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  • 1. Bowling, L C
    et al.
    Lettenmaier, D P
    Nijssen, B
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Clark, D B
    El Maayar, M
    Essery, R
    Goers, S
    Gusev, Y M
    Habets, F
    van den Hurk, B
    Jin, J M
    Kahan, D
    Lohmann, D
    Ma, X Y
    Mahanama, S
    Mocko, D
    Nasonova, O
    Niu, G Y
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Shmakin, A B
    Takata, K
    Verseghy, D
    Viterbo, P
    Xia, Y L
    Xue, Y K
    Yang, Z L
    Simulation of high-latitude hydrological processes in the Torne-Kalix basin: PILPS phase 2(e) - 1: Experiment description and summary intercomparisons2003In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 38, no 1-2, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-one land-surface schemes (LSSs) participated in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterizations (PILPS) Phase 2(e) experiment, which used data from the Tome-Kalix Rivers in northern Scandinavia. Atmospheric forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, downward shortwave and longwave radiation) for a 20-year period (1979-1998) were provided to the 21 participating modeling groups for 218 1/4degrees grid cells that represented the study domain. The first decade (1979-1988) of the period was used for model spin-up. The quality of meteorologic forcing variables is of particular concern in high-latitude experiments and the quality of the gridded dataset was assessed to the extent possible. The lack of sub-daily precipitation, underestimation of true precipitation and the necessity to estimate incoming solar radiation were the primary data concerns for this study. The results from two of the three types of runs are analyzed in this, the first of a three-part paper: (1) calibration-validation runs-calibration of model parameters using observed streamflow was allowed for two small catchments (570 and 1300 km(2)), and parameters were then transferred to two other catchments of roughly similar size (2600 and 1500 km(2)) to assess the ability of models to represent ungauged areas elsewhere; and 2) reruns-using revised forcing data (to resolve problems with apparent underestimation of solar radiation of approximately 36%, and certain other problems with surface wind in the original forcing data). Model results for the period 1989-1998 are used to evaluate the performance of the participating land-surface schemes in a context that allows exploration of their ability to capture key processes spatially. In general, the experiment demonstrated that many of the LSSs are able to capture the limitations imposed on annual latent heat by the small net radiation available in this high-latitude environment. Simulated annual average net radiation varied between 16 and 40 W/m(2) for the 21 models, and latent heat varied between 18 and 36 W/m(2). Among-model differences in winter latent heat due to the treatment of aerodynamic resistance appear to be at least as important as those attributable to the treatment of canopy interception. In many models, the small annual net radiation forced negative sensible heat on average, which varied among the models between - 11 and 9 W/m(2). Even though the largest evaporation rates occur in the summer (June, July and August), model-predicted snow sublimation in winter has proportionately more influence on differences in annual runoff volume among the models. A calibration experiment for four small sub-catchments of the Torne-Kalix basin showed that model parameters that are typically adjusted during calibration, those that control storage of moisture in the soil column or on the land surface via ponding, influence the seasonal distribution of runoff, but have relatively little impact on annual runoff ratios. Similarly, there was no relationship between annual runoff ratios and the proportion of surface and subsurface discharge for the basin as a whole. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Hazeleger, Wilco
    et al.
    Severijns, Camiel
    Semmler, Tido
    Stefanescu, Simona
    Yang, Shuting
    Wang, Xueli
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Dutra, Emanuel
    Baldasano, Jose M.
    Bintanja, Richard
    Bougeault, Philippe
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Christensen, Jens H.
    van den Hurk, Bart
    Jimenez, Pedro
    Jones, Colin
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Kållberg, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    McGrath, Ray
    Miranda, Pedro
    Van Noije, Twan
    Palmer, Tim
    Parodi, Jose A.
    Schmith, Torben
    Selten, Frank
    Storelvmo, Trude
    Sterl, Andreas
    Tapamo, Honore
    Vancoppenolle, Martin
    Viterbo, Pedro
    Willén, Ulrika
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    EC-Earth A Seamless Earth-System Prediction Approach in Action2010In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1357-1363Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Nijssen, B
    et al.
    Bowling, L C
    Lettenmaier, D P
    Clark, D B
    El Maayar, M
    Essery, R
    Goers, S
    Gusev, Y M
    Habets, F
    van den Hurk, B
    Jin, J M
    Kahan, D
    Lohmann, D
    Ma, X Y
    Mahanama, S
    Mocko, D
    Nasonova, O
    Niu, G Y
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Schmakin, A B
    Takata, K
    Verseghy, D
    Viterbo, P
    Xia, Y L
    Xue, Y K
    Yang, Z L
    Simulation of high latitude hydrological processes in the Torne-Kalix basin: PILPS phase 2(e) - 2: Comparison of model results with observations2003In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 38, no 1-2, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Rutter, Nick
    et al.
    Essery, Richard
    Pomeroy, John
    Altimir, Nuria
    Andreadis, Kostas
    Baker, Ian
    Barr, Alan
    Bartlett, Paul
    Boone, Aaron
    Deng, Huiping
    Douville, Herve
    Dutra, Emanuel
    Elder, Kelly
    Ellis, Chad
    Feng, Xia
    Gelfan, Alexander
    Goodbody, Angus
    Gusev, Yeugeniy
    Gustafsson, David
    Hellstroem, Rob
    Hirabayashi, Yukiko
    Hirota, Tomoyoshi
    Jonas, Tobias
    Koren, Victor
    Kuragina, Anna
    Lettenmaier, Dennis
    Li, Wei-Ping
    Luce, Charlie
    Martin, Eric
    Nasonova, Olga
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Pyles, R. David
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Sandells, Melody
    Schaedler, Gerd
    Shmakin, Andrey
    Smirnova, Tatiana G.
    Staehli, Manfred
    Stoeckli, Reto
    Strasser, Ulrich
    Su, Hua
    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi
    Takata, Kumiko
    Tanaka, Kenji
    Thompson, Erin
    Vesala, Timo
    Viterbo, Pedro
    Wiltshire, Andrew
    Xia, Kun
    Xue, Yongkang
    Yamazaki, Takeshi
    Evaluation of forest snow processes models (SnowMIP2)2009In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 114, article id D06111Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty-three snowpack models of varying complexity and purpose were evaluated across a wide range of hydrometeorological and forest canopy conditions at five Northern Hemisphere locations, for up to two winter snow seasons. Modeled estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) or depth were compared to observations at forest and open sites at each location. Precipitation phase and duration of above-freezing air temperatures are shown to be major influences on divergence and convergence of modeled estimates of the subcanopy snowpack. When models are considered collectively at all locations, comparisons with observations show that it is harder to model SWE at forested sites than open sites. There is no universal "best'' model for all sites or locations, but comparison of the consistency of individual model performances relative to one another at different sites shows that there is less consistency at forest sites than open sites, and even less consistency between forest and open sites in the same year. A good performance by a model at a forest site is therefore unlikely to mean a good model performance by the same model at an open site (and vice versa). Calibration of models at forest sites provides lower errors than uncalibrated models at three out of four locations. However, benefits of calibration do not translate to subsequent years, and benefits gained by models calibrated for forest snow processes are not translated to open conditions.

  • 5. van den Hurk, B J J M
    et al.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Viterbo, P
    Comparison of land surface hydrology in regional climate simulations of the Baltic Sea catchment2002In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 255, no 1-4, p. 169-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations with a regional climate model RACMO were carried out over the catchment area of the Baltic Sea for the growing season 1995. Two different surface schemes were included which in particular differed with respect to the parameterization of runoff. In the first scheme (taken from ECHAM4), runoff is a function of the subgrid distribution of the soil moisture saturation. In the second model (taken from ECMWF), runoff is a result of deep-water drainage. A large-scale hydrological model of the catchment, HBV-Baltic, was calibrated to river discharge data and forced with observed precipitation, yielding independent comparison material of runoff of the two RACMO simulations. The simulations showed that the temporal and spatial simulation of precipitation in the area is sensitive to the choice of the land surface scheme in RACMO. This supported the motivation of analysing the land surface hydrological budgets in a coupled mode. The comparison of RACMO with HBV-Baltic revealed that the frequency distribution of runoff in the ECMWF scheme shows very little runoff variability at high frequencies, while in ECHAM4 and HBV the snow melt and (liquid) precipitation are followed by fast responding runoff events. The seasonal cycle of soil water depletion and surface evaporation was evaluated by comparison of model scores with respect to relative humidity. Results suggest that the surface evaporation in the ECMWF scheme is too strong in late spring and early summer, giving rise to too much drying later in the season. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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