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  • 1. Humborg, C
    et al.
    Smedberg, E
    Blomqvist, S
    Morth, C M
    Brink, J
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Danielsson, A
    Sahlberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Professional Services. SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Nutrient variations in boreal and subarctic Swedish rivers: Landscape control of land-sea fluxes2004In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 1871-1883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the hypothesis that the extent of vegetation cover governs the fluxes of nutrients from boreal and subarctic river catchments to the sea. Fluxes of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved silicate (DIN, DIP, and DSi, respectively) are described from 19 river catchments and subcatchments (ranging in size from 34 to 40,000 km(2)) in northern Sweden with a detailed analysis of the rivers Lulealven and Kalixalven. Fluxes of TOC, DIP, and DSi increase by an order of magnitude with increasing proportion of forest and wetland area, whereas DIN did not follow this pattern but remained constantly low. Principal component analysis on landscape variables showed the importance of almost all land cover and soil type variables associated with vegetation, periglacial environment, soil and bedrock with slow weathering rates, boundary of upper tree line, and percentage of lake area. A cluster analysis of the principal components showed that the river systems could be separated into mountainous headwaters and forest and wetland catchments. This clustering was also valid in relation to river chemistry (TOC, DIP, and DSi) and was confirmed with a redundancy analysis, including river chemistry and principal components as environmental variables. The first axis explains 89% of the variance in river chemistry and almost 100% of the variance in the relation between river chemistry and landscape variables. These results suggest that vegetation change during interglacial periods is likely to have had a major effect on inputs of TOC, DIP, and DSi into the past ocean.

  • 2. MacIntyre, Sally
    et al.
    Crowe, Adam. T.
    Cortes, Alicia
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Turbulence in a small arctic pond2018In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2337-2358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Moksnes, Per-Olav
    et al.
    Corell, Hanna
    Tryman, Kentaroo
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    Larval behavior and dispersal mechanisms in shore crab larvae (Carcinus maenas): Local adaptations to different tidal environments?2014In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 588-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of empirical and model studies we tested whether European shore crab larvae (Carcinus maenas) from environments with different tidal regimes in the North Sea area have different swimming behaviors, and whether this affects connectivity and settlement success of larvae. Laboratory studies demonstrated the presence of an inherited tidal migration rhythm in newly hatched crab larvae from the mesotidal Danish Wadden Sea, and field studies showed that postlarvae swam in surface water almost exclusively during flood tides, suggesting that larvae use selective tidal stream transport to control the dispersal process. In contrast, shore crab larvae from microtidal Skagerrak displayed a nocturnal vertical migration behavior that appeared to switch to a diurnal behavior at the end of the postlarval phase, indicating an adaptation to avoid visual predators and to use wind-driven transport to reach shallow settlement areas. A biophysical model showed that tidal-migrating larvae in the Wadden Sea had two times higher settlement success than larvae with a diel behavior. However, no differences in settlement success were found between the two larval behaviors in microtidal Skagerrak, where lower fitness is suggested for tidal-migrating larvae due to higher predation mortality from visual predators. We suggest that the differences in inherited larval behavior in larvae from meso-and microtidal regions reflect local adaptations maintained through natural selection of successful recruits. Consistent with recent population genetic studies, modeled connectivity of shore crabs indicated an oceanographic dispersal barrier to gene flow in Eastern Wadden Sea that may facilitate such adaptations.

  • 4.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION IN THE BALTIC PROPER1987In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 973-978Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Sanden, P
    et al.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Long-term trends in Secchi depth in the Baltic Sea1996In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have increased during the last century, and primary production has probably also risen. However, the evidence of such a rise is circumstantial, and most of the available findings concerning primary production cover only brief time periods. A more appropriate type of data in this area is Secchi disk measurements. We present the results of trend tests applied to Secchi depth values recorded during two discrete time periods: 1919-1939 and 1969-1991. We performed a step trend test to compare the data from the two periods and applied a monotonic trend test to the later series. Both tests showed that Secchi depth decreased by similar to 0.05 m yr(-1) during both periods. Calculations of changes in chlorophyll concentrations suggest a yearly increase of similar to 1%. Extending the calculations to represent primary production indicates an increase of slightly <1% yr(-1). These calculations, however, are unreliable due to substantial uncertainty regarding the relationships between Secchi depth and chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll and primary production.

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