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  • 1. Aas, W.
    et al.
    Tsyro, S.
    Bieber, E.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Ceburnis, D.
    Ellermann, T.
    Fagerli, H.
    Froelich, M.
    Gehrig, R.
    Makkonen, U.
    Nemitz, E.
    Otjes, R.
    Perez, N.
    Perrino, C.
    Prevot, A. S. H.
    Putaud, J. -P
    Simpson, D.
    Spindler, G.
    Vana, M.
    Yttri, K. E.
    Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods2012Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, nr 17, s. 8073-8094Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC) and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically. The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be explained by an underestimation of residential wood burning sources. It should be noted that both primary and secondary OC has been included in the calculations for the first time, showing promising results. Mineral dust is important, especially in southern Europe, and the model seems to capture the dust episodes well. The lack of measurements of mineral dust hampers the possibility for model evaluation for this highly uncertain PM component. There are also lessons learnt regarding improved measurements for future intensive periods. There is a need for increased comparability between the measurements at different sites. For the nitrogen compounds it is clear that more measurements using artefact free methods based on continuous measurement methods and/or denuders are needed. For EC/OC, a reference methodology (both in field and laboratory) was lacking during these periods giving problems with comparability, though measurement protocols have recently been established and these should be followed by the Parties to the EMEP Protocol. For measurements with no defined protocols, it might be a good solution to use centralised laboratories to ensure comparability across the network. To cope with the introduction of these new measurements, new reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure that all proper information about the methodologies and data quality is given.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Thomas, Manu
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Korhonen, H.
    Lehtinen, K. E. J.
    Kokkola, H.
    MATCH-SALSA - Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry model coupled to the SALSA aerosol microphysics model - Part 1: Model description and evaluation2015Inngår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 171-189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have implemented the sectional aerosol dynamics model SALSA (Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications) in the European-scale chemistry-transport model MATCH (Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry). The new model is called MATCH-SALSA. It includes aerosol microphysics, with several formulations for nucleation, wet scavenging and condensation. The model reproduces observed higher particle number concentration (PNC) in central Europe and lower concentrations in remote regions. The modeled PNC size distribution peak occurs at the same or smaller particle size as the observed peak at four measurement sites spread across Europe. Total PNC is underestimated at northern and central European sites and accumulation-mode PNC is underestimated at all investigated sites. The low nucleation rate coefficient used in this study is an important reason for the underestimation. On the other hand, the model performs well for particle mass (including secondary inorganic aerosol components), while elemental and organic carbon concentrations are underestimated at many of the sites. Further development is needed, primarily for treatment of secondary organic aerosol, in terms of biogenic emissions and chemical transformation. Updating the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) scheme will likely have a large impact on modeled PM2.5 and also affect the model performance for PNC through impacts on nucleation and condensation.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Thomas, Manu
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Kokkola, Harri
    FMI.
    Lehtinen, Kari
    FMI.
    MATCH-SALSA: Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry model coupled to the SALSA aerosol microphysics model2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a new aerosol dynamics version of a European scale Eulerian CTM, MATCH. The new model is called MATCH-SALSA, and includes aerosol microphysics and several options for nucleation, wet scavenging and condensation. The report entails model description, evaluation and sensitivity tests.The new model reproduces observed higher particle number concentration (PNC) in central Europe and lower in remote regions. The model peak PNC occurs at the same particle size as the observed peak or at smaller sizes, which indicate missing growth. Total PNC is underestimated at some sites. The model performs well for particle mass, including SIA components. EC and OC are underestimated at many of the sites.The results are sensitive to the fraction of SOx emitted as H2SO4 and the optimum choice is site dependent. The model results are highly sensitive to whether organic nucleation is included or not. The model results are sensitive to amount of organic vapors in the condensation. The model can be used in applications knowing the restrictions of what the model manages well and what needs further improvements, which is detailed in the report.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, Christer
    Population exposure and mortality due to regional background PM in Europe - Long-term simulations of source region and shipping contributions2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 22-23, s. 3614-3620Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the contribution to population exposure (PE) of regional background fine primary (PPM(2.5)) and secondary inorganic (SIA) particulate matter and its impact on mortality in Europe during 1997-2003 calculated with a chemistry transport model. Contributions to concentrations and PE due to emissions from shipping, Western (WEU), Eastern (EEU), and Northern Europe are compared. WEU contributes about 40% to both PPM(2.5) and SIA concentrations, whereas the EEU contribution to PPM(2.5) is much higher (43% of total PPM(2.5)) than to SIA (29% of total SIA). The population weighted average concentration (PWC) of PPM(2.5) is a factor of 2.3 higher than average (non-weighted) concentrations, whereas for SIA the PWC is only a factor 1.6 higher. This is due to PPM(2.5) concentrations having larger gradients and being relatively high over densely populated areas, whereas SIA is formed outside populated areas. WEU emissions contribute relatively more than EEU to PWC and mortality due to both PPM(2.5) and SIA in Europe. The number of premature deaths in Europe is estimated to 301000 per year due to PPM(2.5) exposure and 245 000 due to SIA, despite 3.3 times higher average SIA concentrations. This is due to population weighting and assumed (and uncertain) higher relative risk of mortality for PPM(2.5) components (2.8 times higher RR for PPM(2.5)). This study indicates that it might be more efficient, for the health of the European population, to decrease primary PM emissions (especially in WEU) than to decrease precursors of SIA, but more knowledge on the toxicity of different PM constituents is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Interannual variation and trends in air pollution over Europe due to climate variability during 1958-2001 simulated with a regional CTM coupled to the ERA40 reanalysis2007Inngår i: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 77-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional Chemistry Transport Model was used to study the meteorologically induced interannual variability and trends in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen as well as concentrations of surface ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM) and its constituents over Europe during 1958-2001. The model was coupled to the meteorological reanalysis ERA40, produced at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Emissions and boundary conditions of chemical compounds and PM were kept constant at present levels. The average European interannual variation, due to meteorological variability, ranges from 3% for O(3), 5% for NO(2), 9% for PM, 6-9% for dry deposition, to about 20% for wet deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. For the period 1979-2001 the trend in ozone, due to climate variability is increasing in central and southwestern Europe and decreasing in northeastern Europe, the trend in NO(2) is approximately opposite. The trend in PM is positive in eastern Europe. There are negative trends in wet deposition in southwestern and central Europe and positive trends in dry deposition overall. A bias in ERA40 precipitation could be partly responsible for the trends. The variation and trends need to be considered when interpreting measurements and designing measurement campaigns.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Dagens och framtidens partikelhalter i Sverige: Utredning av exponeringsminskningsmål för PM2.5 enligt nytt luftdirektiv2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det nya EU-direktivet för luftkvalitet definieras ett exponeringskoncentrationstak för PM2.5. Detta takvärde, som inte får överskridas efter år 2015, är satt till 20 μg/m3 som årsmedelvärde. Eftersom även lägre halter påverkar människors hälsa negativt införs även ett exponeringsminskningsmål av partikelhalter i urban bakgrund. Hur stort exponeringsminskningsmålet blir för en viss plats beror på PM2.5-halterna vid referensåret 2010. Högre halt kräver högre relativ reducering till år 2020. I denna studie utreds det nya direktivets betydelse för Sverige. Utgångsläget kartläggs genom analys av mätdata av PM2.5 för ett antal platser runt om i Sverige. Olika emissionsscenarier tillämpas för att undersöka hur den regionala PM2.5-halten och långdistansbidraget kan komma att ändras från nuläget till år 2020 genom simuleringar med spridningsmodellen MATCH. Då det gäller det lokala haltbidragets betydelse för totalhalten av PM2.5 i nuläget respektive för år 2020, undersöks detta genom beräkningar i SIMAIR, för olika emissionsscenarier som innefattar dubbdäcksanvändning, teknikutveckling och trafikökning. Mätdata har sammanställts och analyserats för 25 mätplatser, varav 4 regionala bakgrundsstationer, 8 urbana bakgrundsstationer samt 13 mätstationeri gaturum. Uppmätta årsmedelvärden av PM2.5 ligger i gaturum generellt i intervallet 10-18 μg/m3 medan motsvarande värden för urban bakgrundoch regional bakgrund är 9-12 μg/m3 respektive 6-12 μg/m3. Halterna av PM2.5 underskrider 20 μg/m3 för samtliga platser och år, vilket betyder attexponeringskoncentrationstaket redan i dagsläget är uppfyllt. Den relativa skillnaden mellan halter i gaturum och regional bakgrundsluft är betydligtmindre för PM2.5 än för PM10, vilket indikerar att merparten av de fina partiklarna i gaturum härstammar från långdistanskällor. Liksom för PM10observeras också för PM2.5 ett maximum på våren, vilket tyder på att en del av partiklarna från vägslitage och uppvirvling är fina. Långdistanstransporten från kontinentaleuropa leder till en nord-sydlig gradient av PM2.5 i regionala bakgrundsluften. Däremot kan inte någotentydigt latitudberoende observeras för gaturum.För att uppskatta möjliga reduceringar av årsmedelhalten av PM2.5 från år 2010 till år 2020 har modellsimuleringar utförts med den regionalaspridningsmodellen MATCH. Tre olika europeiska emissionsscenarier för 2020 har studerats (CLECLIM, D23LOW och MFRDEEP). Beräkningsresultaten ger reduceringar som uppgår till 1.0-2.5 μg/m3 i södra Sverige och 0.1-0.5 μg/m3 i norra Sverige, för ett troligt emissionsscenario (D23LOW). Utsikterna att uppnå målet 10% minskning av PM2.5-halterna i södra Sverige bedöms därför som goda. Beräkningarna visar också att långdistanstransporten är det dominerande bidraget till PM2.5 i regional bakgrundsluft i Sverige. Slutligen konstateras att för regionala bakgrundshalter av PM2.5 är påverkan från vägtrafikens slitagepartiklar liten. Bibehållen dubbdäcksanvänding år 2020 beräknas geen obetydlig ökning av fina slitagepartiklar i den regionala bakgrundsluften (maximalt ca 0.02 μg/m3) pga ökat trafikarbete, medan minskad användning av dubbdäck kan leda till en liten reducering av halterna till år 2020 (upp till ca 0.1 μg/m3 för scenariot utan dubbdäck). För halter i urbanbakgrundsluft förväntas påverkan vara något större än den som beräknats här.För att beräkna det lokala bidraget till PM2.5 har uppskattningar av totala emissionsfaktorer för PM2.5 gjorts. Uppskattningarna baserades på tidigarestudier med mätdata av hög kvalitet från gaturum i Sverige, Danmark och Tyskland samt modellberäkningar med hjälp av SIMAIRs emissionsmodellför slitagepartiklar. Utgående ifrån emissionsfaktorerna beräknades lokala haltbidrag i gaturummen med SIMAIR för 4 olika emissionsscenarier; (1)nuläge motsvarande år 2004, (2) år 2020 utan förändringar vad gäller dubbdäcksanvändning, (3) år 2020 andelar dubbdäck i hela landet är 30 % samt (4) år 2020 utan dubbdäck. Beräkningarna för dessa scenarier indikerar att under nuvarande förhållanden är det lokala haltbidraget av PM2.5 ca 6 μg/m3 i Stockholm/Hornsgatan, ca 4 μg/m3 i Umeå/Västra Esplanaden och ca 2.5-3 μg/m3 för Göteborg/Gårda och Malmö/Amiralsgatan.Teknikutveckling till år 2020 (scenario 2) minskar lokala haltbidrag med 1.3-2.3 μg/m3 och mindre dubbdäcksanvändning (scenario 3) reducerarhalterna med ytterligare 1-3 μg/m3 i främst Stockholm och Umeå. Däremot blir de beräknade halterna bara marginellt lägre i scenariot helt utandubbdäck jämfört med 30% dubbdäcksanvändning. Detta kan förklaras med att en gata, HC Andersens Boulevard i Köpenhamn, med högemissionsfaktor för uppvirvlingen av vägdamm, har använts som referensgata.

  • 7.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    TESS - Traffic Emissions, Socioeconomic valuation and Socioeconomic measures: Part 2: Exposure of the European population to atmospheric particles (PM) caused by emissions in Stockholm2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Model calculations have been performed to estimate the effects of emissions in Stockholm on the population exposure to particulate matter (PM) outside the city.The impacts of five different emissions were investigated: Road traffic exhaust, split into Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) and Heavy Duty Vehicles(HDV), Sea Traffic, Power Plants and Residential Heating. The emissions from non-exhaust (mainly road wear due to use of studded tyres) were also treated, in addition to combustion sources.The uncertainties in the emission estimates for Residential Heating using biomass (wood) are very large but it seems that it is an important PM source in Stockholm. In this report two estimates of the emissions have been used. In the lowest estimate, which seems more realistic, the contribution to population exposure of directly emitted combustion particles from residential heating is of similar magnitude (37%) as the contribution from road traffic exaust (42%). For all sources, except Sea Traffic, the total population exposure to combustion PM is much larger within Stockholm than outside; for shipping the total exposure is about as large outside the city as within.For all sources, except residential heating, the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) exposure is higher than the combustion particle exposure. Non-exhaust particles dominate the total impact on PM10 exposure, contributing about 60-70% to the total exposure, due to all the studied sources in Stockholm. The calculated population exposure due to the wear particles is to a very large extent (87%) occurring within the Greater Stockholm area.

  • 8.
    Bergström, Robert
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Hallquist, M.
    Simpson, D.
    Wildt, J.
    Mentel, T. F.
    Biotic stress: a significant contributor to organic aerosol in Europe?2014Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, nr 24, s. 13643-13660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the potential impact on organic aerosol formation from biotic stress-induced emissions (SIE) of organic molecules from forests in Europe (north of lat. 45 degrees N). Emission estimates for sesquiterpenes (SQT), methyl salicylate (MeSA) and unsaturated C-17 compounds, due to different stressors, are based on experiments in the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC), combined with estimates of the fraction of stressed trees in Europe based on reported observed tree damage. SIE were introduced in the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the SIE were taken from the JPAC experiments. Based on estimates of current levels of infestation and the JPAC aerosol yields, the model results suggest that the contribution to SOA in large parts of Europe may be substantial. It is possible that SIE contributes as much, or more, to organic aerosol than the constitutive biogenic VOC emissions, at least during some periods. Based on the assumptions in this study, SIE-SOA are estimated to constitute between 50 and 70% of the total biogenic SOA (BSOA) in a current-situation scenario where the biotic stress in northern and central European forests causes large SIE of MeSA and SQT. An alternative current-situation scenario with lower SIE, consisting solely of SQT, leads to lower SIE-SOA, between 20 and 40% of the total BSOA. Hypothetical future scenarios with increased SIE, due to higher degrees of biotic stress, show that SOA formation due to SIE can become even larger. Unsaturated C17 BVOC (biogenic volatile organic compounds) emitted by spruce infested by the forest-honey generating bark louse, Cinara pilicornis, have a high SOA-forming potential. A model scenario investigating the effect of a regional, episodic infestation of Cinara pilicornis in Baden-Wurttemberg, corresponding to a year with high production of forest honey, shows that these types of events could lead to very large organic aerosol formation in the infested region. We have used the best available laboratory data on biotic SIE applicable to northern and central European forests. Using these data and associated assumptions, we have shown that SIE are potentially important for SOA formation but the magnitude of the impact is uncertain and needs to be constrained by further laboratory, field and modelling studies. As an example, the MeSA, which is released as a consequence of various types of biotic stress, is found to have a potentially large impact on SIE-SOA in Europe, but different assumptions regarding the nighttime chemistry of MeSA can change its SOA potential substantially. Thus, further investigations of the atmospheric chemistry of MeSA and observational field studies are needed to clarify the role of this compound in the atmosphere.

  • 9.
    Bergström, Robert
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    Prevot, A. S. H.
    Yttri, K. E.
    Simpson, D.
    Modelling of organic aerosols over Europe (2002-2007) using a volatility basis set (VBS) framework: application of different assumptions regarding the formation of secondary organic aerosol2012Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, nr 18, s. 8499-8527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new organic aerosol module has been implemented into the EMEP chemical transport model. Four different volatility basis set (VBS) schemes have been tested in long-term simulations for Europe, covering the six years 2002-2007. Different assumptions regarding partitioning of primary organic aerosol and aging of primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic carbon (S/IVOC) species and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) have been explored. Model results are compared to filter measurements, aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data and source apportionment studies, as well as to other model studies. The present study indicates that many different sources contribute significantly to organic aerosol in Europe. Biogenic and anthropogenic SOA, residential wood combustion and vegetation fire emissions may all contribute more than 10% each over substantial parts of Europe. This study shows smaller contributions from biogenic SOA to organic aerosol in Europe than earlier work, but relatively greater anthropogenic SOA. Simple VBS based organic aerosol models can give reasonably good results for summer conditions but more observational studies are needed to constrain the VBS parameterisations and to help improve emission inventories. The volatility distribution of primary emissions is one important issue for further work. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from biogenic sources are also highly uncertain and need further validation. We can not reproduce winter levels of organic aerosol in Europe, and there are many indications that the present emission inventories substantially underestimate emissions from residential wood combustion in large parts of Europe.

  • 10. Colette, Augustin
    et al.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Manders, Astrid
    Mar, Kathleen
    Mircea, Mihaela
    Pay, Maria-Teresa
    Raffort, Valentin
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    Cuvelier, Cornelius
    Adani, Mario
    Bessagnet, Bertrand
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Briganti, Gino
    Butler, Tim
    Cappelletti, Andrea
    Couvidat, Florian
    D'Isidoro, Massimo
    Doumbia, Thierno
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Granier, Claire
    Heyes, Chris
    Klimont, Zig
    Ojha, Narendra
    Otero, Noelia
    Schaap, Martijn
    Sindelarova, Katarina
    Stegehuis, Annemiek I.
    Roustan, Yelva
    Vautard, Robert
    van Meijgaard, Erik
    Vivanco, Marta Garcia
    Wind, Peter
    EURODELTA-Trends, a multi-model experiment of air quality hindcast in Europe over 1990-20102017Inngår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, nr 9, s. 3255-3276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11. Colette, Augustin
    et al.
    Schucht, Simone
    Ciarelli, Giancarlo
    Létinois, Laurent
    Meleux, Frédérik
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Cuvelier, C.
    Manders, A.
    Mar, K.A.
    Mircea, M.
    Pay, T.
    Raffort, V.
    Tsyro, S.
    Adani, M.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bessagnet, G
    Briganti, A.
    Cappelletti, A.
    Couvidat, F.
    D'Isidoro, M.
    Fagerli, H.
    Ojha, N.
    Otero, N.
    Wind, P.
    Long-term air quality trends in Europe Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Health Impacts.2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Modellering av marknära ozon: Regionala och högupplösta tillämpningar av MATCH2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Höga halter av marknära ozon uppträder i Sverige framförallt under våren och sommaren i de sydvästra delarna av landet. SMHI:s regionala spridningsmodell, MATCH, klarar Luftdirektivets krav påmodellkvalitet för ozon i svensk bakgrundsluft. Detta gäller både för en Europaskalig tillämpning med 44×44 km2 stora gridrutor samt en högupplöst tillämpning med 5×5 km2 stora gridrutor. En högupplöst modell ger marginell förbättring av de statistiska måtten som beskriver modellens förmåga att beräkna marknära ozon. Lokalt bidrag till överskridanden (i förorter) är troligen inte ett problem i Sverige. Även om MATCH-modellen klarar Luftdirektivets krav på modellkvalitet klarar den inte alltid av att beskriva episoderna med de allra högsta halterna. Detta är en allvarlig brist i modellsystemet. Bättre information om utsläpp av ozongenererande ämnen, i framför allt östra Europa, och förbättringar av modellens beskrivning av vertikal omblandning och deposition kan förmodligen förbättra möjligheterna att fånga de högsta ozonhalterna. 2-dimensionell variationell analys kan vara ett verktyg att få en geografiskt täckande uppskattning på marknära ozon över Sverige, speciellt på måtten AOT40 och överskridandedagar. Modellresultat, i form av MATCH-fält och 2-dimensionellt variationellt analyserade fält, kan användas som komplement till mätningar.

  • 13.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Climate and Emission Changes Contributing to Changes in Near-surface Ozone in Europe over the Coming Decades: Results from Model Studies2009Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, nr 8, s. 452-458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used an off-line, regional, model of atmospheric transport and chemistry to investigate current and future levels of near-surface ozone and accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb(v) (AOT40) in Europe. To describe the current situation and enable an evaluation of the model's performance we simulated a number of years around 2000. To assess changes in ozone concentrations due to possible emission changes in Europe, the model was run with the meteorology of the early 2000s and precursor emissions from a set of Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) emissions scenarios. By extrapolation of the observed increase in near-surface O(3) at coastal locations in northwest Europe we constructed model boundaries that were used to simulate the impact of increasing hemispheric background in 2020. To assess changes in ozone concentrations due to climate change, the model was run with recent (2000) emissions but using meteorology from a regional climate model simulating a control (1961-1990) and a future (2021-2050) climate. The results indicate that climate change will have a small impact on ozone concentrations and AOT40 in the Nordic countries. Changes in hemispheric background concentrations and changes in precursor emissions in Europe will have a larger effect on ozone in Northern Europe. The situation is quite different in southern Europe, where climate change is expected to result in a very large increase in near-surface ozone concentrations.

  • 14. Genberg, J.
    et al.
    Hyder, M.
    Stenstrom, K.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Simpson, D.
    Fors, E. O.
    Jonsson, J. A.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in southern Sweden2011Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 11, nr 22, s. 11387-11400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-year study was performed at the Vavihill background station in southern Sweden to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the carbonaceous aerosol. Weekly samples of the particulate matter PM10 were collected on quartz filters, and the amounts of organic carbon, elemental carbon, radiocarbon (C-14) and levoglucosan were measured. This approach enabled source apportionment of the total carbon in the PM10 fraction using the concentration ratios of the sources. The sources considered in this study were emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, as well as biogenic sources. During the summer, the carbonaceous aerosol mass was dominated by compounds of biogenic origin (80 %), which are associated with biogenic primary and secondary organic aerosols. During the winter months, biomass combustion (32 %) and fossil fuel combustion (28 %) were the main contributors to the carbonaceous aerosol. Elemental carbon concentrations in winter were about twice as large as during summer, and can be attributed to biomass combustion, probably from domestic wood burning. The contribution of fossil fuels to elemental carbon was stable throughout the year, although the fossil contribution to organic carbon increased during the winter. Thus, the organic aerosol originated mainly from natural sources during the summer and from anthropogenic sources during the winter. The result of this source apportionment was compared with results from the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model. The model and measurements were generally consistent for total atmospheric organic carbon, however, the contribution of the sources varied substantially. E.g. the biomass burning contributions of OC were underestimated by the model by a factor of 2.2 compared to the measurements.

  • 15. Genberg, J.
    et al.
    van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    Simpson, D.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Areskoug, H.
    Beddows, D.
    Ceburnis, D.
    Fiebig, M.
    Hansson, H. C.
    Harrison, R. M.
    Jennings, S. G.
    Saarikoski, S.
    Spindler, G.
    Visschedijk, A. J. H.
    Wiedensohler, A.
    Yttri, K. E.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Light-absorbing carbon in Europe - measurement and modelling, with a focus on residential wood combustion emissions2013Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 13, nr 17, s. 8719-8738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric concentration of elemental carbon (EC) in Europe during the six-year period 2005-2010 has been simulated with the EMEP MSC-W model. The model bias compared to EC measurements was less than 20% for most of the examined sites. The model results suggest that fossil fuel combustion is the dominant source of EC in most of Europe but that there are important contributions also from residential wood burning during the cold seasons and, during certain episodes, also from open biomass burning (wildfires and agricultural fires). The modelled contributions from open biomass fires to ground level concentrations of EC were small at the sites included in the present study, <3% of the long-term average of EC in PM10. The modelling of this EC source is subject to many uncertainties, and it was likely underestimated for some episodes. EC measurements and modelled EC were also compared to optical measurements of black carbon (BC). The relationships between EC and BC (as given by mass absorption cross section, MAC, values) differed widely between the sites, and the correlation between observed EC and BC is sometimes poor, making it difficult to compare results using the two techniques and limiting the comparability of BC measurements to model EC results. A new bottom-up emission inventory for carbonaceous aerosol from residential wood combustion has been applied. For some countries the new inventory has substantially different EC emissions compared to earlier estimates. For northern Europe the most significant changes are much lower emissions in Norway and higher emissions in neighbouring Sweden and Finland. For Norway and Sweden, comparisons to source-apportionment data from winter campaigns indicate that the new inventory may improve model-calculated EC from wood burning. Finally, three different model setups were tested with variable atmospheric lifetimes of EC in order to evaluate the model sensitivity to the assumptions regarding hygroscopicity and atmospheric ageing of EC. The standard ageing scheme leads to a rapid transformation of the emitted hydrophobic EC to hygroscopic particles, and generates similar results when assuming that all EC is aged at the point of emission. Assuming hydrophobic emissions and no ageing leads to higher EC concentrations. For the more remote sites, the observed EC concentration was in between the modelled EC using standard ageing and the scenario treating EC as hydrophobic. This could indicate too-rapid EC ageing in the model in relatively clean parts of the atmosphere.

  • 16. Huijnen, V.
    et al.
    Eskes, H. J.
    Poupkou, A.
    Elbern, H.
    Boersma, K. F.
    Foret, G.
    Sofiev, M.
    Valdebenito, A.
    Flemming, J.
    Stein, O.
    Gross, A.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    D'Isidoro, M.
    Kioutsioukis, I.
    Friese, E.
    Amstrup, B.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Strunk, A.
    Vira, J.
    Zyryanov, D.
    Maurizi, A.
    Melas, D.
    Peuch, V-H
    Zerefos, C.
    Comparison of OMI NO2 tropospheric columns with an ensemble of global and European regional air quality models2010Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 3273-3296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comparison of tropospheric NO2 from OMI measurements to the median of an ensemble of Regional Air Quality (RAQ) models, and an intercomparison of the contributing RAQ models and two global models for the period July 2008 - June 2009 over Europe. The model forecasts were produced routinely on a daily basis in the context of the European GEMS ("Global and regional Earth-system (atmosphere) Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data") project. The tropospheric vertical column of the RAQ ensemble median shows a spatial distribution which agrees well with the OMI NO2 observations, with a correlation r=0.8. This is higher than the correlations from any one of the individual RAQ models, which supports the use of a model ensemble approach for regional air pollution forecasting. The global models show high correlations compared to OMI, but with significantly less spatial detail, due to their coarser resolution. Deviations in the tropospheric NO2 columns of individual RAQ models from the mean were in the range of 20-34% in winter and 40-62% in summer, suggesting that the RAQ ensemble prediction is relatively more uncertain in the summer months. The ensemble median shows a stronger seasonal cycle of NO2 columns than OMI, and the ensemble is on average 50% below the OMI observations in summer, whereas in winter the bias is small. On the other hand the ensemble median shows a somewhat weaker seasonal cycle than NO2 surface observations from the Dutch Air Quality Network, and on average a negative bias of 14%. Full profile information was available for two RAQ models and for the global models. For these models the retrieval averaging kernel was applied. Minor differences are found for area-averaged model columns with and without applying the kernel, which shows that the impact of replacing the a priori profiles by the RAQ model profiles is on average small. However, the contrast between major hotspots and rural areas is stronger for the direct modeled vertical columns than the columns where the averaging kernels are applied, related to a larger relative contribution of the free troposphere and the coarse horizontal resolution in the a priori profiles compared to the RAQ models. In line with validation results reported in the literature, summertime concentrations in the lowermost boundary layer in the a priori profiles from the DOMINO product are significantly larger than the RAQ model concentrations and surface observations over the Netherlands. This affects the profile shape, and contributes to a high bias in OMI tropospheric columns over polluted regions. The global models indicate that the upper troposphere may contribute significantly to the total column and it is important to account for this in comparisons with RAQ models. A combination of upper troposphere model biases, the a priori profile effects and DOMINO product retrieval issues could explain the discrepancy observed between the OMI observations and the ensemble median in summer.

  • 17. Jenkin, M. E.
    et al.
    Khan, M. A. H.
    Shallcross, D. E.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Simpson, D.
    Murphy, K. L. C.
    Rickard, A. R.
    The CRI v2.2 reduced degradation scheme for isoprene2019Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 212, s. 172-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Kindbom, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Peterson, Kjell
    SMHI.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Roos, Elisabet
    SMHI.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Nationell miljöövervakning av luft- och nederbördskemi 19961998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Parameterization of dry deposition in MATCH2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report describes the calculation of dry deposition in the Multi scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry modeling system (MATCH) applied in environmental monitoring studies. For this type of applications dry deposition is parameterized by means of a resistance concept. Modeled dry deposition velocities for different surface types, a variety of meteorological conditions and several chemical species are presented. The deposition’s dependence on the individual partial resistances and their variation with the meteorological conditions are illustrated by means of time-series. The details of the resistance concept are discussed in a pedagogical way in order to both facilitate understanding and to point out different deposition paths.Sensitivity studies have been performed for the laminar sub-layer resistance of particles for which two different settings of resistance values are compared. The importance of SO2 and NO2 uptake by the stomata of plants and the deposition of SO2 to the external parts of plants have also been investigated by means of sensitivity studies. In addition, horizontal maps and monthly mean values of dry deposition velocities based on meteorological data for 1998 are presented.

  • 20. Kulmala, M.
    et al.
    Asmi, A.
    Lappalainen, H. K.
    Baltensperger, U.
    Brenguier, J. -L
    Facchini, M. C.
    Hansson, H. -C
    Hov, O.
    O'Dowd, C. D.
    Poeschl, U.
    Wiedensohler, A.
    Boers, R.
    Boucher, O.
    de Leeuw, G.
    van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    Feichter, J.
    Krejci, R.
    Laj, P.
    Lihavainen, H.
    Lohmann, U.
    McFiggans, G.
    Mentel, T.
    Pilinis, C.
    Riipinen, I.
    Schulz, M.
    Stohl, A.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Vignati, E.
    Alves, C.
    Amann, M.
    Ammann, M.
    Arabas, S.
    Artaxo, P.
    Baars, H.
    Beddows, D. C. S.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Beukes, J. P.
    Bilde, M.
    Burkhart, J. F.
    Canonaco, F.
    Clegg, S. L.
    Coe, H.
    Crumeyrolle, S.
    D'Anna, B.
    Decesari, S.
    Gilardoni, S.
    Fischer, M.
    Fjaeraa, A. M.
    Fountoukis, C.
    George, C.
    Gomes, L.
    Halloran, P.
    Hamburger, T.
    Harrison, R. M.
    Herrmann, H.
    Hoffmann, T.
    Hoose, C.
    Hu, M.
    Hyvarinen, A.
    Horrak, U.
    Iinuma, Y.
    Iversen, T.
    Josipovic, M.
    Kanakidou, M.
    Kiendler-Scharr, A.
    Kirkevag, A.
    Kiss, G.
    Klimont, Z.
    Kolmonen, P.
    Komppula, M.
    Kristjansson, J. -E
    Laakso, L.
    Laaksonen, A.
    Labonnote, L.
    Lanz, V. A.
    Lehtinen, K. E. J.
    Rizzo, L. V.
    Makkonen, R.
    Manninen, H. E.
    McMeeking, G.
    Merikanto, J.
    Minikin, A.
    Mirme, S.
    Morgan, W. T.
    Nemitz, E.
    O'Donnell, D.
    Panwar, T. S.
    Pawlowska, H.
    Petzold, A.
    Pienaar, J. J.
    Pio, C.
    Plass-Duelmer, C.
    Prevot, A. S. H.
    Pryor, S.
    Reddington, C. L.
    Roberts, G.
    Rosenfeld, D.
    Schwarz, J.
    Seland, O.
    Sellegri, K.
    Shen, X. J.
    Shiraiwa, M.
    Siebert, H.
    Sierau, B.
    Simpson, D.
    Sun, J. Y.
    Topping, D.
    Tunved, P.
    Vaattovaara, P.
    Vakkari, V.
    Veefkind, J. P.
    Visschedijk, A.
    Vuollekoski, H.
    Vuolo, R.
    Wehner, B.
    Wildt, J.
    Woodward, S.
    Worsnop, D. R.
    van Zadelhoff, G. -J
    Zardini, A. A.
    Zhang, K.
    van Zyl, P. G.
    Kerminen, V. -M
    Carslaw, K. S.
    Pandis, S. N.
    General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales2011Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 11, nr 24, s. 13061-13143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Impact of Climate Change on Regional Air Pollution Budgets2001Inngår i: Transport and Chemical Transformation in the Troposphere - Proceedings of EUROTRAC Symposium 2000 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany 27-31 March 2000 / [ed] Midgley, P.M., Reuther, M. and Williams, M., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2001Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Foltescu, Valentin
    SMHI.
    Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe2005Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 1129-1141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impact of regional climate change on the distribution and deposition of air pollutants in Europe has been studied using a regional chemistry/transport/deposition model, MATCH. MATCH was set up using meteorological output from two 10-year climate change experiments made with the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric climate model version 1 (RCA1). RCA1 was forced by boundary conditions from two different global climate models using the IPCC IS92a (business as usual) emission scenario. The global mean warming in both the GCMs was 2.6 K and was reached in the period 2050-2070. Simulations with MATCH indicate substantial potential impact of regional climate change on both deposition of oxidised nitrogen and concentrations of surface ozone. The simulations show a strong increase in surface ozone expressed as AOT40 and mean of daily maximum over southern and central Europe and a decrease in northern Europe. The simulated changes in April September AOT40 are significant in relation to inter-annual variability over extended areas. Changes in deposition of oxidised nitrogen are much smaller and also less coherent due to the strong inter-annual variability in precipitation in the RCA1 simulations and differences in the regional climate change simulated with RCA1 in the two regional scenarios. Changes in simulated annual deposition are significant in relation to inter-annual variability only over small areas. This indicates that longer simulation periods are necessary to establish changes in deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Klein, Thomas
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Skagerström, M.
    SMHI.
    Nuläge och scenarier för inverkan på marknära ozon av emissioner från Västra Götalands län - Beräkningar för 19992004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMHI har på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands län studerat hur olikascenarier för reducerade NOx och VOC-utsläpp från Västra Götaland påverkarfördelningen av marknära ozon över södra Sverige. Studien har utnyttjat den atmosfärkemiskaspridningsmodellen MATCH (Multi-scale Atmospheric Transportand Chemistry model). Modellen har först applicerats över hela Europa förår 1999 med aktuella emissioner. Resultaten från dessa beräkningar har sedankopplats till en högupplöst modell, MATCH-O-län, som täcker södra Sverige.Beräkningar med MATCH har genomförts för ett nuläge (basfall) med utsläppsdataför år 2000/2001 och tre scenarier där utsläppen har reducerats. Scenariermed reduktion av NOx och VOC-utsläppen från Västra Götalands län med 45 respektive44% var för sig respektive sammantaget har studerats. För basfallet harjämförelser gjorts med mätningar av marknära ozon i området för år 1999. Medutgångspunkt från dessa jämförelser bedömer vi att MATCH ger en tillräckligtgod beskrivning av de verkliga ozonhalterna för att kunna utnyttjas för studier avscenarier.Beräkningarna visar att utsläppen från Västra Götaland har en signifikant påverkanpå halterna av marknära ozon i södra Sverige. Reducerade utsläpp leder generellttill reducerade halter av marknära ozon i södra Sverige och lägre värdenför olika mått på kritiska nivåer av halten av marknära ozon. Effekterna av reduceradeutsläpp berör inte bara närområdet utan täcker ett område som är fleragånger större än det område där utsläppen har ändrats.I området närmast Göteborg leder emellertid reducerade NOx-utsläpp till ökadehalter av ozon. Denna effekt är mindre vid en samtidig reduktion av NOx ochVOC.Bortsett från området med stora NOx-utsläpp i västra delen av Västra Götalandså är reduktioner av NOx effektivare när det gäller att reducera halterna av marknäraozon än reduktion av VOC-utsläpp. Reduktion av NOx-utsläpp är mer änsju gånger effektivare än reduktion av VOC-utsläpp när det gäller att reducerabildningen av ozon inom modellområdet för MATCH-O-län under periodenapril-september 1999.Reducerade utsläpp av NOx och VOC från Västra Götaland beräknas, i större delenav länet, leda till en viss minskning av antalet dagar med 8-timmars medelhaltersom överskrider 120 μg/m3 (60 ppb(v)) under sommarperioden aprilseptember.Reducerad NOx-utsläpp förväntas dock leda till ett ökat antal dagarmed överskridanden i Göteborgsområdet.Reducerade utsläpp från Västra Götaland leder till en reduktion av AOT401 med0.1 ppm(v) h över en stor del av södra Sverige under perioden maj-juli. Den2maximala reduktionen överstiger 0.5 ppm(v) i enstaka beräkningsrutor. För periodenapril-september reduceras AOT40 med mer än 0.1 ppm(v) h i en större delav södra Sverige och en reduktion med mer än 0.5 ppm(v) h beräknas för en stordel av Västra Götaland.

  • 24.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Plejel, Karin
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute IVL.
    European scale modeling of sulfur, oxidized nitrogen and photochemial oxidants: Model development and evaluation for the 1994 growing season1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical mechanism, including the relevant reactions leading to the production of ozone and other photochemical oxidants, has been implemented in the MATCH regional tracer transport/chemistry/deposition model. The aim has been to develop a model platform that can be used as a basis for a range of regional scale studies involving atmospheric chemistry, including assessment of the importance of different sources of pollutants to the levels of photochemical oxidants and air pollutant forecasting. Meteorological input data to the model were taken from archived output from the operational version of HIRLAM at SMHI. Evaluation of model calculations over Europe for a six month period in 1994 for a range of chemical components show good results considering known sources of error and uncertainties in input data and model formulation. With limited further work the system is sufficiently good to be applied for scenario studies and for regional scale air pollutant forecasts.

  • 25. Marecal, V.
    et al.
    Peuch, V. -H
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, S.
    Arteta, J.
    Beekmann, M.
    Benedictow, A.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bessagnet, B.
    Cansado, A.
    Cheroux, F.
    Colette, A.
    Coman, A.
    Curier, R. L.
    van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    Drouin, A.
    Elbern, H.
    Emili, E.
    Engelen, R. J.
    Eskes, H. J.
    Foret, G.
    Friese, E.
    Gauss, M.
    Giannaros, C.
    Guth, J.
    Joly, M.
    Jaumouille, E.
    Josse, B.
    Kadygrov, N.
    Kaiser, J. W.
    Krajsek, K.
    Kuenen, J.
    Kumar, U.
    Liora, N.
    Lopez, E.
    Malherbe, L.
    Martinez, I.
    Melas, D.
    Meleux, F.
    Menut, L.
    Moinat, P.
    Morales, T.
    Parmentier, J.
    Piacentini, A.
    Plu, M.
    Poupkou, A.
    Queguiner, S.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Rouil, L.
    Schaap, M.
    Segers, A.
    Sofiev, M.
    Tarasson, L.
    Thomas, Manu Anna
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Timmermans, R.
    Valdebenito, A.
    van Velthoven, P.
    van Versendaal, R.
    Vira, J.
    Ung, A.
    A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production2015Inngår i: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. 2777-2813Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACCII (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O-3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN + PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models. During summer 2014, the diurnal ozone maximum is underestimated by the ensemble median by about 4 mu g m(-3) on average. Locally, during the studied ozone episodes, the maxima from the ensemble median are often lower than observations by 30-50 mu g m(-3). Overall, ozone scores are generally good with average values for the normalised indicators of 0.14 for the modified normalised mean bias and of 0.30 for the fractional gross error. Tests have also shown that the ensemble median is robust to reduction of ensemble size by one, that is, if predictions are unavailable from one model. Scores are also discussed for PM10 for winter 2013-1014. There is an underestimation of most models leading the ensemble median to a mean bias of 4.5 mu g m(-3). The ensemble median fractional gross error is larger for PM10 (similar to 0.52) than for ozone and the correlation is lower (similar to 0.35 for PM10 and similar to 0.54 for ozone). This is related to a larger spread of the seven model scores for PM10 than for ozone linked to different levels of complexity of aerosol representation in the individual models. In parallel, a scientific analysis of the results of the seven models and of the ensemble is also done over the Mediterranean area because of the specificity of its meteorology and emissions. The system is robust in terms of the production availability. Major efforts have been done in MACC-II towards the operationalisation of all its components. Foreseen developments and research for improving its performances are discussed in the conclusion.

  • 26. Martinsson, Johan
    et al.
    Azeem, Hafiz Abdul
    Sporre, Moa K.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Ahlberg, Erik
    Ostrom, Emilie
    Kristensson, Adam
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Stenstrom, Kristina Eriksson
    Carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment using the Aethalometer model - evaluation by radiocarbon and levoglucosan analysis at a rural background site in southern Sweden2017Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 4265-4281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27. McFiggans, Gordon
    et al.
    Mentel, Thomas F.
    Wildt, Juergen
    Pullinen, Iida
    Kang, Sungah
    Kleist, Einhard
    Schmitt, Sebastian
    Springer, Monika
    Tillmann, Ralf
    Wu, Cheng
    Zhao, Defeng
    Hallquist, Mattias
    Faxon, Cameron
    Le Breton, Michael
    Hallquist, Asa M.
    Simpson, David
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Jenkin, Michael E.
    Ehn, Mikael
    Thornton, Joel A.
    Alfarra, M. Rami
    Bannan, Thomas J.
    Percival, Carl J.
    Priestley, Michael
    Topping, David
    Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid
    Secondary organic aerosol reduced by mixture of atmospheric vapours2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 565, nr 7741, s. 587-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet.
    Kartläggning av partiklar i Sverige - halter, källbidrag och kunskapsluckor2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte. År 1999 startade Naturvårdsverket ett projekt för kartläggning av partikelhalter i Sverige samt identifikation av de viktigaste källorna. Kartläggningsprojektet byggde på mätningar under två år (1999-2001). Resultaten har varit till stor nytta och legat till grund för bland annat införande av nya miljömål och miljökvalitetsnormer, åtgärdsförslag och vetenskapliga publikationer. För första gången kunde haltnivåer av PM10 och PM2.5 beskrivas systematiskt i regional och urban bakgrund samt gaturum i Sverige. Tre huvudkällor till höga partikelhalter i Sverige kunde identifieras; långdistanstransport, uppvirvling av vägdamm och vedeldning.Sedan dess har kunskapen om partiklar ökat. Miljökvalitetsnormer har införts i Sverige och miljömål har formulerats. Idag finns mer mätdata tillgängliga och för vissa områden finns även längre tidsserier. Intresset för sjöfartens bidrag till luftföroreningar och partiklar har ökat, eftersom dess relativa bidrag jämfört med landbaserade emissioner ökar. Nya studier inriktade på förståelse av olika processer har genomförts. Modeller har utvecklats och förbättrats, därigenom har också möjligheten att kvantifiera olika källors bidrag ökat. Behovet att använda modeller i arbetet med miljömål och miljökvalitetsnormer har också blivit större.Syftet med denna studie är att presentera huvuddragen av den kunskap som kommit fram under de senaste tio åren om partikelhalter i Sverige, framförallt PM10 och PM2.5, men också peka på kunskapsluckor.

  • 29.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Dagens och framtidens luftkvalitet i Sverige: Haltberäkningar av NO2, PM10 och PM2.5 i svenska trafikmiljöer för framtidsscenarier med minskade europeiska emissioner2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftföroreningar är ett lokalt men också gränsöverskridande problem. Sveriges luftkvalitet påverkas av lokala utsläppskällor, men även av långdistanstransport från stora emissionsområden i Europa. Utsläppen av många luftföroreningar har minskat kraftigt under de senaste årtiondena på grund av kontinuerligt skärpta emissionskrav. Betydande förbättringar har bland annat gjorts inom vägtransportsektorn. Via europeiska utsläppsnormer definieras acceptabla gränser för avgasutsläpp för nya fordon som säljs i EUs medlemsstater. Dessa, och andra, utsläppskrav kommer att leda till fortsatt minskande emissioner i Europa och därmed även lägre föroreningsnivåer i den luft som kommer in över Sverige. Hur stort är det kvarstående behovet av lokala åtgärder i Sverige för att minska haltnivåerna till en nivå där normer och miljömål uppfylls? Det är en av de frågeställningar som denna rapport utgår från.Den lokala miljö som undersöks är gaturum, varför förändringar av vägtrafikens emissioner och halter i Sverige är central. Liknande emissionstrender, som i Europa, finns också i Sverige, med kraftigt minskande emissioner beroende bland annat på de europeiska utsläppsnormerna. Viktiga skillnader finns också. Vårt kalla svenska vinterklimat skapar bland annat hala vägbanor och ogynnsamma spridningsförhållanden. Åtgärder för att undvika hala vägbanor leder till ökat vägslitage och vägdamm som ackumuleras i vägmiljön, vilket i sin tur leder till höga partikelhalter. I norra delarna av Sverige skapas under vintern ogynnsamma spridningsförhållanden med stabil skiktning och låga inversioner. I kombination med höga emissioner av luftföroreningar från bostadsuppvärmning och kallstarter leder detta till höga halter av bland annat kväveoxider.Trots kraftiga minskningar av utsläppen både i Sverige och övriga Europa har inte luftkvaliteten, med avseende på kvävedioxid (NO2), ozon (O3) och partiklar (PM10 respektive PM2.5), förbättrats på något avgörande sätt sedan år 2000. Fortfarande är luftföroreningshalterna i många trafikmiljöer höga såväl i Sverige som i övriga Europa. Orsakerna till det diskuteras i rapporten. Syftet med denna undersökning är att analysera hur framtidens luftkvalitet på lokal nivå (gaturum) kan komma att utvecklas på grund av troliga emissionsminskningar i Europa och i Sverige, samt att bedöma hur stora lokala åtgärder som ytterligare kan komma att fordras för att klara miljökvalitetsnormer och miljömål.

  • 30. Otero, Noelia
    et al.
    Sillmann, Jana
    Mar, Kathleen A.
    Rust, Henning W.
    Solberg, Sverre
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bessagnet, Bertrand
    Colette, Augustin
    Couvidat, Florian
    Cuvelier, Cournelius
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Schaap, Martijn
    Manders, Astrid
    Mircea, Mihaela
    Briganti, Gino
    Cappelletti, Andrea
    Adani, Mario
    D'Isidoro, Massimo
    Pay, Maria-Teresa
    Theobald, Mark
    Vivanco, Marta G.
    Wind, Peter
    Ojha, Narendra
    Raffort, Valentin
    Butler, Tim
    A multi-model comparison of meteorological drivers of surface ozone over Europe2018Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, nr 16, s. 12269-12288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31. Ots, Riinu
    et al.
    Young, Dominique E.
    Vieno, Massimo
    Xu, Lu
    Dunmore, Rachel E.
    Allan, James D.
    Coe, Hugh
    Williams, Leah R.
    Herndon, Scott C.
    Ng, Nga L.
    Hamilton, Jacqueline F.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Di Marco, Chiara
    Nemitz, Eiko
    Mackenzie, Ian A.
    Kuenen, Jeroen J. P.
    Green, David C.
    Reis, Stefan
    Heal, Mathew R.
    Simulating secondary organic aerosol from missing diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound emissions during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 6453-6473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present high-resolution (5aEuro-kmaEuro-aEuro parts per thousand x aEuro-5aEuro-km) atmospheric chemical transport model (ACTM) simulations of the impact of newly estimated traffic-related emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation over the UK for 2012. Our simulations include additional diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions derived directly from comprehensive field measurements at an urban background site in London during the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. Our IVOC emissions are added proportionally to VOC emissions, as opposed to proportionally to primary organic aerosol (POA) as has been done by previous ACTM studies seeking to simulate the effects of these missing emissions. Modelled concentrations are evaluated against hourly and daily measurements of organic aerosol (OA) components derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements also made during the ClearfLo campaign at three sites in the London area. According to the model simulations, diesel-related IVOCs can explain on average aEuro parts per thousand aEuro-30aEuro-% of the annual SOA in and around London. Furthermore, the 90th percentile of modelled daily SOA concentrations for the whole year is 3.8aEuro-A mu gaEuro-m(-3), constituting a notable addition to total particulate matter. More measurements of these precursors (currently not included in official emissions inventories) is recommended. During the period of concurrent measurements, SOA concentrations at the Detling rural background location east of London were greater than at the central London location. The model shows that this was caused by an intense pollution plume with a strong gradient of imported SOA passing over the rural location. This demonstrates the value of modelling for supporting the interpretation of measurements taken at different sites or for short durations.

  • 32.
    Persson, Christer
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Atmospheric Transport Model Studies for Sweden – Comparison to EMEP Model Results and Evaluation of Precipitation Chemistry Station Networks2001Inngår i: Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XIV / [ed] Sven-Erik Gryning, Francis A. Schiermeier, Springer, 2001, s. 165-172Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33. Simpson, D.
    et al.
    Benedictow, A.
    Berge, H.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Emberson, L. D.
    Fagerli, H.
    Flechard, C. R.
    Hayman, G. D.
    Gauss, M.
    Jonson, J. E.
    Jenkin, M. E.
    Nyiri, A.
    Richter, C.
    Semeena, V. S.
    Tsyro, S.
    Tuovinen, J-P
    Valdebenito, A.
    Wind, P.
    The EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model - technical description2012Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, nr 16, s. 7825-7865Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West (MSC-W) of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) has been performing model calculations in support of the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) for more than 30 years. The EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model is still one of the key tools within European air pollution policy assessments. Traditionally, the model has covered all of Europe with a resolution of about 50 km x 50 km, and extending vertically from ground level to the tropopause (100 hPa). The model has changed extensively over the last ten years, however, with flexible processing of chemical schemes, meteorological inputs, and with nesting capability: the code is now applied on scales ranging from local (ca. 5 km grid size) to global (with 1 degree resolution). The model is used to simulate photo-oxidants and both inorganic and organic aerosols. In 2008 the EMEP model was released for the first time as public domain code, along with all required input data for model runs for one year. The second release of the EMEP MSC-W model became available in mid 2011, and a new release is targeted for summer 2012. This publication is in-tended to document this third release of the EMEP MSC-W model. The model formulations are given, along with details of input data-sets which are used, and a brief background on some of the choices made in the formulation is presented. The model code itself is available at www.emep.int, along with the data required to run for a full year over Europe.

  • 34. Solberg, S
    et al.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Laurila, T
    Lindskog, A
    Changes in Nordic surface ozone episodes due to European emission reductions in the 1990s2005Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 179-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on analyses of model calculations with a regional scale CTM for two different years and measurement data from background locations in northern Europe, we have found several indications that peak ozone value, in the Nordic countries have been reduced during the 1990s as a result of reduced emissions of precursors in Europe. Official European emission data for 1999 gave a better model performance than the emission data for 1990 when modelling 1999 and 2000. A bootstrap resampling technique indicated that the improvement in performance was significant. The model predicted a reduction in peak ozone values of the order of 30 mug m(-3) due to European emission reductions during the 1990s in the Nordic countries. It is thus likely that the number of exceedances of hourly threshold values has been reduced, although the small number of episodes does not allow strict statements. The number and magnitude of the ozone episodes as well as the model performance was clearly higher for southern Sweden and Norway compared to Finland, presumably reflecting differences in meteorological transport and emission source regions. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 35. Theobald, Mark R.
    et al.
    Vivanco, Marta G.
    Aas, Wenche
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Ciarelli, Giancarlo
    Couvidat, Florian
    Cuvelier, Kees
    Manders, Astrid
    Mircea, Mihaela
    Pay, Maria-Teresa
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    Adani, Mario
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bessagnet, Bertrand
    Briganti, Gino
    Cappelletti, Andrea
    D'Isidoro, Massimo
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Mar, Kathleen
    Otero, Noelia
    Raffort, Valentin
    Roustan, Yelva
    Schaap, Martijn
    Wind, Peter
    Colette, Augustin
    An evaluation of European nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition and their trends estimated by six chemistry transport models for the period 1990-20102019Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 379-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36. Tilmes, S
    et al.
    Brandt, J
    Flatoy, F
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Flemming, J
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Christensen, J H
    Frohn, L M
    Hov, O
    Jacobsen, I
    Reimer, E
    Stern, R
    Zimmermann, J
    Comparison of five eulerian air pollution forecasting systems for the summer of 1999 using the German ozone monitoring data2002Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 91-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eulerian state-of-the-art air pollution forecasting systems on the European scale are operated routinely by several countries in Europe. DWD and FUB, both Germany, NERI, Denmark, NILU, Norway, and SMHI, Sweden, operate some of these systems. To apply such modeling systems, e.g. for regulatory purposes according to new EU directives, an evaluation and comparison of the model systems is fundamental in order to assess their reliability. One step in this direction is presented in this study: The model forecasts from all five systems have been compared to measurements of ground level ozone in Germany. The outstanding point in this investigation is the availability of a huge amount of data - from forecasts by the different model systems and from observations. This allows for a thorough interpretation of the findings and assures the significance of the observed features. Data from more than 300 measurement stations for a 5-month period (May-September 1999) of the German monitoring networks have been used in this comparison. Different spatial and temporal statistical parameters were applied in the evaluation. Generally, it was found that the most comprehensive models gave the best results. However, the less comprehensive and computational cheaper models also produced good results. The extensive comparison made it possible to point out weak points in the different models and to describe the individual model behavior for a full summer period in a climatological sense. The comparison also gave valuable information for an assessment of individual measurement stations and complete monitoring networks in terms of the representativeness of the observation data.

  • 37. van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    et al.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Fountoukis, C.
    Johansson, C.
    Pandis, S. N.
    Simpson, D.
    Visschedijk, A. J. H.
    Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe revised estimates and an evaluation2015Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 15, nr 11, s. 6503-6519Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because of rising fossil fuel prices but also due to climate change mitigation policies. However, especially in small-scale applications, RWC may cause high emissions of particulate matter (PM). Recently we have developed a new high-resolution (7 x 7 km) anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosol emission inventory for Europe. The inventory indicated that about half of the total PM2.5 emission in Europe is carbonaceous aerosol and identified RWC as the largest organic aerosol source in Europe. The inventory was partly based on national reported PM emissions. Use of this organic aerosol inventory as input for two chemical transport models (CTMs), PMCAMx and EMEP MSC-W, revealed major underestimations of organic aerosol in winter time, especially for regions dominated by RWC. Interestingly, this was not universal but appeared to differ by country. In the present study we constructed a revised bottom-up emission inventory for RWC accounting for the semivolatile components of the emissions. The revised RWC emissions are higher than those in the previous inventory by a factor of 2-3 but with substantial inter-country variation. The new emission inventory served as input for the CTMs and a substantially improved agreement between measured and predicted organic aerosol was found. The revised RWC inven-tory improves the model-calculated organic aerosol significantly. Comparisons to Scandinavian source apportionment studies also indicate substantial improvements in the modelled wood-burning component of organic aerosol. This suggests that primary organic aerosol emission inventories need to be revised to include the semivolatile organic aerosol that is formed almost instantaneously due to dilution and cooling of the flue gas or exhaust. Since RWC is a key source of fine PM in Europe, a major revision of the emission estimates as proposed here is likely to influence source-receptor matrices and modelled source apportionment. Since usage of biofuels in small combustion units is a globally significant source, the findings presented here are also relevant for regions outside of Europe.

  • 38. van Loon, M.
    et al.
    Vautard, R.
    Schaap, M.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bessagnet, B.
    Brandt, J.
    Builtjes, P. J. H.
    Christensen, J. H.
    Cuvelier, C.
    Graff, A.
    Jonson, J. E.
    Krol, M.
    Langner, J.
    Roberts, P.
    Rouil, L.
    Stern, R.
    Tarrason, L.
    Thunis, P.
    Vignati, E.
    White, L.
    Wind, P.
    Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 41, nr 10, s. 2083-2097Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models, the Unified EMEP model, LOTOS-EUROS, CHIMERE, RCG, MATCH, DEHM and TM5, are intercompared and compared to ozone measurements within the framework of the EuroDelta experiment, designed to assess air quality improvement at the European scale in response to emission reduction scenarios for 2020. Modelled ozone concentrations for the year 2001 are evaluated. The models reproduce the main features of the ozone diurnal cycle, but generally overestimate daytime ozone, LOTOS-EUROS and RCG have a more pronounced diurnal cycle variation than observations, while the reverse occurs for TM5. CHIMERE has a large positive bias, which can be explained by a systematic bias in boundary conditions. The other models and the "ensemble model", whose concentrations are by definition averaged over all models, represent accurately the diurnal cycle. The ability of the models to simulate day-to-day daily ozone average or maxima variability is examined by means of percentiles, root mean square errors and correlations. In general, daily maxima are better simulated than daily averages, and summertime concentrations are better simulated than wintertime concentrations. Summertime correlations range between 0.5 and 0.7 for daily averages and 0.6 and 0.8 for daily maxima. Two health-related indicators are used, the number of days of exceedance of the 120 mu g m(-3) threshold for the daily maximal 8-h ozone concentration and the SOMO35. Both are well reproduced in terms of frequency, but the simultaneity of occurrence of exceedance days between observations and simulations is not well captured.

  • 39. van Pul, Addo
    et al.
    Hertel, Ole
    Geels, Camilla
    Dore, Anthony J.
    Massimo, Vieno
    van Jaarsveld, Hans A.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Schaap, Martijn
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Modelling of the Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Ammonia at a National and Regional Scale2009Inngår i: in Atmospheric Ammonia - Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts., Springer, 2009, s. 301-356Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40. van Pul, Addo
    et al.
    Reis, Stefan
    Dore, Tony
    Xuejun, Liu
    Hilde, Fagerli
    Geels, Camilla
    Hertel, Ole
    Kruijt Roy, Wichink
    Kryza, Maciej
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Vieno, Massimo
    Ron, Smith
    Eiko, Nemitz
    Modelling the National and Regional Transport and Deposition of Ammonia2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Ammonia - Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts., Springer, 2009, s. 409-421Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41. Vautard, R.
    et al.
    Schaap, M.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bessagnet, B.
    Brandt, J.
    Builtjes, P. J. H.
    Christensen, J. H.
    Cuvelier, C.
    Foltescu, Valentin
    SMHI.
    Graff, A.
    Kerschbaumer, A.
    Krol, M.
    Roberts, P.
    Rouil, L.
    Stern, R.
    Tarrason, L.
    Thunis, P.
    Vignati, E.
    Wind, P.
    Skill and uncertainty of a regional air quality model ensemble2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, nr 31, s. 4822-4832Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently several regional air quality projects were carried out to support the negotiation under the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme by predicting the impact of emission control policies with an ensemble of models. Within these projects, CITYDELTA and EURODELTA, the fate of air quality at the scale of European cities or that of the European continent was studied using several models. In this article we focus on the results of EURODELTA. The predictive skill of the ensemble of models is described for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and secondary inorganic compounds, and the uncertainty in air quality modelling is examined through the model ensemble spread of concentrations. For ozone daily maxima the ensemble spread origin differs from one region to another. In the neighbourbood of cities or in mountainous areas the spread of predicted values does not span the range of observed data, due to poorly resolved emissions or complex-terrain meteorology. By contrast in Atlantic and North Sea coastal areas the spread of predicted values is found to be larger than the observations. This is attributed to large differences in the boundary conditions used in the different models. For NO2 daily averages the ensemble spread is generally too small compared with observations. This is because models miss highest values occurring in stagnant meteorology in stable boundary layers near cities. For secondary particulate matter compounds the simulated concentration spread is more balanced, observations falling nearly equiprobably within the ensemble, and the spread originates both from meteorology and aerosol chemistry and thermodynamics. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 42. Vautard, R.
    et al.
    Van Loon, M.
    Schaap, M.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Bessagnet, B.
    Brandt, J.
    Builtjes, P. J. H.
    Christensen, J. H.
    Cuvelier, C.
    Graff, A.
    Jonson, J. E.
    Krol, M.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Roberts, P.
    Rouil, L.
    Stern, R.
    Tarrason, L.
    Thunis, P.
    Vignati, E.
    White, L.
    Wind, P.
    Is regional air quality model diversity representative of uncertainty for ozone simulation?2006Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 33, nr 24, artikkel-id L24818Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether seven state-of-the-art European regional air quality models provide daily ensembles of predicted ozone maxima that encompass observations. Using tools borrowed from the evaluation of ensemble weather forecasting, we analyze statistics of simulated ensembles of ozone daily maxima over an entire summer season. Although the model ensemble overestimates ozone, the distribution of simulated concentrations is representative of the uncertainty. The spread of simulations is due to random fluctuations resulting from differences in model formulations and input data, but also to the spread between individual model systematic biases. The ensemble average skill increases as the spread decreases. The skill of the ensemble in giving probabilistic predictions of threshold exceedances is also demonstrated. These results allow for optimism about the ability of this ensemble to simulate the uncertainty of the impact of emission control scenarios.

  • 43. Yttri, Karl Espen
    et al.
    Simpson, David
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Kiss, Gyula
    Szidat, Sonke
    Ceburnis, Darius
    Eckhardt, Sabine
    Hueglin, Christoph
    Nojgaard, Jacob Kleno
    Perrino, Cinzia
    Pisso, Ignazio
    Prevot, Andre Stephan Henry
    Putaud, Jean-Philippe
    Spindler, Gerald
    Vana, Milan
    Zhang, Yan-Lin
    Aas, Wenche
    The EMEP Intensive Measurement Period campaign, 2008-2009: characterizing carbonaceous aerosol at nine rural sites in Europe2019Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 19, nr 7, s. 4211-4233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 43 of 43
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