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  • 1. Orru, Hans
    et al.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Ebi, Kristie L.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Astrom, Christofer
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality and morbidity in Europe2013In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone is a highly oxidative pollutant formed from precursors in the presence of sunlight, associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. All else being equal, concentrations of ground-level ozone are expected to increase due to climate change. Ozone-related health impacts under a changing climate are projected using emission scenarios, models and epidemiological data. European ozone concentrations are modelled with the model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH)-RCA3 (50 x 50 km). Projections from two climate models, ECHAM4 and HadCM3, are applied under greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. We applied a European-wide exposure-response function to gridded population data and country-specific baseline mortality and morbidity. Comparing the current situation (1990-2009) with the baseline period (1961-1990), the largest increase in ozone-associated mortality and morbidity due to climate change (4-5%) have occurred in Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Comparing the baseline period and the future periods (2021-2050 and 2041-2060), much larger increases in ozone-related mortality and morbidity are projected for Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, with the impact being stronger using the climate projection from ECHAM4 (A2). However, in Nordic and Baltic countries the same magnitude of decrease is projected. The current study suggests that projected effects of climate change on ozone concentrations could differentially influence mortality and morbidity across Europe.

  • 2. Willers, Saskia M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Charlotta
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Pershagen, Goran
    Bellander, Tom
    Fine and coarse particulate air pollution in relation to respiratory health in Sweden2013In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 924-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health effects have repeatedly been associated with residential levels of air pollution. However, it is difficult to disentangle effects of long-term exposure to locally generated and long-range transported pollutants, as well as to exhaust emissions and wear particles from road traffic. We aimed to investigate effects of exposure to particulate matter fractions on respiratory health in the Swedish adult population, using an integrated assessment of sources at different geographical scales. The study was based on a nationwide environmental health survey performed in 2007, including 25 851 adults aged 18-80 years. Individual exposure to particulate matter at residential addresses was estimated by dispersion modelling of regional, urban and local sources. Associations between different size fractions or source categories and respiratory outcomes were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for individual and contextual confounding. Exposure to locally generated wear particles showed associations for blocked nose or hay fever, chest tightness or cough, and restricted activity days with odds ratios of 1.5-2 per 10-mu g.m(-3) increase. Associations were also seen for locally generated combustion particles, which disappeared following adjustment for exposure to wear particles. In conclusion, our data indicate that long-term exposure to locally generated road wear particles increases the risk of respiratory symptoms in adults.

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