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  • 1.
    Bringfelt, Björn
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Backström, Hans
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Kindell, Sven
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Ullerstig, Anders
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Calculations of PM-10 concentrations in Swedish cities - Modelling of inhalable particles1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The project was initiated by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in order to improve the basis for making standards for PM-10 concentrations in urban air. Model development has been made for Norrköping and Gothenburg. Modelling has been necessary of both long-range and local contributions.

    The long-range dispersion has been simulated by the MATCH-Europe and MATCH-Sweden models, the former being a conventional dispersion model based on meteorology and emission data and the latter including also results from background air pollution measurements in Sweden and neighbouring countries.

    For the local scale, both car exhaust panicles and resuspended particles from a traffic source inventory are dispersed in the city using meteorological data and a Gaussian dispersion mode! and, if needed, a street canyon dispersion submodel. For panicle resuspension, a new model has been developed. The parameters of the resuspension model have been adjusted to two streets/measuring periods in Norrköping.

    At street level in Norrköping, the local model showed to contribute to a large part of the total concentration, especially in late winter and early spring due to resuspension. The MATCH mode! gives same underestimate due to the absence of organic compounds and simulation of PM-2.5 instead of PM-10. However, at some episodes in Norrköping and, in general, for a station at roof level in central Gothenburg and at the rural station Aspvreten, the model estimates of regional PM-2.5 concentrations constitute a larger part of the observed PM-10 concentrations. A good covariation in time with measured data occurs for both the MATCH model and the local model.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 2. Sjodin, A
    et al.
    Sjoberg, K
    Svanberg, P A
    Backström, Hans
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Verification of expected trends in urban traffic NOx emissions from long-term measurements of ambient NO2 concentrations in urban air1996Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 189, s. 213-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from long-term measurements of ambient NO2 concentrations at roof level in 15 Swedish cities have been used to verify expected trends in urban traffic NOx emissions, resulting mainly from the growth in the number of threeway catalyst (TWC) cars in Sweden since the mid 1980s. The results show that, with few exceptions, all cities exhibit a highly significant downward trend in ambient NO2 concentration since the winter season 1986/1987, as regards both winter season averages and 98th percentiles of daily averages, with an average decrease in both cases of approximately 30% through the winter season 1993/1994. The same trend is also observed when meteorological variations between years are taken into account. Corrections for NO2 in background air yield an even stronger downward trend, or an average 40% decrease for the study period. Simultaneously, rough calculations indicate a 30% decrease in urban traffic NOx emissions during the study period. The conclusions are that, since emission calculations always involve a high degree of uncertainty, use of data from long-term measurements of NO2 concentrations in urban air can be very helpful in establishing real-world trends for urban traffic NOx emissions, as soon as NOx-levels are low enough for the NO + ozone reaction to become 'NOx-limited'.

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