence and composition of toxic algae in the areas where shellfish are grown. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST), i.e. okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) have occurred regularly in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the Swedish west coast (i.e. Skagerrak) during the past years. A maximum residue limit of 160 µg.kg-1 mussel meat has been set by National Food Administration. The toxic incidences in the region has been linked to the occurrence of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta. In general there is seasonal variation of DST in mussels with low concentrations from March to August (160 µg.kg-1 mussel meat). Peaks above the maximum residue limit have in some years also occurred in late June to late July. Rapid intoxication vs. slow detoxification of mussels is a common phenomenon, especially in autumn-winter. Temporal and regional differences are large. There is also a considerable variation in toxin levels between years. In 1994 almost 5000 µg DST.kg-1 mussel meat was detected. In 1997 mussel farmers experienced very low levels, i.e. only three samples above the restriction limit of DST. In autumn 1989 to spring 1990 and in early autumn 2000 to early 2001, high levels (about 200 to 2000 µg DTX.kg-1 mussel meat) were recorded during 26 weeks. The Koljö Fjord region had low levels of toxins until 1998, despite regular recordings of potentially DST producing algae in the area. Today mussels grown and harvested in this area have similar toxin levels to mussels from other fjords in the Skagerrak region. Measurements of other toxins than DST are few and are not included in the report. Målet med denna rapport är att sammanställa och presentera tillgängliga data med algtoxiner i blåmusslor från svenska västkusten. Risken att bli förgiftad av algtoxiner via musslor hänger samman med förekomst och sammansättning av toxiska alger i det vatten där musslorna växer. Diarréframkallande ämnen (diarrheic shellfish toxins), t.ex. okadasyra (OA) och dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) har förkommit regelbundet i blåmusslor (Mytilus edulis) längs svenska västkusten (Skagerack) de senaste tjugofyra åren. Ett gränsvärde på 160 µg.kg-1 musselkött är fastställt av livmedelsverket. Toxinförekomsten i regionen associeras till förekomsten av Dinophysis acuminata och D. acuta. "Normalt" är det en säsongsvariation av DST i musslor med låga koncentrationer från mars till augusti (<160 µg.kg-1 musselkött) och höga från oktober till december (>160 µg.kg-1 musselkött). Toppar över gränsvärdet för konsumtion har vissa år förekommit från slutet av juni till slutet av juli. En snabb ökning i toxinhalt respektive långsam minskning är också ett vanligt förekommande fenomen, speciellt under höst-vinter. Tidsmässiga och regionala skillnader är stora. Det är också en stor skillnad i toxinhalt mellan åren. 1994 uppmättes den högsta toxinhalten till nästan 5000 µg DST.kg-1 musselkött. Under 1997 var halterna låga under hela säsongen, endast vid tre tillfällen var halterna över gränsvärdet. Från hösten 1989 till våren 1990 och från tidig höst 2000 till tidig vår 2001 uppmättes höga halter (ca 200 to 2000 µg DTX.kg-1 musselkött) under 26 veckor i en följd. I Koljöfjorden var det låga halter av toxiner fram till år 1998, trots förekomst av potentiellt DST producerande alger i området. I dag har musslor som växer och skördas i detta område ungefär samma nivåer av toxin som från andra områden. Mätningar av andra algtoxiner än DST är fåtaliga och tas inte upp i rapporten.

  • 42.
    Köuts, Tarmo
    et al.
    Estonian Met. And Hyd. Inst. Marine Res..
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Observations of water exchange, currents, sea levels and nutrients in the Gulf of Riga1995Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Lundin, Maria
    SMHI.
    Time Series Analysis of SAR Sea Ice Backscatter Variability and its Dependence on Weather Conditions1999Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lundqvist, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Isförhållandena i Sveriges södra och västra farvatten1987Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Marmefelt, Eleonor
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Currents in the Gulf of Bothnia During the Field Year of 19911994Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Marmefelt, Eleonor
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Erichsen, Anders Christan
    Sehested Hansen, Ian
    Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway..
    Development of an Ecological Model System for the Kattegat and the Southern Baltic: Final Report to the Nordic Councils of Ministers2000Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    First results of multi-year simulations using a 3D Baltic Sea model1999Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The use of the k – e turbulence model within the Rossby Centre regional ocean climate model: parameterization development and results2000Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Coward, Andrew C.
    James Renell Div,. Southhampton Oceanogr. Centre.
    Nycander, Jonas
    MISU.
    Döös, Kristofer
    MISU.
    RCO – Rossby Centre regional Ocean climate model: model description (version 1.0) and first results from the hindcast period 1992/931999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within SWECLIM a 3D fully coupled ice-ocean model has been developed based on the massively parallel OCCAM code from Southampton. Compared to the global OCCAM the model has to be adopted to Baltic Sea conditions with implementations of high-frequent atmospheric forcing fields in connection with adequate bulk formulae for wind stress, heat uxes and freshwater uxes, solar radiation, river runoff, active open boundary conditions, a second-order moment turbulence closure scheme and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. Thereby, state-of-the-art sub-models and parameterizations have been used. RCO is the first 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea with the above mentioned specifications suitable for use on mpp computers like CRAY-T3E's. Thus, a milestone for 3D ocean model development has been set. No other model is as fast as RCO. The performance has been improved significantly using advanced algorithms to optimize processor maps. This guarantees work load balance between the different processors. From now on it is possible to perform longterm simulations (10 years) within SWECLIM using a sufficiently resolved 3D Baltic Sea model. The open boundary conditions have been tested. They allow waves to radiate out of the model domain and signals prescribed at the border to in uence the model interior. No significant trends (like emptying or filling) have been observed which might prevent longer integrations of the system. An option has been included in RCO for active open boundary conditions also for temperature and salinity. For the first time the turbulence closure model has been tested within a 3D model in all Baltic sub-basins. The new flux boundary conditions for turbulent kinetic energy parameterizing breaking surface waves perform well. First results for the hindcast period 1992/93 are presented. Therefor, realistic atmospheric, runoff and boundary data have been used. The model is initialized using observed profile temperature and salinity data. A spin-up period of 3 months starting in May is sufficient to smooth out artificial gradients from the initialization procedure and to turn in basin wide volume changes correctly. The model results have been compared to sea level, sea surface temperature, temperature/salinity profile and ice thickness/compactness data with good agreement. Basin wide volume changes as well as daily sea level oscillations are simulated surprisingly good. Sea surface temperatures follow the observed seasonal cycle. Up- and downwelling events in RCO occur as observed with the right frequency and area extent but the sst's tend to be colder in upwelling and warmer in downwelling regions compared to observations. Mixed layer depths, which are important for the ocean heat content, agree well with previous model studies which are validated against observations intensively (Meier, 1996). The water exchange between Baltic and North Sea crucial for multi-year integrations is modelled realistically. Especially the salt water inflow in January 1993 can be reproduced. The bottom water in Bornholm Basin is replaced by new water originating from the North Sea but maximum observed bottom salinities at Bornholm Deep are underestimated by 1-2 PSU. Freezing, breakup date and maximum ice extent are in good correspondence with observations. Improved parameterizations result in modelled ice thicknesses as observed whereas other authors report too large ice thicknesses and delayed ice melting (e.g., Haapala and Lepparanta,1996). Multi-year simulations including mild, normal and severe winters will be necessary to elucidate this problem further. A comparison between an experiment with full dynamic-thermodynamics and one without dynamic effects reveals the importance of ice advection under wind influence. A process study from the beginning of February 1993 showed that under strong wind conditions a hole in the ice coverage can open with the size of half of the Bothnian Bay. At the end of January 1993 the Bothnian Bay, the coastal area of the Bothnian Sea and the eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland are ice covered. A couple of days later westerly winds led to wide open areas in the western Bothnian Bay while ice piled up at the eastern coasts to a correct amount. This phenomenon can be modelled only with ice dynamics included. The aim of SWECLIM is to increase our knowledge of the effects of climate change in Sweden and the other Nordic countries. Therefor, it is necessary to understand the present climate. For the Baltic Sea even the knowledge about the present mean state and its transients is rather poor. Only a small number of long-time observations like sea level records (for example from Stockholm, see Ekman (1988)), maximum annual ice extent (e.g., Palosuo, 1953; Seina and Palosuo, 1993) or temperature and salinityprofiles from monitoring stations in some of the sub-basins (e.g., Matthaus and Frank,1992) are available. These informations are not enough to understand the driving mechanisms of mean horizontal and vertical transports of energy, momentum and matter. 3D Baltic Sea models like RCO will close this knowledge gap in future. Thereby, it will be possible to close the water and energy cycle of the Baltic catchment area, a final goal of BALTEX. By applying atmospheric forcing data from scenario simulations in one- or two-way coupled mode it will be possible to make predictions of climate change for the Baltic Sea. Impact studies of the future marine environment will be available using detailed highly resolved information from RCO. This report presents a powerful tool for solving these and other tasks.

  • 50.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kauker, Frank
    Simulating Baltic Sea climate for the period 1902-1998 with the Rossby Centre coupled ice-ocean model2000Report (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 67
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