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  • 1. Gallardo, L
    et al.
    Olivares, G
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Aarhus Andrae, Bodil
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile2002In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, no 23, p. 3829-3841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5degreesS, 70.8degreesW, 500m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model-HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SOx) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SOx since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SOx have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SOx than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SOx emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SOx in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters < 2.5 mum), during CLs. Further, we speculate that the Caletones plume may trigger or promote secondary aerosol formation during CLs in the Santiago basin. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Olivares, G
    et al.
    Gallardo, L
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Aarhus Andrae, Bodil
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Regional dispersion of oxidized sulfur in Central Chile2002In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, no 23, p. 3819-3828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chile has a long tradition of exploiting mineral resources, particularly copper (Cu). One of the largest Cu smelters, Caletones, located some 150 km south of the country's capital, Santiago, in Central Chile, is responsible for about 0.4% of about 70 Tg S/yr oxidized sulfur (SOx) emitted by anthropogenic sources worldwide. Santiago, a megacity with 5 million inhabitants, stands for about 5 Gg S/yr. The average meteorological conditions are unfavorable for the dispersion of pollutants in this area. All this poses risks for human health and vegetation. Also, downwind. from these polluted areas there may be large-scale impacts on cloud properties and on oxidative cycles. Here, we present the first attempt to assess the regional distribution of SOx in Central Chile using a dispersion model (MATCH) driven with data from a limited area weather forecast model (HIRLAM). Emphasis has been given to the impact of Cu smelters upon urban air quality, particularly that of Santiago. Six 1-month long periods were simulated for the years 1997, 1998 and 1999. These periods span over a broad range of typical meteorological conditions in the area including El Nino and La Nina years. Estimates of the regional dispersion and deposition patterns were calculated. The emissions from the large Cu smelters dominate the distribution of SOx. A budget of SOx over an area of 200 x 200 km 2 around Santiago is presented. There is too low a number of monitoring stations to perform a detailed evaluation of MATCH. Nevertheless, the model reproduces consistently all the regional-scale characteristics that can be derived from the available observations. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 3. Rodhe, H
    et al.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Gallardo, L
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Global scale transport of acidifying pollutants1995In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years several attempts have been made to use three-dimensional tracer transport models to simulate the global distribution of sulfur and nitrogen compounds from both natural and anthropogenic sources. We review these studies and show examples of estimated distributions of the total deposition of sulfur, oxidized nitrogen and ammonium as well as the pH of precipitation. The simulated patterns are compared with observations. Weaknesses in these estimates resulting from lack of knowledge of emissions, chemical transformations and removal processes are emphasized and discussed. We also show examples of how the models can be used to estimate past and future deposition patterns. In particular, we use the IPCC scenario IS92a to estimate the possible sulfur deposition around the world in the year 2050. A comparison with critical load values for sulfur deposition indicates that substantial parts of South and East Asia are at risk for acidification problems in the future.

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