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  • 1.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Thomas, Manu
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Korhonen, H.
    Lehtinen, K. E. J.
    Kokkola, H.
    MATCH-SALSA - Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry model coupled to the SALSA aerosol microphysics model - Part 1: Model description and evaluation2015Ingår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 171-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have implemented the sectional aerosol dynamics model SALSA (Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications) in the European-scale chemistry-transport model MATCH (Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry). The new model is called MATCH-SALSA. It includes aerosol microphysics, with several formulations for nucleation, wet scavenging and condensation. The model reproduces observed higher particle number concentration (PNC) in central Europe and lower concentrations in remote regions. The modeled PNC size distribution peak occurs at the same or smaller particle size as the observed peak at four measurement sites spread across Europe. Total PNC is underestimated at northern and central European sites and accumulation-mode PNC is underestimated at all investigated sites. The low nucleation rate coefficient used in this study is an important reason for the underestimation. On the other hand, the model performs well for particle mass (including secondary inorganic aerosol components), while elemental and organic carbon concentrations are underestimated at many of the sites. Further development is needed, primarily for treatment of secondary organic aerosol, in terms of biogenic emissions and chemical transformation. Updating the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) scheme will likely have a large impact on modeled PM2.5 and also affect the model performance for PNC through impacts on nucleation and condensation.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Thomas, Manu
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Kokkola, Harri
    FMI.
    Lehtinen, Kari
    FMI.
    MATCH-SALSA: Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry model coupled to the SALSA aerosol microphysics model2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a new aerosol dynamics version of a European scale Eulerian CTM, MATCH. The new model is called MATCH-SALSA, and includes aerosol microphysics and several options for nucleation, wet scavenging and condensation. The report entails model description, evaluation and sensitivity tests.The new model reproduces observed higher particle number concentration (PNC) in central Europe and lower in remote regions. The model peak PNC occurs at the same particle size as the observed peak or at smaller sizes, which indicate missing growth. Total PNC is underestimated at some sites. The model performs well for particle mass, including SIA components. EC and OC are underestimated at many of the sites.The results are sensitive to the fraction of SOx emitted as H2SO4 and the optimum choice is site dependent. The model results are highly sensitive to whether organic nucleation is included or not. The model results are sensitive to amount of organic vapors in the condensation. The model can be used in applications knowing the restrictions of what the model manages well and what needs further improvements, which is detailed in the report.

  • 3.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    A regional model for surface ozone in Southeast Asia2008Ingår i: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 60, nr 5, s. 718-728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the model intercomparison study MICS Asia II, the Swedish MATCH model was set up for Southeast and East Asia. In that study, the comprehensive photochemistry scheme of MATCH was used for the first time in Asia. The current work focuses on results of surface ozone from the MATCH model simulations falling outside the model intercomparison study. Model results of surface ozone concentrations for the entire year of 2001 were investigated and compared with measurements in Southeast Asia. The model produced higher surface ozone concentrations than the observations at all of the non-remote stations investigated but underestimated during the dry season at remote locations. Modelled seasonal variation was similar to, but less pronounced than, the variation in the measurements. This study indicates that NO(x) is the limiting precursor for ozone production in the model, while the fractionation in different species and total amount of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions are less important. Naturally emitted NMVOC, isoprene, is an important precursor of surface ozone at certain conditions, and a better inventory of these emissions is needed. Deposition velocities of ozone also have impact on surface concentrations. To improve the model performance, it is important to add a land use inventory with corresponding deposition velocities.

  • 4.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Jonsson, P
    Lindgren, E S
    Concentrations and sources of trace elements in particulate air pollution, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, studied by EDXRF2005Ingår i: X-Ray Spectrometry, ISSN 0049-8246, E-ISSN 1097-4539, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 1-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trace elements in near-ground atmospheric aerosols were investigated in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Particles were collected at two sites, one urban and one rural, during, two months with different meteorological conditions. The samplers, dichotomous impactors, segregate the particles into two size fractions, fine (PM2.5, d(a) < 2.5 mum) and coarse (2.5 < d(a) < 10 mum). A sharp cyclone was used to sample finer particles (PM1, d(a) < 1 mum). Meteorological parameters were also examined at both sites. An EDXRF spectrometer, based on three-axial geometry, was used for quantitative elemental analysis. Concentrations of elements heavier than phosphorus were determined. Also, the content of black carbon on the filters was measured with a reflectometer. The elemental concentrations were compared with respect to season and geographical location in the city. The levels of different species in Dar es Salaam were also compared with similar data from other African and European countries. This showed low values of Pb with respect to the size of the city and no legislation on the use of leaded petrol, that often is the main source of lead. High values of Cl were also found, as would be expected in a coastal city. The coarse particles in the air, originating from soil, had a different composition in Dar es Salaam than in Gaborone, Botswana, and the concentration of black carbon was higher than in other cities. On the basis of the data collected, source assignments were made and the following sources found; sea-spray, soil, city road dust, biomass burning industries and traffic. Comparing the concentrations of different elements in PM2.5 and PM1 revealed that black carbon, Zn, Pb, K and Br are present only in the smallest particles. Copyright (C) 2005 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

  • 5. Carmichael, G. R.
    et al.
    Sakurai, T.
    Streets, D.
    Hozumi, Y.
    Ueda, H.
    Park, S. U.
    Fung, C.
    Han, Z.
    Kajino, M.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Hayami, H.
    Sartelet, K.
    Holloway, T.
    Wang, Z.
    Kannari, A.
    Fu, J.
    Matsuda, K.
    Thongbooncho, N.
    Amann, M.
    MICS-Asia II: The model intercomparison study for Asia Phase II methodology and overview of findings2008Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. 3468-3490Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the Model Intercomparison Study Asia Phase II (MICS-Asia II) are presented. Nine different regional modeling groups simulated chemistry and transport of ozone (O-3), secondary aerosol, acid deposition, and associated precursors, using common emissions and boundary conditions derived from a global model. Four-month-long periods, representing 2 years and three seasons (i.e., March, July, and December in 2001, and March in 2002), are analyzed. New observational data, obtained under the EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) monitoring program, were made available for this study, and these data provide a regional database to compare with model simulations. The analysis focused around seven subject areas: O-3 and related precursors, aerosols, acid deposition, global inflow of pollutants and precursor to Asia, model sensitivities to aerosol parameterization, analysis of emission fields, and detailed analyses of individual models, each of which is presented in a companion paper in this issue of Atmospheric Environment. This overview discusses the major findings of the study, as well as information on common emissions, meteorological conditions, and observations. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Foltescu, Valentin
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Pryor, S C
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Sea salt generation, dispersion and removal on the regional scale2005Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, nr 11, s. 2123-2133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The MATCH (Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) modelling system has been used as the modelling platform for regional-scale sea salt simulations. A new model version for sea salt aerosols has been constructed and assessed. This study presents the model concept and shows that the model is capable of simulating sea salt on a regional scale. The model agrees well with observations, particularly in terms of the sea salt mass concentrations at certain locations in Northern Europe. The observed wet fluxes are generally under-predicted due in part to systematic under-prediction of precipitation by the meteorological model used to drive MATCH. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7. Han, Z.
    et al.
    Sakurai, T.
    Ueda, H.
    Carmichael, G. R.
    Streets, D.
    Hayami, H.
    Wang, Z.
    Holloway, T.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Hozumi, Y.
    Park, S. U.
    Kajino, M.
    Sartelet, K.
    Fung, C.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Thongboonchoo, N.
    Tang, Y.
    Chang, A.
    Matsuda, K.
    Amann, M.
    MICS-Asia II: Model intercomparison and evaluation of ozone and relevant species2008Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. 3491-3509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight regional Eulerian chemical transport models (CTMs) are compared with each other and with an extensive set of observations including ground-level concentrations from EANET, ozone soundings from JMA and vertical profiles from the TRACE-P experiment to evaluate the models' abilities in simulating O(3) and relevant species (SO(2), NO, NO(2), HNO(3) and PAN) in the troposphere of East Asia and to look for similarities and differences among model performances. Statistical analysis is conducted to help estimate the consistency and discrepancy between model simulation and observation in terms of various species, seasons, locations, as well as attitude ranges. In general, all models show a good skill of simulating SO(2) for both ground level and the lower troposphere, although two of the eight models systematically overpredict SO(2) concentration. The model skills for O(3) vary largely with region and season. For ground-level O(3), model results are best correlated with observations in July 2001. Comparing with O(3) soundings measured in the afternoon reveals the best consistency among models in March 2001 and the largest disparity in O(3) magnitude in July 2001, although most models produce the best correlation in July as well. In terms of the statistics for the four flights of TRACE-P experiment, most models appear to be able to accurately capture the variability in the lower troposphere. The model performances for NO(x) are relatively poor, with lower correlation and with almost all models tending to underpredict NO(x) levels, due to larger uncertainties in either emission estimates or complex chemical mechanism represented. All models exhibit larger RMSE at altitudes < 2 km than 2-5.5 kin, mainly due to a consistent tendency of these models towards underprediction of the magnitude of intense plumes that often originate from near surface. Relatively lower correlation at altitudes 2-5.5 km may be attributed to the models' limitation in representing convection or potential chemical processes. Most of the key features in species distribution have been consistently reproduced by the participating models, such as the O(3) enhancement in the western Pacific Ocean in March and in northeast Asia in July, respectively, although the absolute model values may differ considerably from each other. Large differences are found among models in the southern parts of the domain for all the four periods, including southern China and northern parts of some Southeast Asia countries where the behaviors of chemical components and the ability of these models are still not clearly known because of a lack of observational databases. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Hayami, Hiroshi
    et al.
    Sakurai, T.
    Han, Z.
    Ueda, H.
    Carmichael, G. R.
    Streets, D.
    Holloway, T.
    Wang, Z.
    Thongboonchoo, N.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Fung, C.
    Chang, A.
    Park, S. U.
    Kajino, M.
    Sartelet, K.
    Matsuda, K.
    Amann, M.
    MICS-Asia II: Model intercomparison and evaluation of particulate sulfate, nitrate and ammonium2008Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. 3510-3527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight chemical transport models participate in a model intercomparison study for East Asia, MICS-Asia II. This paper analyzes calculated results for particulate matter of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium through comparisons with each other and with monthly measurements at EANET (the acid deposition monitoring network in East Asia) and daily measurements at Fukue, Japan. To the EANET measurements, model ensemble means better agree with model individual results for sulfate and total ammonium, although total nitrate is consistently and considerably underestimated. To measurements at Fukue, the models show better agreement than for the EANET measurements. This is likely because Fukue is centered in many of the model domains, whereas the EANET stations are mostly in Southeast Asia and Russia. Moreover, it would be important that Fukue is in Northeast Asia, where the emission inventory is more reliable than Southeast Asia. The model-model comparisons are made in view of the total amount in the atmosphere, vertical profile, coefficient of variation in surface concentrations, and transformation changes with distance. All the models show reasonable tendencies in vertical profiles and composition ratios. However, total amounts in the atmosphere are discrepant among the models. The consistency of the total amount in the atmosphere would influence source-receptor analysis. It seems that model results would be consistent, if the models take into account the primitive processes like emission, advection/diffusion, chemical transformation and dry/wet deposition, no matter the processes are modeled simply or comprehensively. Through the comparison study, we learned that it would be difficult to find any problems from one comparison (model-observation comparison with one data or many but at one station or in a short period). Modelers tend to examine model performances only from model-observation comparisons. However, taking budget in a certain or whole model domain would be important, before the models are applied to source-receptor analysis. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Holloway, Tracey
    et al.
    Sakurai, Tatsuya
    Han, Zhiwei
    Ehlers, Susanna
    Spak, Scott N.
    Horowitz, Larry W.
    Carmichael, Gregory R.
    Streets, David G.
    Hozumi, Y.
    Ueda, Hiromasa
    Park, S. U.
    Fung, Christopher
    Kajino, M.
    Thongboonchoo, Narisara
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Hayami, Hiroshi
    Sartelet, Karine
    Wang, Zifa
    Matsuda, K.
    Amann, Markus
    MICS-Asia II: Impact of global emissions on regional air quality in Asia2008Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. 3543-3561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantifies the seasonality and geographic variability of global pollutant inflow to Asia. Asia is often looked to as a major source of intercontinental air pollution transport with rising emissions and efficient pollutant export processes. However, the degree to which foreign emissions have been imported to Asia has not been thoroughly examined. The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) is an international collaboration to study air pollution transport and chemistry in Asia. Using the global atmospheric chemistry Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v. 2.4), and comparing results with a suite of regional models participating in MICS-Asia, we find that imported O-3 contributes significantly throughout Asia. The choice of upper boundary condition is found to be particularly important for O-3, even for surface concentrations. Both North America and Europe contribute to ground-level O-3 concentrations throughout the region, though the seasonality of these two sources varies. North American contributions peak at over 10% of monthly mean O-3 during winter months in East Asia, compared to Europe's spring- and autumn-maxima (5-8%). In comparison to observed data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), MOZART concentrations for 03 generally fall within the range of the MICS models, but MOZART is unable to capture the fine spatial variability of shorter-lived species as well as the regional models. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Holmin Fridell, Sofi
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Jones, Jörgen
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Södergren, Helena
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Kindell, Sven
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Luftkvaliteten i Sverige år 20302013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges luftkvalitet påverkas av lokala och nationella utsläppskällor såväl som av emissioner från Europa. Utsläppen av många luftföroreningar har minskat under de senaste årtiondena tack vare kontinuerligt skärpta emissionskrav. Trots kraftiga minskningar av utsläppen både i Sverige och övriga Europa har inte luftkvaliteten i våra städer, med avseende på kvävedioxid (NO2), ozon (O3) och partiklar (PM10), förbättrats avsevärt det senaste decenniet. Inte heller har t.ex. surheten i Sveriges skogsmarker minskat sedan 1980-talet (Naturvårdsverket, a).SMHI genomförde under 2011 och 2012 en kartläggning av luftmiljö och deposition fram till år 2020 (Andersson et al, 2011 och Omstedt et al, 2012a). I detta fortsättningsprojekt har kartläggningen gjorts ytterligare 10 år framåt i tiden, till år 2030. Studien behandlar både lokal luftkvalitet och beräkningar av bakgrundshalter och deposition.Lokala beräkningar har utförts för 46 gator/vägar i eller i nära anslutning till tätortsmiljö. Beräkningarna omfattar halter av kvävedioxid och partiklar (PM10 och PM2.5). Deposition redovisas för svavel- och kväveföreningar uppdelat på total-, våt- samt torrdeposition.Lufthalter inklusive AOT40 redovisas för ozon.Lokalt uppvisar PM10 flest överskridandena av miljökvalitetsnormerna och miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk luft. Årsmedelvärdet varierar mellan de studerade gatumiljöerna från knappt 10 till 37 μg m–3, och 90-percentilen från knappt 17 till 80 μg m–3. Miljökvalitetsmålet för PM10 beräknas överskridas i 42 av de 46 studerade trafikmiljöerna.PM2.5-halterna ligger väl under miljökvalitetsnormen för samtliga studerade trafikmiljöer. Miljökvalitetsmålet överskrids i åtta av de 42 studerade trafikmiljöerna. Årsmedelvärdet varierar mellan4 och 12 μg m–3.För NO2 varierar årsmedelvärdet i de studerade städerna mellan 6 och 25 μg m–3, 98-percentilen av dygnsmedelvärden mellan 12 och 46 μg m–3 och 98-percentilen av timmedelvärdet mellan 16 och 67 μg m–3. Miljökvalitetsnormerna beräknas inte överskridas i någon av de studerade trafikmiljöerna. Miljökvalitetsmålet Frisk luft för NO2 avseende 98-percentil timmedelvärden överskrids i 4 av de 46 studerade miljöerna. För årsmedelvärden noteras inget överskridande av målet.För fyra gator har en känslighetsanalys genomförts där trafikökningen har hållits oförändrad jämfört med år 2008. Uteblivna trafikökningar till år 2030 jämfört med 2008 leder till minskade haltnivåer mellan 3 och 11 % för PM10 och NO2. PM2.5 påverkas endast marginellt av förändrade trafikflöden.Som följd av minskade emissioner kommer deposition av svavel och oxiderat kväve att minska till år 2030. Depositionen kommer vara fortsatt störst i södra Sverige. Depositionen av reducerat kväve kommer på de flesta platser vara oförändrad.Luftkvaliteten med avseende på marknära ozon kommer att förbättras i Sverige fram till år 2030. Halterna av ozon kommer fortsatt att ligga under miljökvalitetsmålet för ozons påverkan på grödor och skog.De största osäkerheterna i denna studie antas finnas i emissionsdata, trafikökningar på enskilda gator, fordonssammansättningen (t.ex. andelen dieselbilar) och andelen bilar med dubbdäck. I studien används meteorologin för år 2008 vilket gör att erhållna resultat inte inkluderarvariabilitet i meteorologin.

  • 11. Jonsson, P
    et al.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Eliasson, I
    Lindgren, E S
    Suspended particulate matter and its relations to the urban climate in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania2004Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 38, nr 25, s. 4175-4181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships between sources and levels of particulate matter and climatic parameters (urban heat island intensity, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity) were investigated in the coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania's largest city. Measurements were made during the wet and dry seasons of 2001 at an urban and a rural site. Five elements were used to represent different sources: K in fine particles (biomass), Zn in fine particles (industry), Cl in coarse particles (sea spray), Ti in coarse particles (soil) and Pb in fine particles (traffic). The concentrations of these elements varied considerably between the urban and rural site during both the wet and dry season, with the urban site in the dry season having the highest concentrations. Diurnal differences are also apparent, although not as straightforward. In an attempt to explain these differences, correlations between all elements and the climatic parameters were investigated. The results show that the nocturnal urban heat island intensity was positively correlated and wind speed negatively correlated with particulate levels, presumably due to the increased atmospheric stability. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Frankenberg, Britt
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Svensson, J
    SMHI.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Klimatforskning - Rossby Centre.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    ECDS - a Swedish Research Infrastructure for the Open Sharing of Environment and Climate Data2013Ingår i: Data Science Journal, ISSN 1683-1470, E-ISSN 1683-1470, nr 12, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet.
    Kartläggning av partiklar i Sverige - halter, källbidrag och kunskapsluckor2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte. År 1999 startade Naturvårdsverket ett projekt för kartläggning av partikelhalter i Sverige samt identifikation av de viktigaste källorna. Kartläggningsprojektet byggde på mätningar under två år (1999-2001). Resultaten har varit till stor nytta och legat till grund för bland annat införande av nya miljömål och miljökvalitetsnormer, åtgärdsförslag och vetenskapliga publikationer. För första gången kunde haltnivåer av PM10 och PM2.5 beskrivas systematiskt i regional och urban bakgrund samt gaturum i Sverige. Tre huvudkällor till höga partikelhalter i Sverige kunde identifieras; långdistanstransport, uppvirvling av vägdamm och vedeldning.Sedan dess har kunskapen om partiklar ökat. Miljökvalitetsnormer har införts i Sverige och miljömål har formulerats. Idag finns mer mätdata tillgängliga och för vissa områden finns även längre tidsserier. Intresset för sjöfartens bidrag till luftföroreningar och partiklar har ökat, eftersom dess relativa bidrag jämfört med landbaserade emissioner ökar. Nya studier inriktade på förståelse av olika processer har genomförts. Modeller har utvecklats och förbättrats, därigenom har också möjligheten att kvantifiera olika källors bidrag ökat. Behovet att använda modeller i arbetet med miljömål och miljökvalitetsnormer har också blivit större.Syftet med denna studie är att presentera huvuddragen av den kunskap som kommit fram under de senaste tio åren om partikelhalter i Sverige, framförallt PM10 och PM2.5, men också peka på kunskapsluckor.

  • 14. Wang, Zifa
    et al.
    Xie, Fuying
    Sakurai, T.
    Ueda, H.
    Han, Zhiwei
    Carmichael, G. R.
    Streets, D.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Holloway, T.
    Hayami, H.
    Kajino, M.
    Thongboonchoo, N.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Park, S. U.
    Fung, C.
    Chang, A.
    Sartelet, K.
    Amann, M.
    MICS-Asia II: Model inter-comparison and evaluation of acid deposition2008Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. 3528-3542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of chemical deposition of eight regional chemical models used in Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) II. Monthly-mean depositions of chemical species simulated by these models, including dry deposition of SO(2), HNO(3), NH(3), Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium and wet deposition of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), have been provided for four periods (March, July, December 2001 and March 2002) in this work. Observations at 37 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) are compared with SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) wet deposition model results. Significant correlations appeared between the observation and computed ensemble mean of participant models. Also, differences among modeled sulfur and nitrogen dry depositions have been studied at the EANET sites. Based on the analysis of acid deposition for various species from different models, total depositions of sulfur (SO(2) and sulfate) and nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) have been evaluated as the ensemble mean of the eight models. In general, all models capture the observed spatial distribution' of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, although the absolute values may differ from measurements. High deposition often occurs in eastern China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia. The magnitude of model bias is quite large for many of the models. In examining the reasons for model-measurement disagreement, we find that differences in chemical processes, deposition parameterization, and modeled precipitation are the main reasons for large model disparities. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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