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  • 1.
    Graham, Phil
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Water balance modelling in the Baltic Sea drainage basin - analysis of meteorological and hydrological approaches2001In: Meteorology and atmospheric physics (Print), ISSN 0177-7971, E-ISSN 1436-5065, Vol. 77, no 1-4, p. 45-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to understand and simulate the global climate in numerical models have led to regional studies of the energy and water balance. The Baltic Basin provides a continental scale test basin where meteorology, oceanography and hydrology all can meet. Using a simple conceptual approach, a large-scale hydrological model of the water balance of the total Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (HBV-Baltic) was used to simulate the basinwide water balance components for the present climate and to evaluate the land surface components of atmospheric climate models. It has been used extensively in co-operative BALTEX (The Baltic Sea Experiment) research and within SWECLIM (Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme) to support continued regional climate model development. This helps to identify inconsistencies in bath meteorological and hydrological models. One result is that compensating errors are evident in the snow routines of the atmospheric models studied. The use of HBV-Baltic has greatly improved the dialogue between hydrological and meteorological modellers within the Baltic Basin research community. It is concluded that conceptual hydrological models, although far from being complete, play an important role in the realm of continental scale hydrological modelling. Atmospheric models benefit from the experience of hydrological modellers in developing simpler, yet more effective land surface parameterisations. This basic modelling tool for simulating the large-scale water balance of the Baltic Sea drainage basin is the only existing hydrological model that covers the entire basin and will continue to be used until more detailed models can be successfully applied at this scale.

  • 2. Jacob, D
    et al.
    Van den Hurk, B J J M
    Andrae, Ulf
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Elgered, G
    Fortelius, C
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Jackson, S D
    Karstens, U
    Kopken, C
    Lindau, R
    Podzun, R
    Rockel, B
    Rubel, F
    Sass, B H
    Smith, R N B
    Yang, X
    A comprehensive model inter-comparison study investigating the water budget during the BALTEX-PIDCAP period2001In: Meteorology and atmospheric physics (Print), ISSN 0177-7971, E-ISSN 1436-5065, Vol. 77, no 1-4, p. 19-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of 8 regional atmospheric model systems was carried out for a three-month late summer/early autumn period in 1995 over the Baltic Sea and its catchment area. All models were configured on a common grid using similar surface and lateral boundary conditions, and ran in either data assimilation mode (short term forecasts plus data assimilation), forecast made (short term forecasts initialised daily with analyses) or climate mode (no re-initialisation of model interior during entire simulation period). Model results presented in this paper were generally post processed as daily averaged quantities, separate for land and sea areas when relevant. Post processed output was compared against available analyses or observations of cloud cover, precipitation, vertically integrated atmospheric specific humidity, runoff, surface radiation and near surface synoptic observations. The definition of a common grid and lateral forcing resulted in a high degree of agreement among the participating model results for most cases. Models operated in climate mode generally displayed slightly larger deviations from the observations than the data assimilation or forecast mode integration, but in all cases synoptic events were well captured. Correspondence to near surface synoptic quantities was good. Significant disagreement between model results was shown in particular for cloud cover and the radiative properties, average precipitation and runoff. Problems with choosing appropriate initial soil moisture conditions from a common initial soil moisture field resulted in a wide range of evaporation and sensible heat flux values during the first few weeks of the simulations, but better agreement was shown at later times.

  • 3. Rontu, L.
    et al.
    Obleitner, F.
    Gollvik, Stefan
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Zingerle, C.
    Tijm, S.
    HIRLAM experiments on surface energy balance across Vatnajokull, Iceland2009In: Meteorology and atmospheric physics (Print), ISSN 0177-7971, E-ISSN 1436-5065, Vol. 103, no 1-4, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the skill of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) to reproduce the near-surface atmospheric conditions across the Vatnajokull Ice Cap in Iceland. This model-observation comparison study is based on a mesoscale glaciometeorological observation campaign, which has been performed during summer 1996 and provided a wealth of meteorological and glaciological data. Fine-scale hydrostatic HIRLAM experiments are based on downscaling ERA-40 analyses and the application of upper-air and surface data assimilation. The simulation results are compared to a subset of observations following a height transect across Breidamerkurjokull, a southern outlet glacier of Vatnajokull. After introduction of improvements, suggested by comparison of a reference run with observations, HIRLAM successfully simulates the surface energy balance and the driving meteorological parameters. For a correct simulation, a proper description of the constant and temporary varying physical properties of the underlying surface turned out to be crucial. The results are valuable for further improvement of operational mesoscale NWP in mountainous and high latitude environments.

  • 4. van Meijgaard, E
    et al.
    Andrae, Ulf
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Rockel, B
    Comparison of model predicted cloud parameters and surface radiative fluxes with observations on the 100 km scale2001In: Meteorology and atmospheric physics (Print), ISSN 0177-7971, E-ISSN 1436-5065, Vol. 77, no 1-4, p. 109-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud parameters and surface radiative fluxes predicted by regional atmospheric models are directly compared with observations for a 10-day period in late summer 1995 characterized by predominantly large-scale synoptic conditions. Observations of total cloud cover and Vertical cloud structure are inferred from measurements with a groundbased network of Lidar ceilometers and IR-radiometers and from satellite observations on a 100 kilometer scale. Groundbased observations show that at altitudes below 3 km, implying liquid water clouds, there is a considerable portion of optically non-opaque clouds. Vertical distributions of cloud temperatures simultaneously inferred from the groundbased infrared radiometer network and from satellite can only be reconciled if the occurrence of optically thin cloud structures at mid- and high tropospheric levels is assumed to be frequent. Results of three regional atmospheric models, i.e. the GKSS-REMO, SMHI-HIRLAM. and KNMI-RACMO, are quantitatively compared with the observations. The main finding is that all models predict too much cloud amount at low altitude below 900 hPa, which is then compensated by an underestimation of cloud amount around 800 hPa. This is likely to be related with the finding that all models tend to underestimate the planetary boundary layer height. All models overpredict the high-level cloud amount albeit it is difficult to quantify to what extent due to the frequent presence of optically thin clouds. Whereas reasonably alike in cloud parameters, the models differ considerably in radiative fluxes. One model links a well matching incoming solar radiation to a radiatively transparent atmosphere over a too cool surface, another model underpredicts incoming solar radiation at the surface due to a too strong cloud feedback to radiation, the last model represents all surface radiative fluxes quite well on average: but underestimates the sensitivity of atmospheric transmissivity to cloud amount.

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