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  • 1. Browny, Nicola Jane
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Arctic Ocean Freshwater Dynamics: Transient Response to Increasing River Runoff and Precipitation2019Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 124, nr 7, s. 5205-5219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Eriksson, Leif E. B.
    et al.
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Dierking, Wolfgang
    Berg, Anders
    Santoro, Maurizio
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Lindh, Henrik
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Evaluation of new spaceborne SAR sensors for sea-ice monitoring in the Baltic Sea2010Inngår i: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, ISSN 1712-7971, Vol. 36, s. S56-S73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) and the Envisat, RADARSAT-2, and TerraSAR-X satellites were compared to evaluate their usefulness for sea-ice monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Radar signature characteristics at different frequencies, polarizations, and spatial resolutions are presented for three examples from 2009. C-band like-polarization data, which have been used for operational sea-ice mapping since the early 1990s, serve as a reference. Advantages and disadvantages were identified for the different SAR systems and imaging modes. One conclusion is that cross-polarized data improve the discrimination between sea ice and open water. Another observation is that it is easier to identify ice ridges in L-band data than in images from shorter wavelengths. The information content of X-and C-band images is largely equivalent, whereas L-band data provide complementary information. L-band SAR also seems to be less sensitive to wet snow cover on the ice.

  • 3.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Fransner, Filippa
    Groger, Matthias
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Liu, Ye
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Ljungemyr, Patrik
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Nygren, Petter
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Falahat, Saeed
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Nord, Adam
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Jönsson, Anette
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Lake, Irene
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet. SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Doos, Kristofer
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dietze, Heiner
    Loeptien, Ulrike
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Westerlund, Antti
    Tuomi, Laura
    Haapala, Jari
    Nemo-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-based ocean model for the Baltic and North seas - research and operational applications2019Inngår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 363-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Sensitivity of the overturning circulation of the Baltic Sea to climate change, a numerical experiment2018Inngår i: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 50, nr 3-4, s. 1425-1437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Höglund, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Ice conditions for maritime traffic in the Baltic Sea in future climate2017Inngår i: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 22, s. 245-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6. Jahn, A.
    et al.
    Aksenov, Y.
    de Cuevas, B. A.
    de Steur, L.
    Hakkinen, S.
    Hansen, E.
    Herbaut, C.
    Houssais, M. -N
    Karcher, M.
    Kauker, F.
    Lique, C.
    Nguyen, A.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Worthen, D.
    Zhang, J.
    Arctic Ocean freshwater: How robust are model simulations?2012Inngår i: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, ISSN 2169-9275, Vol. 117, artikkel-id C00D16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic freshwater (FW) has been the focus of many modeling studies, due to the potential impact of Arctic FW on the deep water formation in the North Atlantic. A comparison of the hindcasts from ten ocean-sea ice models shows that the simulation of the Arctic FW budget is quite different in the investigated models. While they agree on the general sink and source terms of the Arctic FW budget, the long-term means as well as the variability of the FW export vary among models. The best model-to-model agreement is found for the interannual and seasonal variability of the solid FW export and the solid FW storage, which also agree well with observations. For the interannual and seasonal variability of the liquid FW export, the agreement among models is better for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) than for Fram Strait. The reason for this is that models are more consistent in simulating volume flux anomalies than salinity anomalies and volume-flux anomalies dominate the liquid FW export variability in the CAA but not in Fram Strait. The seasonal cycle of the liquid FW export generally shows a better agreement among models than the interannual variability, and compared to observations the models capture the seasonality of the liquid FW export rather well. In order to improve future simulations of the Arctic FW budget, the simulation of the salinity field needs to be improved, so that model results on the variability of the liquid FW export and storage become more robust. Citation: Jahn, A., et al. (2012), Arctic Ocean freshwater: How robust are model simulations?, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00D16, doi: 10.1029/2012JC007907.

  • 7. Lambert, Erwin
    et al.
    Nummelin, Aleksi
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Ilicak, Mehmet
    Tracing the Imprint of River Runoff Variability on Arctic Water Mass Transformation2019Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 124, nr 1, s. 302-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8. Martensson, S.
    et al.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Haapala, J.
    Ridged sea ice characteristics in the Arctic from a coupled multicategory sea ice model2012Inngår i: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, ISSN 2169-9275, Vol. 117, artikkel-id C00D15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a multicategory sea ice model with explicit ice classes for ridged and rafted ice was used to examine the evolution of deformed ice during the period 1980-2002. The results show that (1) ridged ice comprises roughly 45-60% of Arctic sea ice volume and 25-45% of the sea ice area, (2) most of the perennial ice consists of ridged ice, and (3) ridged ice exhibits a small seasonal variability. Our results also show an increase in mean ridged ice thickness of 4-6 cm yr(-1) during the summer in an area north of the Canadian Archipelago and a corresponding decrease in the East Siberian Sea and Nansen Basin. At the same time, Arctic sea ice age has been observed to decline and ice drift speed to increase during the simulation period. We connect these findings with a modeled regional increase in the production rate of ridged ice. Comparison of the multicategory model and a two category reference model shows a substantially increased ice production rate due to a more frequent occurrence of leads, resulting in an ice thickness increase of up to 0.8 m. Differences in ice physics between the multicategory and reference models also affect the freshwater content. The sum of liquid and solid freshwater content in the entire Arctic Ocean is about 10% lower and net precipitation (P-E) is about 7% lower as compared to the reference model.

  • 9.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, E.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Kniebusch, M.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Liu, Ye
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Väli, Germo
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Saraiva, S.
    Disentangling the impact of nutrient load and climate changes on Baltic Sea hypoxia and eutrophication since 1850 (vol 53, pg 1145, 2019)2019Inngår i: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 53, nr 1-2, s. 1167-1169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Kniebusch, M.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Liu, Ye
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Väli, Germo
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Saraiva, S.
    Disentangling the impact of nutrient load and climate changes on Baltic Sea hypoxia and eutrophication since 18502019Inngår i: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 53, nr 1-2, s. 1145-1166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Pemberton, Per
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Löptien, Ulrike
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Haapala, Jari
    Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea2017Inngår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 3105-3123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Pemberton, Per
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Nilsson, J.
    The response of the central Arctic Ocean stratification to freshwater perturbations2016Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 792-817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a state-of-the-art coupled ice-ocean-circulation model, we perform a number of sensitivity experiments to examine how the central Arctic Ocean stratification responds to changes in river runoff and precipitation. The simulations yield marked changes in the cold halocline and the Arctic Atlantic layer. Increased precipitation yields a warming of the Atlantic layer, which primarily is an advective signal, propagated through the St. Anna Trough, reflecting air-sea heat flux changes over the Barents Sea. As the freshwater supply is increased, the anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre is weakened and a greater proportion of the Arctic Ocean freshwater is exported via the Fram Strait, with nearly compensating export decreases through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The corresponding reorganization of the freshwater pool appears to be controlled by advective processes, rather than by the local changes in the surface freshwater flux. A simple conceptual model of the Arctic Ocean, based on a geostrophically controlled discharge of the low-salinity water, is introduced and compared with the simulations. Key predictions of the conceptual model are that the halocline depth should decrease with increasing freshwater input and that the Arctic Ocean freshwater storage should increase proportionally to the square root of the freshwater input, which are in broad qualitative agreement with the sensitivity experiments. However, the model-simulated rate of increase of the freshwater storage is weaker, indicating that effects related to wind forcing and rerouting of the freshwater-transport pathways play an important role for the dynamics of the Arctic Ocean freshwater storage.

  • 13.
    Pemberton, Per
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Arctic Ocean Water Mass Transformation in S-T Coordinates2015Inngår i: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 1025-1050Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, watermass transformations in the Arctic Ocean are studied using a recently developed salinity-temperature (S-T) framework. The framework allows the water mass transformations to be succinctly quantified by computing the surface and internal diffusive fluxes in S-T coordinates. This study shows how the method can be applied to a specific oceanic region, in this case the Arctic Ocean, by including the advective exchange of water masses across the boundaries of the region. Based on a simulation with a global ocean circulation model, the authors examine the importance of various parameterized mixing processes and surface fluxes for the transformation of water across isohaline and isothermal surfaces in the ArcticOcean. The model-based results reveal a broadly realistic Arctic Ocean where the inflowing Atlantic and Pacific waters are primarily cooled and freshened before exiting back to the North Atlantic. In the model, the water mass transformation in the T direction is primarily accomplished by the surface heat flux. However, the surface freshwater flux plays a minor role in the transformation of water toward lower salinities, which is mainly driven by a downgradient mixing of salt in the interior ocean. Near the freezing line, the seasonal melt and growth of sea ice influences the transformation pattern.

  • 14.
    Pemberton, Per
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Nilsson, Johan
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Arctic Ocean freshwater composition, pathways and transformations from a passive tracer simulation2014Inngår i: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater (FW) induced transformations in the upper Arctic Ocean were studied using a coupled regional sea ice-ocean model driven by winds and thermodynamic forcing from a reanalysis of data during the period 1948-2011, focusing on the mean state during 1968-2011. Using passive tracers to mark a number of FW sources and sinks, their mean composition, pathways and export were examined. The distribution of the simulated FW height reproduced the known features of the Arctic Ocean and volume-integrated FW content matched climatological estimates reasonably well. Input from Eurasian rivers and extraction by sea-ice formation dominate the composition of the Arctic FW content whilst Pacific water increases in importance in the Canadian Basin. Though pathways generally agreed with previous studies the locus of the Eurasian runoff shelf-basin transport centred at the Alpha-Mendeleyev ridge, shifting the Pacific-Atlantic front eastwards. A strong coupling between tracers representing Eurasian runoff and sea-ice formation showed how water modified on the shelf spreads across the Arctic and mainly exits through the Fram Strait. Transformation to salinity dependent coordinates showed how Atlantic water is modified by both low-salinity shelf and Pacific waters in an estuary-like overturning producing water masses of intermediate salinity that are exported to the Nordic Seas. A total halocline renewal rate of 1.0 Sv, including both shelf-basin exchange and cross-isohaline flux, was estimated from the transports: both components were of equal magnitude. The model's halocline shelf-basin exchange is dominated by runoff and sea-ice processes at the western shelves (the Barents and Kara seas) and Pacific water at the eastern shelves (the Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi seas).

  • 15.
    Wåhlström, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Oceanografi.
    Impact of increasing inflow of warm Atlantic water on the sea-air exchange of carbon dioxide and methane in the Laptev Sea2016Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 121, nr 7, s. 1867-1883Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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