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  • 1.
    Riml, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Worman, Anders
    Response functions for in-stream solute transport in river networks2011In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 47, article id W06502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the effects of different hydrological mechanisms on the solute response in watershed stream networks. Important processes are due to the hydraulic and chemical retention of reactive solutes in transient storage zones and the cumulative consequences of these processes from a single transport pathway as well as from the network of transport pathways. Temporal moments are derived for a distributed stream network and for a compartment-in-series model. The temporal moments are evaluated and are utilized to derive formal expressions for translating the network parameters into compartmental model parameters. The analysis reveals that in addition to the hydraulic and chemical retention processes, the morphological and topological properties of a watershed have a distinct impact on the central temporal moments in terms of averaging of the solute load weighted distances as well as the transport parameters over the network. Kinetic (rate-limited) transient storage affects second-order and higher central temporal moments and thus has a secondary effect on the parameterization of compartmental models. Additional considerable contributions to all temporal moments are introduced when parameter variability along transport pathways is considered. The paper demonstrates an improved model outcome for phosphorus transport in a small Swedish watershed by accounting for the overall network effects when parameterizing a compartment-in-series model.

  • 2.
    Riml, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Worman, Anders
    Kunkel, Uwe
    Radke, Michael
    Evaluating the fate of six common pharmaceuticals using a reactive transport model: Insights from a stream tracer test2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 458, p. 344-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative information regarding the capacity of rivers to self-purify pharmaceutical residues is limited. To bridge this knowledge gap, we present a methodology for quantifying the governing processes affecting the fate of pharmaceuticals in streaming waters and, especially, to evaluate their relative significance for tracer observations. A tracer test in Sava Brook, Sweden was evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream, which are presumably important for the retention and attenuation of pharmaceuticals. To assess the key processes affecting the environmental fate of the compounds, we linked the uncertainty estimates of the reaction rate coefficients to the relative influence of transformation and sorption that occurred in different stream environments. The hydrological and biogeochemical contributions to the fate of the pharmaceuticals were decoupled, and the results indicate a moderate hydrological retention in the hyporheic zone as well as in the densely vegetated parts of the stream. Biogeochemical reactions in these transient storage zones further affected the fate of the pharmaceuticals, and we found that sorption was the key process for bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen, while primary transformation was the most important process for clofibric acid and ibuprofen. Conversely, diclofenac was not affected by sorption or transformation. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Worman, A.
    et al.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Riml, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    The power of runoff2017In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 548, p. 784-793Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Worman, Anders
    et al.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Akesson, Anna
    Riml, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Drifting runoff periodicity during the 20th century due to changing surface water volume2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 26, p. 3772-3784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourier and wavelet analyses were used to reveal the dominant trends and coherence of a more than one-century-long time series of precipitation and discharge in several watersheds in Sweden, two of which were subjected to hydropower and intensive agriculture. During the 20th century, there was a gradual, significant drift of the dominant discharge periodicity in agricultural watersheds. This study shows that the steepness of the Fourier spectrum of runoff from the May to October period each year increased gradually during the century, which suggests a more predictable intra-annual runoff pattern (more apart from white-noise). In the agricultural watershed, the coherence spectrum of precipitation and runoff is generally high with a consistent white-noise relationship for precipitation during the 20th century, indicating that precipitation is not controlling the drift of the discharge spectrum. In the hydropower regulated watershed, there was a sudden decrease of the discharge spectrum slope when regulation commenced in the 1920s. This study develops a new theory in which the runoff spectrum is related to the hydraulic and hydro-morphological characteristics of the watershed. Using this theory, we explain the changes in runoff spectra in the two watersheds by the anthropogenic change in surface water volume and, hence, changes in kinematic wave celerity and water transit times. The reduced water volume in the agricultural watershed would also contribute to decreasing evaporation, which could explain a slightly increasing mean discharge during the 20th century despite the fact that precipitation was statistically constant in the area. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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