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  • 1. Belda, Michal
    et al.
    Skalak, Petr
    Farda, Ales
    Halenka, Tomas
    Deque, Michel
    Csima, Gabriella
    Bartholy, Judit
    Torma, Csaba
    Boroneant, Constanta
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Spiridonov, Valery
    CECILIA Regional Climate Simulations for Future Climate: Analysis of Climate Change Signal2015In: Advances in Meteorology, ISSN 1687-9309, E-ISSN 1687-9317, article id 354727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional climate models (RCMs) are important tools used for downscaling climate simulations from global scale models. In project CECILIA, two RCMs were used to provide climate change information for regions of Central and Eastern Europe. Models RegCM and ALADIN-Climate were employed in downscaling global simulations from ECHAM5 and ARPEGE-CLIMAT under IPCC A1B emission scenario in periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Climate change signal present in these simulations is consistent with respective driving data, showing similar large-scale features: warming between 0 and 3 degrees C in the first period and 2 and 5 degrees C in the second period with the least warming in northwestern part of the domain increasing in the southeastern direction and small precipitation changes within range of +1 to -1 mm/day. Regional features are amplified by the RCMs, more so in case of the ALADIN family of models.

  • 2. Bellucci, A.
    et al.
    Haarsma, R.
    Gualdi, S.
    Athanasiadis, P. J.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Cassou, C.
    Fernandez, E.
    Germe, A.
    Jungclaus, J.
    Kroeger, J.
    Matei, D.
    Mueller, W.
    Pohlmann, H.
    Salas y Melia, D.
    Sanchez, E.
    Smith, D.
    Terray, L.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Yang, S.
    An assessment of a multi-model ensemble of decadal climate predictions2015In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 44, no 9-10, p. 2787-2806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-model ensemble of decadal prediction experiments, performed in the framework of the EU-funded COMBINE (Comprehensive Modelling of the Earth System for Better Climate Prediction and Projection) Project following the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project protocol is examined. The ensemble combines a variety of dynamical models, initialization and perturbation strategies, as well as data assimilation products employed to constrain the initial state of the system. Taking advantage of the multi-model approach, several aspects of decadal climate predictions are assessed, including predictive skill, impact of the initialization strategy and the level of uncertainty characterizing the predicted fluctuations of key climate variables. The present analysis adds to the growing evidence that the current generation of climate models adequately initialized have significant skill in predicting years ahead not only the anthropogenic warming but also part of the internal variability of the climate system. An important finding is that the multi-model ensemble mean does generally outperform the individual forecasts, a well-documented result for seasonal forecasting, supporting the need to extend the multi-model framework to real-time decadal predictions in order to maximize the predictive capabilities of currently available decadal forecast systems. The multi-model perspective did also allow a more robust assessment of the impact of the initialization strategy on the quality of decadal predictions, providing hints of an improved forecast skill under full-value (with respect to anomaly) initialization in the near-term range, over the Indo-Pacific equatorial region. Finally, the consistency across the different model predictions was assessed. Specifically, different systems reveal a general agreement in predicting the near-term evolution of surface temperatures, displaying positive correlations between different decadal hindcasts over most of the global domain.

  • 3.
    Caian, Mihaela
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    An interannual link between Arctic sea-ice cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation2018In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 50, no 1-2, p. 423-441Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Caian, Mihaela
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    An interannual link between Arctic sea-ice cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (vol 50, pg 423, 2017)2018In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 50, no 1-2, p. 443-443Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Chadwick, R.
    et al.
    Martin, G. M.
    Copsey, D.
    Bellon, G.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Codron, F.
    Rio, C.
    Roehrig, R.
    Examining the West African Monsoon circulation response to atmospheric heating in a GCM dynamical core2017In: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, ISSN 1942-2466, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 149-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Couvreux, F.
    et al.
    Roehrig, R.
    Rio, C.
    Lefebvre, M. -P
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Komori, T.
    Derbyshire, S.
    Guichard, F.
    Favot, F.
    D'Andrea, F.
    Bechtold, P.
    Gentine, P.
    Representation of daytime moist convection over the semi-arid Tropics by parametrizations used in climate and meteorological models2015In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 141, no 691, p. 2220-2236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case of daytime development of deep convection over tropical semi-arid land is used to evaluate the representation of convection in global and regional models. The case is based on observations collected during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) field campaign and includes two distinct transition phases, from clear sky to shallow cumulus and from cumulus to deep convection. Different types of models, run with identical initial and boundary conditions, are intercompared: a reference large-eddy simulation (LES), single-column model (SCM) version of four different Earth system models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 exercise, the SCM version of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts operational forecast model, the SCM version of a mesoscale model and a bulk model. Surface fluxes and radiative heating are prescribed preventing any atmosphere-surface and cloud-radiation coupling in order to simplify the analyses so that it focuses only on convective processes. New physics packages are also evaluated within this framework. As the LES correctly reproduces the observed growth of the boundary layer, the gradual development of shallow clouds, the initiation of deep convection and the development of cold pools, it provides a basis to evaluate in detail the representation of the diurnal cycle of convection by the other models and to test the hypotheses underlying convective parametrizations. Most SCMs have difficulty in representing the timing of convective initiation and rain intensity, although substantial modifications to boundary-layer and deep-convection parametrizations lead to improvements. The SCMs also fail to represent the mid-level troposphere moistening during the shallow convection phase, which we analyse further. Nevertheless, beyond differences in timing of deep convection, the SCM models reproduce the sensitivity to initial and boundary conditions simulated in the LES regarding boundary-layer characteristics, and often the timing of convection triggering.

  • 7.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Tjernstrom, M.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Thomas, Manu Anna
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Kahn, B. H.
    Fetzer, E. J.
    Influence of the Arctic Oscillation on the vertical distribution of clouds as observed by the A-Train constellation of satellites2012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 21, p. 10535-10544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the dominant mode of natural variability over the northerly high latitudes, on the spatial (horizontal and vertical) distribution of clouds in the Arctic. To that end, we use a suite of sensors on-board NASA's A-Train satellites that provide accurate observations of the distribution of clouds along with information on atmospheric thermodynamics. Data from three independent sensors are used (AQUA-AIRS, CALIOP-CALIPSO and CPR-CloudSat) covering two time periods (winter half years, November through March, of 2002-2011 and 2006-2011, respectively) along with data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. We show that the zonal vertical distribution of cloud fraction anomalies averaged over 67-82 degrees N to a first approximation follows a dipole structure (referred to as "Greenland cloud dipole anomaly", GCDA), such that during the positive phase of the AO, positive and negative cloud anomalies are observed eastwards and westward of Greenland respectively, while the opposite is true for the negative phase of AO. By investigating the concurrent meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity and winds), we show that differences in the meridional energy and moisture transport during the positive and negative phases of the AO and the associated thermodynamics are responsible for the conditions that are conducive for the formation of this dipole structure. All three satellite sensors broadly observe this large-scale GCDA despite differences in their sensitivities, spatio-temporal and vertical resolutions, and the available lengths of data records, indicating the robustness of the results. The present study also provides a compelling case to carry out process-based evaluation of global and regional climate models.

  • 8. Hazeleger, W.
    et al.
    Guemas, V.
    Wouters, B.
    Corti, S.
    Andreu-Burillo, I.
    Doblas-Reyes, F. J.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Multiyear climate predictions using two initialization strategies2013In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 1794-1798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiyear climate predictions with two initialization strategies are systematically assessed in the EC-Earth V2.3 climate model. In one ensemble, an estimate of the observed climate state is used to initialize the model. The other uses estimates of observed ocean and sea ice anomalies on top of the model climatology. The ensembles show similar spatial characteristics of drift related to the biases in control simulations. As expected, the drift is less with anomaly initialization. The full field initialization overshoots to a colder state which is related to cold biases in the tropics and North Atlantic, associated with oceanic processes. Despite different amplitude of the drift, both ensembles show similar skill in multiyear global temperature predictions, but regionally differences are found. On multiyear time scales, initialization with observations enhances both deterministic and probabilistic skill scores in the North Atlantic. The probabilistic verification shows skill over the European continent.

  • 9. Klingaman, Nicholas P.
    et al.
    Woolnough, Steven J.
    Jiang, Xianan
    Waliser, Duane
    Xavier, Prince K.
    Petch, Jon
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Hannay, Cecile
    Kim, Daehyun
    Ma, Hsi-Yen
    Merryfield, William J.
    Miyakawa, Tomoki
    Pritchard, Mike
    Ridout, James A.
    Roehrig, Romain
    Shindo, Eiki
    Vitart, Frederic
    Wang, Hailan
    Cavanaugh, Nicholas R.
    Mapes, Brian E.
    Shelly, Ann
    Zhang, Guang J.
    Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Linking hindcast fidelity to simulated diabatic heating and moistening2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 120, no 10, p. 4690-4717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many theories for the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) focus on diabatic processes, particularly the evolution of vertical heating and moistening. Poor MJO performance in weather and climate models is often blamed on biases in these processes and their interactions with the large-scale circulation. We introduce one of the three components of a model evaluation project, which aims to connect MJO fidelity in models to their representations of several physical processes, focusing on diabatic heating and moistening. This component consists of 20day hindcasts, initialized daily during two MJO events in winter 2009-2010. The 13 models exhibit a range of skill: several have accurate forecasts to 20days lead, while others perform similarly to statistical models (8-11days). Models that maintain the observed MJO amplitude accurately predict propagation, but not vice versa. We find no link between hindcast fidelity and the precipitation-moisture relationship, in contrast to other recent studies. There is also no relationship between models' performance and the evolution of their diabatic heating profiles with rain rate. A more robust association emerges between models' fidelity and net moistening: the highest-skill models show a clear transition from low-level moistening for light rainfall to midlevel moistening at moderate rainfall and upper level moistening for heavy rainfall. The midlevel moistening, arising from both dynamics and physics, may be most important. Accurately representing many processes may be necessary but not sufficient for capturing the MJO, which suggests that models fail to predict the MJO for a broad range of reasons and limits the possibility of finding a panacea.

  • 10.
    Koenigk, Torben
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Beatty, Christof Konig
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Potential decadal predictability and its sensitivity to sea ice albedo parameterization in a global coupled model2012In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 38, no 11-12, p. 2389-2408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decadal prediction is one focus of the upcoming 5th IPCC Assessment report. To be able to interpret the results and to further improve the decadal predictions it is important to investigate the potential predictability in the participating climate models. This study analyzes the upper limit of climate predictability on decadal time scales and its dependency on sea ice albedo parameterization by performing two perfect ensemble experiments with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. In the first experiment, the standard albedo formulation of EC-Earth is used, in the second experiment sea ice albedo is reduced. The potential prognostic predictability is analyzed for a set of oceanic and atmospheric parameters. The decadal predictability of the atmospheric circulation is small. The highest potential predictability was found in air temperature at 2 m height over the northern North Atlantic and the southern South Atlantic. Over land, only a few areas are significantly predictable. The predictability for continental size averages of air temperature is relatively good in all northern hemisphere regions. Sea ice thickness is highly predictable along the ice edges in the North Atlantic Arctic Sector. The meridional overturning circulation is highly predictable in both experiments and governs most of the decadal climate predictability in the northern hemisphere. The experiments using reduced sea ice albedo show some important differences like a generally higher predictability of atmospheric variables in the Arctic or higher predictability of air temperature in Europe. Furthermore, decadal variations are substantially smaller in the simulations with reduced ice albedo, which can be explained by reduced sea ice thickness in these simulations.

  • 11.
    Koenigk, Torben
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Regional Arctic sea ice variations as predictor for winter climate conditions2016In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 46, no 1-2, p. 317-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal prediction skill of winter mid and high northern latitudes climate from sea ice variations in eight different Arctic regions is analyzed using detrended ERA-interim data and satellite sea ice data for the period 1980-2013. We find significant correlations between ice areas in both September and November and winter sea level pressure, air temperature and precipitation. The prediction skill is improved when using November sea ice conditions as predictor compared to September. This is particularly true for predicting winter NAO-like patterns and blocking situations in the Euro-Atlantic area. We find that sea ice variations in Barents Sea seem to be most important for the sign of the following winter NAO-negative after low ice-but amplitude and extension of the patterns are modulated by Greenland and Labrador Seas ice areas. November ice variability in the Greenland Sea provides the best prediction skill for central and western European temperature and ice variations in the Laptev/East Siberian Seas have the largest impact on the blocking number in the Euro-Atlantic region. Over North America, prediction skill is largest using September ice areas from the Pacific Arctic sector as predictor. Composite analyses of high and low regional autumn ice conditions reveal that the atmospheric response is not entirely linear suggesting changing predictive skill dependent on sign and amplitude of the anomaly. The results confirm the importance of realistic sea ice initial conditions for seasonal forecasts. However, correlations do seldom exceed 0.6 indicating that Arctic sea ice variations can only explain a part of winter climate variations in northern mid and high latitudes.

  • 12. Leroux, Stephanie
    et al.
    Bellon, Gilles
    Roehrig, Romain
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Klingaman, Nicholas P.
    Lafore, Jean-Philippe
    Musat, Ionela
    Rio, Catherine
    Tyteca, Sophie
    Inter-model comparison of subseasonal tropical variability in aquaplanet experiments: Effect of a warm pool2016In: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, ISSN 1942-2466, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1526-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Martin, G. M.
    et al.
    Peyrille, P.
    Roehrig, R.
    Rio, C.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Bellon, G.
    Codron, F.
    Lafore, J. -P
    Poan, D. E.
    Idelkadi, A.
    Understanding the West African Monsoon from the analysis of diabatic heating distributions as simulated by climate models2017In: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, ISSN 1942-2466, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 239-270Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Skalak, Petr
    et al.
    Deque, Michel
    Belda, Michal
    Farda, Ales
    Halenka, Tomas
    Csima, Gabriella
    Bartholy, Judit
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Spiridonov, Valery
    CECILIA regional climate simulations for the present climate: validation and inter-comparison2014In: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated high-resolution simulations of regional climate models (RCMs) driven by ERA-40 reanalyses over areas of selected European countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Romania) for the period 1961-1990. RCMs were run at a spatial resolution of 10 km in the framework of the CECILIA project, and their outputs were compared with the EOBS dataset of gridded observations and RCM simulations at coarser 25 km resolution from the ENSEMBLES project to identify a possible gain from the CECILIA experiments over ENSEMBLES. Cold biases of air temperature and wet biases of precipitation dominate in the CECILIA simulations. Spatial variability and distribution of the air temperature field are well captured. The precipitation field, relative to observations, often shows inadequately small spatial variability and lowered correlations but is nevertheless comparable to the ENSEMBLES model. Inter-annual variability (IAV) of air temperature is captured differently among seasons but mostly improved in CECILIA compared with ENSEMBLES. Precipitation IAV shows a similar or worse score. The detected weaknesses found within the validation of the CECILIA RCMs are attributed to the resolution dependence of the set of physical parameterizations in the models and the choice of integration domain. The gain obtained by using a high resolution over a small domain (as in CECILIA) relative to a lower resolution (25 km) over a larger domain (as in ENSEMBLES) is clear for air temperature but limited for precipitation.

  • 15. Smith, Doug M.
    et al.
    Scaife, Adam A.
    Boer, George J.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.
    Guemas, Virginie
    Hawkins, Ed
    Hazeleger, Wilco
    Hermanson, Leon
    Ho, Chun Kit
    Ishii, Masayoshi
    Kharin, Viatcheslav
    Kimoto, Masahide
    Kirtman, Ben
    Lean, Judith
    Matei, Daniela
    Merryfield, William J.
    Mueller, Wolfgang A.
    Pohlmann, Holger
    Rosati, Anthony
    Wouters, Bert
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Real-time multi-model decadal climate predictions2013In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 41, no 11-12, p. 2875-2888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first climate prediction of the coming decade made with multiple models, initialized with prior observations. This prediction accrues from an international activity to exchange decadal predictions in near real-time, in order to assess differences and similarities, provide a consensus view to prevent over-confidence in forecasts from any single model, and establish current collective capability. We stress that the forecast is experimental, since the skill of the multi-model system is as yet unknown. Nevertheless, the forecast systems used here are based on models that have undergone rigorous evaluation and individually have been evaluated for forecast skill. Moreover, it is important to publish forecasts to enable open evaluation, and to provide a focus on climate change in the coming decade. Initialized forecasts of the year 2011 agree well with observations, with a pattern correlation of 0.62 compared to 0.31 for uninitialized projections. In particular, the forecast correctly predicted La Nia in the Pacific, and warm conditions in the north Atlantic and USA. A similar pattern is predicted for 2012 but with a weaker La Nia. Indices of Atlantic multi-decadal variability and Pacific decadal variability show no signal beyond climatology after 2015, while temperature in the Nio3 region is predicted to warm slightly by about 0.5 A degrees C over the coming decade. However, uncertainties are large for individual years and initialization has little impact beyond the first 4 years in most regions. Relative to uninitialized forecasts, initialized forecasts are significantly warmer in the north Atlantic sub-polar gyre and cooler in the north Pacific throughout the decade. They are also significantly cooler in the global average and over most land and ocean regions out to several years ahead. However, in the absence of volcanic eruptions, global temperature is predicted to continue to rise, with each year from 2013 onwards having a 50 % chance of exceeding the current observed record. Verification of these forecasts will provide an important opportunity to test the performance of models and our understanding and knowledge of the drivers of climate change.

  • 16. Xavier, Prince K.
    et al.
    Petch, Jon C.
    Klingaman, Nicholas P.
    Woolnough, Steve J.
    Jiang, Xianan
    Waliser, Duane E.
    Caian, Mihaela
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Cole, Jason
    Hagos, Samson M.
    Hannay, Cecile
    Kim, Daehyun
    Miyakawa, Tomoki
    Pritchard, Michael S.
    Roehrig, Romain
    Shindo, Eiki
    Vitart, Frederic
    Wang, Hailan
    Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 120, no 10, p. 4749-4763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models are presented as part of the Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) project. A lead time of 12-36h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests that the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. The wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. In addition, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.

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