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  • 1. Jonsson, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Appelberg, Gustaf
    Harding, Susanne
    Bärring, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Spatio-temporal impact of climate change on the activity and voltinism of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus2009In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 486-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spruce bark beetle Ips typographus is one of the major insect pests of mature Norway spruce forests. In this study, a model describing the temperature-dependent thresholds for swarming activity and temperature requirement for development from egg to adult was driven by transient regional climate scenario data for Sweden, covering the period of 1961-2100 for three future climate change scenarios (SRES A2, A1B and B2). During the 20th century, the weather supported the production of one bark beetle generation per year, except in the north-western mountainous parts of Sweden where the climate conditions were too harsh. A warmer climate may sustain a viable population also in the mountainous part; however, the distributional range of I. typographus may be restricted by the migration speed of Norway spruce. Modelling suggests that an earlier timing of spring swarming and fulfilled development of the first generation will significantly increase the frequency of summer swarming. Model calculations suggest that the spruce bark beetle will be able to initiate a second generation in South Sweden during 50% of the years around the mid century. By the end of the century, when temperatures during the bark beetle activity period are projected to have increased by 2.4-3.8 degrees C, a second generation will be initiated in South Sweden in 63-81% of the years. The corresponding figures are 16-33% for Mid Sweden, and 1-6% for North Sweden. During the next decades, one to two generations per year are predicted in response to temperature, and the northern distribution limit for the second generation will vary. Our study addresses questions applicable to sustainable forest management, suggesting that adequate countermeasures require monitoring of regional differences in timing of swarming and development of I. typographus, and planning of control operations during summer periods with large populations of bark beetles.

  • 2. Moellmann, Christian
    et al.
    Diekmann, Rabea
    Muller-Karulis, Barbel
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Plikshs, Maris
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Reorganization of a large marine ecosystem due to atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure: a discontinuous regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea2009In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1377-1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea are currently under strong atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure. Besides natural and human-induced changes in climate, major anthropogenic drivers such as overfishing and anthropogenic eutrophication are significantly affecting ecosystem structure and function. Recently, studies demonstrated the existence of alternative stable states in various terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These so-called ecosystem regime shifts have been explained mainly as a result of multiple causes, e.g. climatic regime shifts, overexploitation or a combination of both. The occurrence of ecosystem regime shifts has important management implications, as they can cause significant losses of ecological and economic resources. Because of hysteresis in ecosystem responses, restoring regimes considered as favourable may require drastic and expensive management actions. Also the Baltic Sea, the largest brackish water body in the world ocean, and its ecosystems are strongly affected by atmospheric and anthropogenic drivers. Here, we present results of an analysis of the state and development of the Central Baltic Sea ecosystem integrating hydroclimatic, nutrient, phyto- and zooplankton as well as fisheries data. Our analyses of 52 biotic and abiotic variables using multivariate statistics demonstrated a major reorganization of the ecosystem and identified two stable states between 1974 and 2005, separated by a transition period in 1988-1993. We show the change in Baltic ecosystem structure to have the characteristics of a discontinuous regime shift, initiated by climate-induced changes in the abiotic environment and stabilized by fisheries-induced feedback loops in the food web. Our results indicate the importance of maintaining the resilience of an ecosystem to atmospherically induced environmental change by reducing the anthropogenic impact.

  • 3. Niiranen, Susa
    et al.
    Yletyinen, Johanna
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Hjerne, Olle
    MacKenzie, Brian R.
    Muller-Karulis, Barbel
    Neumann, Thomas
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web2013In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 3327-3342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and one of the world's fastest rates of warming in the last two decades of the 20th century, accelerated climate change including atmospheric warming and changes in precipitation is projected for this region during the 21st century. Here, we used a new multimodel approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. By the end of the 21st century, for example, the combination of intensive cod fishing and high nutrient loads projected a strongly eutrophicated and sprat-dominated ecosystem, whereas low cod fishing in combination with low nutrient loads resulted in a cod-dominated ecosystem with eutrophication levels close to present. Also, nonlinearities were observed in the sensitivity of different trophic groups to nutrient loads or fishing depending on the combination of the two. Finally, many climate variables and species biomasses were projected to levels unseen in the past. Hence, the risk for ecological surprises needs to be addressed, particularly when the results are discussed in the ecosystem-based management context.

  • 4. Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    et al.
    Froberg, Mats
    Karltun, Erik
    Khalili, Maria
    Kothawala, Dolly
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Selective decay of terrestrial organic carbon during transport from land to sea2012In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 349-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have estimated carbon exchanges at the landatmosphere interface, more recently also including estimates at the freshwateratmosphere interface. Less attention has been paid to lateral carbon fluxes, in particular to the fate of terrestrial carbon during transport from soils via surface waters to the sea. Using extensive datasets on soil, lake and river mouth chemistry of the boreal/hemiboreal region we determined organic carbon (OC) stocks of the O horizon from catchment soils, annual OC transports through more than 700 lakes (OClakeflux) and the total annual OC transport at Sweden's 53 river mouths (OCseaflux). We show here that a minimum of 0.030.87% yr(-1) of the OC soil stocks need to be exported to lakes in order to sustain the annual OClakeflux. Across Sweden we estimated a total OClakeflux of similar to 2.9 Mtonne yr(-1), which corresponds to similar to 10% of Sweden's total terrestrial net ecosystem production, and it is over 50% higher than the total OCseaflux. The OC loss during transport to the sea follows a simple exponential decay with an OC half-life of similar to 12 years. Water colour, a proxy often used for dissolved humic matter, is similarly lost exponentially but about twice as fast as OC. Thus, we found a selective loss of the coloured portion of soil-derived OC during its transport through inland waters, prior to being discharged into the sea. The selective loss is water residence time dependent, resulting in that the faster the water flows through the landscape the less OC and colour is lost. We conclude that increases in runoff will result in less efficient losses of OC, and particularly of colour, if the time for OC transformations in the landscape shortens. Consequently, OC reaching the sea is likely to become more coloured, and less processed, which can have far-reaching effects on biogeochemical cycles.

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