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  • 1. Gothe, Emma
    et al.
    Friberg, Nikolai
    Kahlert, Maria
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Sandin, Leonard
    Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy2014Ingår i: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 63-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the current loss of biodiversity and threats to freshwater ecosystems, it is crucial to identify hot-spots of biodiversity and on which spatial scale they can be resolved. Conservation and management of these important ecosystems needs insight into whether most of the regional biodiversity (i.e. gamma-diversity) can be found locally (i.e. high alpha-diversity) or whether it is distributed across the region (i.e. high beta-diversity). Biodiversity patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates and diatoms were studied in 30 headwater streams in five Swedish catchments by comparing the relative contribution of alpha- and beta-diversity to gamma-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both alpha- and beta-diversity made a significant contribution to gamma-diversity. beta-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater gamma-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse, but at the same time select sites so that beta-diversity is maximized. As environmental control of the biota peaked at the catchment level, the conservation of headwater stream diversity is likely to be most effective when management targets environmental conditions across multiple local sites within relatively small catchments.

  • 2. Hytteborn, Julia K.
    et al.
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Alexander, Richard B.
    Boyer, Elizabeth W.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Froberg, Mats
    Dahne, Joel
    SMHI, Affärsverksamhet.
    Bishop, Kevin H.
    Patterns and predictability in the intra-annual organic carbon variability across the boreal and hemiboreal landscape2015Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 520, s. 260-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors affecting total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in 215 watercourses across Sweden were investigated using parameter parsimonious regression approaches to explain spatial and temporal variabilities of the TOC water quality responses. We systematically quantified the effects of discharge, seasonality, and long-term trend as factors controlling intra-annual (among year) and inter-annual (within year) variabilities of TOC by evaluating the spatial variability in model coefficients and catchment characteristics (e.g. land cover, retention time, soil type). Catchment area (0.18-47,000 km(2)) and land cover types (forests, agriculture and alpine terrain) are typical for the boreal and hemiboreal zones across Fennoscandia. Watercourses had at least 6 years of monthly water quality observations between 1990 and 2010. Statistically significant models (p < 0.05) describing variation of TOC in streamflow were identified in 209 of 215 watercourses with a mean Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index of 0.44. Increasing long-term trends were observed in 149 (70%) of the watercourses, and intra-annual variation in TOC far exceeded inter-annual variation. The average influences of the discharge and seasonality terms on intra-annual variations in daily TOC concentration were 1.4 and 1.3 mg l(-1) (13 and 12% of the mean annual TOC), respectively. The average increase in TOC was 0.17 mg l(-1) year(-1) (1.6% year(-1)). Multivariate regression with over 90 different catchment characteristics explained 21% of the spatial variation in the linear trend coefficient, less than 20% of the variation in the discharge coefficient and 73% of the spatial variation in mean TOC. Specific discharge, water residence time, the variance of daily precipitation, and lake area, explained 45% of the spatial variation in the amplitude of the TOC seasonality. Because the main drivers of temporal variability in TOC are seasonality and discharge, first-order estimates of the influences of climatic variability and change on TOC concentration should be predictable if the studied catchments continue to respond similarly. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Khalili, Maria I.
    et al.
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Froberg, Mats
    Karltun, Erik
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Nitrogen and carbon interactions between boreal soils and lakes2010Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 24, artikel-id GB4011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we used a large data set on nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) from Swedish boreal soils and lake waters to investigate N and C interactions between soils and lake waters. To link thousands of soils sites with hundreds of lake sites distributed all over Sweden, we gridded the data and found a significant relation between gridded C:N ratios of the organic soil layer and the ones of lake waters. We also found evidence of N deposition having depressed the C:N ratios of lake waters more than the ones of organic soil layers. In lake waters N strongly increased toward southern Sweden, mainly in the form of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)(-)-N) which we primarily attribute to an increased NO(3)(-)-N input from the boreal soils into the lakes. In contrast to N we found a much weaker direct relationship for C between soils and lake waters over Sweden. Instead, lake C was strongly related to lake morphometry and catchment characteristics. Our results indicate that large-scale variations in soil C content are not directly linked to C concentrations in lake waters, whereas soil N seems to leach in small amounts from the soils directly into the lakes in form of NO(3)(-)-N. Such differences in N and C interactions between soils and lake waters give important insights into the global biogeochemical cycling of N and C.

  • 4. Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Nathanson, Marcus
    Spans, Andre
    Grabs, Thomas
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Bishop, Kevin H.
    Seibert, Jan
    Specific discharge variability in a boreal landscape2012Ingår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 48, artikel-id W08506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km(2). These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average values. The average absolute difference in DOC export for the various subcatchments between using a variable and using a constant specific discharge was 28% for the May 2008 sampling and 20% for the September 2008 sampling.

  • 5.
    Pers, Charlotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Modelling water, nutrients, and organic carbon in forested catchments: a HYPE application2016Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, nr 18, s. 3252-3273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6. Sponseller, Ryan A.
    et al.
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Patterns and drivers of riverine nitrogen (N) across alpine, subarctic, and boreal Sweden2014Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 120, nr 1-3, s. 105-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of nitrogen (N) in surface waters reflect the export of different organic and inorganic forms from terrestrial environments and the modification of these resources within aquatic habitats. We evaluated the relative influence of terrestrial ecosystem state factors, anthropogenic gradients, and aquatic habitat variables on patterns of N concentration in streams and rivers across Sweden. We analyzed data from 115 national monitoring stations distributed along a 1,300 km latitudinal gradient, draining catchments that differed by more than 10 A degrees C in mean annual temperature (MAT), and more than five orders of magnitude in area. Regional trends in total organic nitrogen (TON) and carbon:nitrogen (C:N) were closely linked to broad-scale gradients in state factors (e.g., MAT), reflecting the importance of long-term ecosystem development on terrestrial organic matter accrual and export. In contrast, trends in nitrate (NO3 (-)), the dominant form of inorganic N, were largely unrelated to state factors, but instead were closely connected to gradients related to anthropogenic inputs (e.g., agricultural cover). Despite large differences in drainage size and cover by lakes and wetlands among sites, these descriptors of the aquatic environment had little influence on spatial patterns of N chemistry. The temporal variability in N concentrations also differed between forms: inorganic N was strongly seasonal, with peaks during dormant periods that underscore biotic control over terrestrial losses of limiting resources. Organic N showed comparatively weaker seasonality, but summertime increases suggest temperature-driven patterns of soil TON production and export-temporal signals which were modified by variables that govern water residence time within catchments. Unique combinations of regional predictors reflect basic differences in the cycling of organic versus inorganic N and highlight variation in the sensitivity of these different N forms to environmental changes that directly alter inputs of resources, or indirectly modify terrestrial ecosystems through shifts in species composition, rates of forest productivity, soil development, and hydrologic routing.

  • 7.
    Temnerud, Johan
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Duker, A.
    Karlsson, S.
    Allard, B.
    Bishop, K.
    Folster, J.
    Kohler, S.
    Spatial patterns of some trace elements in four Swedish stream networks2013Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1407-1423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four river basins in southern Sweden, with catchment sizes from 0.3 to 127 km(2) (median 1.9), were sampled in October 2007. The 243 samples were analysed for 26 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, In, La, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, Ti, U, V and Zn) to identify spatial patterns within drainage networks. The range and median of each element were defined for different stream orders, and relationships to catchment characteristics, including deposition history, were explored. The sampling design made it possible to compare the differences along 40 stream reaches, above and below 53 stream junctions with 107 tributaries and between the 77 inlets and outlets of 36 lakes. The largest concentration differences (at reaches, junctions and lakes) were observed for lakes, with outlets usually having lower concentration compared to the inlets for As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Ga, Ge, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn. Significantly lower concentrations were observed for Cd and Co when comparing headwaters with downstream sites in each catchment. Common factor analysis (FA) revealed that As, Bi, Cr, Ga, Ge, Tl and V co-vary positively with Al, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC) and negatively with La, Li and pH. The strong removal of a large number of trace elements when passing through lakes is evident though in the FA, where lake surface coverage plots opposite to many of those elements. Forest volume does not respond in a similar systematic fashion and, surprisingly, the amount of wetland does not relate strongly to either Fe or TOC at any of the rivers. A better understanding of the quantitative removal of organic carbon and iron will aid in understanding trace element fluxes from landscapes rich in organic matter and iron.

  • 8.
    Temnerud, Johan
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Foelster, J.
    Buffam, I.
    Laudon, H.
    Erlandsson, M.
    Bishop, K.
    Can the distribution of headwater stream chemistry be predicted from downstream observations?2010Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, nr 16, s. 2269-2276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small streams with catchment areas <2 km(2) make up the majority of all stream length and are of great ecological importance. Surveys of first and second order streams reveal great spatial and temporal variability in the water chemistry of these headwaters, but their assessment presents a serious challenge since systematic, representative data are usually only collected in larger streams and rivers. Using low flow synoptic survey data from seven mesoscale Swedish catchments, this study tests the hypothesis that downstream monitoring data can be used to predict key features of the distribution of chemistry in headwater streams [median and interquartile range (IQR)]. Three ecologically relevant analytes were tested: pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and total organic carbon (TOC). For all seven catchments, the outlets (36-127 km(2)) were considerably less acid with lower TOC than the median of the headwaters (<2 km(2), N = 19-45). Among catchments, headwater median and IQR were positively correlated with the value at the outlet, for all three analytes. A univariate general linear model (GLM) was used to predict the headwater chemistry distribution for each catchment from its outlet chemistry, using the relationship established with the other six catchments. Headwater median pH and IQR of ANC were well predicted by a single downstream sample [median adj. R(2) similar to 0.7, normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) <0.7]. Other response variables were not as well predicted, with median adj. R(2) ranging from 0.08 to 0.48, and NRMSE up to 1.1. A minority of models were significant at alpha = 0.05, in part due to the limited availability of catchments with such extensive survey data. However, the clear trends observed suggest that with additional model development, downstream chemistry could ultimately provide a valuable tool for characterizing the range of chemistry in the contributing headwaters. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 9.
    Temnerud, Johan
    et al.
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    von Bromssen, C.
    Folster, J.
    Buffam, I.
    Andersson, J. -O
    Nyberg, Leif
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen.
    Bishop, K.
    Map-based prediction of organic carbon in headwater streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet2016Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 399-413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the prediction of the chemistry of upstream headwaters (size < 2 km(2)), relative to models based on map information alone. We use the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), an important stream ecosystem parameter, as the target for our study. Between 2000 and 2008, we carried out 17 synoptic surveys in 9 mesoscale catchments (size 32-235 km(2)). Over 900 water samples were collected in total, primarily from headwater streams but also including each catchment's river outlet during every survey. First we used partial least square regression (PLS) to model the distribution (median, interquartile range (IQR)) of headwater stream TOC for a given catchment, based on a large number of candidate variables including sub-catchment characteristics from GIS, and measured river chemistry at the catchment outlet. The best candidate variables from the PLS models were then used in hierarchical linear mixed models (MM) to model TOC in individual headwater streams. Three predictor variables were consistently selected for the MM calibration sets: (1) proportion of forested wetlands in the sub-catchment (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC), (2) proportion of lake surface cover in the sub-catchment (negatively correlated with headwater stream TOC), and (3) river outlet TOC (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC). Including river outlet TOC improved predictions, with 5-15% lower prediction errors than when using map information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offer information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwater stream chemistry.

  • 10. Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    et al.
    Froberg, Mats
    Karltun, Erik
    Khalili, Maria
    Kothawala, Dolly
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Selective decay of terrestrial organic carbon during transport from land to sea2012Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 349-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have estimated carbon exchanges at the landatmosphere interface, more recently also including estimates at the freshwateratmosphere interface. Less attention has been paid to lateral carbon fluxes, in particular to the fate of terrestrial carbon during transport from soils via surface waters to the sea. Using extensive datasets on soil, lake and river mouth chemistry of the boreal/hemiboreal region we determined organic carbon (OC) stocks of the O horizon from catchment soils, annual OC transports through more than 700 lakes (OClakeflux) and the total annual OC transport at Sweden's 53 river mouths (OCseaflux). We show here that a minimum of 0.030.87% yr(-1) of the OC soil stocks need to be exported to lakes in order to sustain the annual OClakeflux. Across Sweden we estimated a total OClakeflux of similar to 2.9 Mtonne yr(-1), which corresponds to similar to 10% of Sweden's total terrestrial net ecosystem production, and it is over 50% higher than the total OCseaflux. The OC loss during transport to the sea follows a simple exponential decay with an OC half-life of similar to 12 years. Water colour, a proxy often used for dissolved humic matter, is similarly lost exponentially but about twice as fast as OC. Thus, we found a selective loss of the coloured portion of soil-derived OC during its transport through inland waters, prior to being discharged into the sea. The selective loss is water residence time dependent, resulting in that the faster the water flows through the landscape the less OC and colour is lost. We conclude that increases in runoff will result in less efficient losses of OC, and particularly of colour, if the time for OC transformations in the landscape shortens. Consequently, OC reaching the sea is likely to become more coloured, and less processed, which can have far-reaching effects on biogeochemical cycles.

  • 11. Winterdahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Moldan, Filip
    Bishop, Kevin
    Riparian Zone Influence on Stream Water Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations at the Swedish Integrated Monitoring Sites2011Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, nr 8, s. 920-930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term variability in stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations is controlled by hydrology, climate and atmospheric deposition. Using the Riparian flow-concentration Integration Model (RIM), we evaluated factors controlling stream water DOC in the Swedish Integrated Monitoring (IM) catchments by separating out hydrological effects on stream DOC dynamics. Model residuals were correlated with climate and deposition-related drivers. DOC was most strongly correlated to water flow in the northern catchment (Gammtratten). The southern Aneboda and Kindla catchments had pronounced seasonal DOC signals, which correlated weakly to flow. DOC concentrations at GAyenrdsjon increased, potentially in response to declining acid deposition. Soil temperature correlated strongly with model residuals at all sites. Incorporating soil temperature in RIM improved model performance substantially (20-62% lower median absolute error). According to the simulations, the RIM conceptualization of riparian processes explains between 36% (Kindla) and 61% (Aneboda) of the DOC dynamics at the IM sites.

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