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  • 1.
    Broman, Barry
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Hammarklint, Thomas
    Rannat, Kalev
    Soomere, Tarmo
    Valdmann, Ain
    Trends and extremes of wave fields in the north-eastern part of the Baltic Proper2006In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 48, p. 165-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses one of the longest contemporary wave measurements in the northern Baltic Sea, performed at Almagrundet 1978-2003. This record contains the roughest instrumentally measured wave conditions (significant wave height = c. 7.8 m) in the northern Baltic Proper until December 2004. The data for the years 1979-95, the period for which the data are the most reliable, show a linear rising trend of 1.8% per annum in the average wave height. The seasonal variation in wave activity follows the variation in wind speed. The monthly mean significant wave height varies from 0.5 m in May-July to 1.3-1.4 m in December-January. No corrections have been made in the analysis to compensate for missing values, for their uneven distribution, or for ice cover.

  • 2.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Piechura, J
    The major Baltic inflow in January 2003 and preconditioning by smaller inflows in summer/autumn 2002: a model study2004In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 557-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the results of the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO) the Baltic inflows in summer/autumn 2002 and January 2003 have been studied. The model results were extracted from a long simulation with observed atmospheric forcing Starting in May 1980. In RCO a bottom boundary layer model was embedded. Both the Smaller inflows and the major inflow in January 2003 are simulated in good agreement with observations. We found that a total of 222 km(3) water entered the Baltic in January: the salinity of 94 km(3) was greater than 17 PSU. In August/September 2002 the outflow through the Sound and inflow across the Darss Sill were simulated. The net inflow volume amounted to about 50 km(3).

  • 3.
    Meier, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Feistel, Rainer
    Piechura, Jan
    Arneborg, Lars
    Burchard, Hans
    Fiekas, Volker
    Golenko, Nikolay
    Kuzmina, Natalia
    Mohrholz, Volker
    Nohr, Christian
    Paka, Vadim T.
    Sellschopp, Jurgen
    Stips, Adolf
    Zhurbas, Victor
    Ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water: A brief review of present knowledge from observations and models2006In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 48, p. 133-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water is driven by either gale-forced barotropic or baroclinic salt water inflows. During the past two decades, the frequency of large barotropic inflows (mainly in winter) has decreased and the frequency of medium-intensity baroclinic inflows (observed in summer) has increased. As a result of entrainment of ambient oxygen-rich water, summer inflows are also important for the deep water ventilation. Recent process studies of salt water plumes suggest that the entrainment rates are generally smaller than those predicted by earlier entrainment models. In addition to the entrance area, the Slupsk Sill and the Slupsk Furrow are important locations for the transformation of water masses. Passing the Slupsk Furrow, both gravity-driven dense bottom flows and sub-surface cyclonic eddies, which are eroded laterally by thermohaline intrusions, ventilate the deep water of the eastern Gotland Basin. A recent study of the energy transfer from barotropic to baroclinic wave motion using a two-dimensional shallow water model suggests that about 30% of the energy needed below the halocline for deep water mixing is explained by the breaking of internal waves. In the deep water decade-long stagnation periods with decreasing oxygen and increasing hydrogen sulphide concentrations might be caused by anomalously large freshwater inflows and anomalously high mean zonal wind speeds. In different studies the typical response time scale of average salinity was estimated to be between approximately 20 and 30 years. The review summarizes recent research results and ends with a list of open questions and recommendations.

  • 4. Melin, Frederic
    et al.
    Zibordi, Giuseppe
    Carlund, Thomas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Holben, Brent N.
    Stefan, Sabina
    Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua/Terra aerosol products in coastal regions of European marginal seas2013In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 27-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aerosol products associated with the ocean colour missions SeaWiFS and MODIS (both Aqua and Terra) are assessed with AERONET field measurements collected in four European marginal seas for which fairly large uncertainties in ocean colour in-water products have been documented: the northern Adriatic, the Baltic, Black and North Seas. On average, more than 500 match-ups are found for each basin and satellite mission, showing an overall consistency of validation statistics across the three missions. The median absolute relative difference between satellite and field values of aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm varies from 12% to 15% for the three missions at the northern Adriatic and Black Sea sites, and from 13% to -26% for the Baltic and North Sea sites. It is in the interval 16-31% for the near-infrared band. The spectral shape of tau(a) is well reproduced with a median bias of the Angstrom exponent varying between -15% and +14%, which represents a clear improvement with respect to previous versions of the atmospheric correction scheme. These results show that the uncertainty associated with tau(a) in the considered coastal waters of the European marginal seas is comparable to global validation statistics.

  • 5. Van Pham, Trang
    et al.
    Brauch, Jennifer
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Frueh, Barbara
    Ahrens, Bodo
    New coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice system COSMO-CLM/NEMO: assessing air temperature sensitivity over the North and Baltic Seas2014In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 167-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a newly established coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice system with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM and the ocean-sea-ice model NEMO for the North and Baltic Seas. These two models are linked via the OASIS3 coupler. Experiments with the new coupled system and with the stand-alone COSMO-CLM model forced by ERA-Interim re-analysis data over the period from 1985 to 1994 for the CORDEX Europe domain are carried out. The evaluation results of the coupled system show 2-m temperature biases in the range from -2.5 to 3 K. Simulated 2-m temperatures are generally colder in the coupled than in the uncoupled system, and temperature differences vary by season and space. The coupled model shows an improvement compared with the stand-alone COSMO-CLM in terms of simulating 2-m temperature. The difference in 2-m temperature between the two experiments are explained as downwind cooling by the colder North and Baltic Seas in the coupled system.

  • 6. Wolski, Tomasz
    et al.
    Wisniewski, Bernard
    Giza, Andrzej
    Kowalewska-Kalkowska, Halina
    Boman, Hanna
    Grabbi-Kaiv, Silve
    Hammarklint, Thomas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Holfort, Juergen
    Lydeikaite, Zydrune
    Extreme sea levels at selected stations on the Baltic Sea coast2014In: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 259-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and describe the extreme characteristics of the water levels and illustrate them as the topography of the sea surface along the whole Baltic Sea coast. The general pattern is to show the maxima and minima of Baltic Sea water levels and the extent of their variations in the period from 1960 to 2010. A probability analysis is carried out on the annual sea level maxima and minima for 31 water level gauges in order to define the probability of occurrence of theoretical sea levels once in a specific number of years. The spatial distribution of sea levels for hundred-year maximum and minimum water levels is illustrated. Then, the number of storm surges for the accepted criteria are presented: these numbers increased in the 50-year period analysed. The final part of the work analyses some extreme storm events and calculates the static value and dynamic deformation of the sea surface by mesoscale, deep low-pressure systems.

1 - 6 of 6
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