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  • 1.
    Arneborg, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Jansson, Par
    Staalstrom, Andre
    Broström, Göran
    Tidal Energy Loss, Internal Tide Radiation, and Local Dissipation for Two-Layer Tidal Flow over a Sill2017In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1521-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Borenäs, Karin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lake, Irene
    Lundberg, P A
    On the intermediate water masses of the Faroe-Bank Channel overflow2001In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1904-1914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of available hydrographic data from the Faroe-Bank Channel indicates that North Icelandic/Arctic Intermediate water masses are present in the passage to a larger extent than was previously believed. The presently compiled statistics, including results on the seasonality, are discussed in relation to previous investigations. Finally, a high quality subset of the hydrographic data is used for an analysis of the alongchannel mixing of the intermediate water masses.

  • 3. Enmar, Linda
    et al.
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lake, Irene
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Comments on "Is the Faroe Bank Channel Overflow Hydraulically Controlled?''2009In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1534-1538Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper Girton et al., due to what appears to be a misunderstanding, stated that a critical-flow analysis of the deep-water transport through the Faroe Bank Channel had been undertaken by Lake et al. on the basis of rotating hydraulic theory for a channel of parabolic cross section. In fact, this quoted investigation dealt with a rectangular passage. In the present comment it is demonstrated how the use of parabolic bathymetry leads to significant improvements of the Froude number results.

  • 4.
    Lake, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lundberg, P
    Potential-vorticity characteristics of the Faroe Bank Channel deep-water overflow2005In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 921-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a 71-day deployment of three ADCP current meters on a section across the sill region of the Faroe Bank Channel are reported. The characteristic density structure of the channel, with warm, highly saline North Atlantic Ocean surface water overlying colder, less-saline deep water originating from the Nordic seas, lends itself well to a two-layer description of flow processes in this region. The dataset has been analyzed to describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of the deep-water potential vorticity. The most striking feature is a persistent cross-channel variation of this quantity, with higher values on the Faroe Bank side. In the 11/2-layer hydraulic calculations that were undertaken the potential vorticity was approximated as a linear distribution. The ADCP observations indicated that the deep-water flow was hydraulically controlled, and, using the direct observed transport, the analysis yielded diagnostic results for the upstream reservoir interface level that were in good agreement with observations. It was also concluded that the deviation of the potential vorticity from a constant value had no significant effects on the deep-water transport.

  • 5.
    Lake, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Seasonal barotropic modulation of the deep-water overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel2006In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 2328-2339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a joint Nordic project, an upward-looking ADCP has been maintained at the sill of the Faroe Bank Channel from 1995 onward. Records from a period in 1998 with three current meters deployed across the channel were used to demonstrate that the Faroe Bank Channel deep-water transport from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean proper can be reasonably well estimated from one centrally located ADCP. The long-term average of this transport over the period 1995-2001 was found to be 2.1 Sv ( Sv 10(6) m(-3) s(-1)). The transport record demonstrates a pronounced seasonality. Satellite altimetry shows that this is caused by the northbound Atlantic surface water inflow giving rise to a barotropic modulation of the deep-water flow through the Faroe-Shetland Channel and the southern reaches of the Norwegian Sea.

  • 6.
    Ljungman, Olof
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Rydberg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Goransson, C G
    Modeling and observations of deep water renewal and entrainment in a Swedish sill fjord2001In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 3401-3420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A baroclinically forced deep-water renewal event in a small Swedish sill fjord is investigated using a one-dimensional numerical model and a dataset that resolves temporal variations in salinity and oxygen. The observations indicate an almost complete renewal of the basin water within a period of 2-3 weeks. The details of the renewal process are emphasized by modeling the sill flow as well as the resulting dense bottom plume, with various rates of entrainment. It is found that sill mixing is relatively unimportant, but that entrainment increases the deep-water inflow by a factor of 2-4. Different formulas for calculating plume entrainment are compared and the model's sensitivity to variations in sill flow and bottom friction is investigated. It is shown that even weak entrainment, occurring at shallow depths where the density difference between the plume and the resident water is large, has a significant impact. Entrainment prolongs the time it takes for a complete renewal (i.e., to flush out all resident water) and, on the moderate timescales considered here, yields lower post-renewal salinity and oxygen concentrations. This implies that entrainment (and mixing) during renewal may be as important as basin water diffusion in setting the timescale for forthcoming renewal events.

  • 7.
    Pemberton, Per
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Arctic Ocean Water Mass Transformation in S-T Coordinates2015In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1025-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, watermass transformations in the Arctic Ocean are studied using a recently developed salinity-temperature (S-T) framework. The framework allows the water mass transformations to be succinctly quantified by computing the surface and internal diffusive fluxes in S-T coordinates. This study shows how the method can be applied to a specific oceanic region, in this case the Arctic Ocean, by including the advective exchange of water masses across the boundaries of the region. Based on a simulation with a global ocean circulation model, the authors examine the importance of various parameterized mixing processes and surface fluxes for the transformation of water across isohaline and isothermal surfaces in the ArcticOcean. The model-based results reveal a broadly realistic Arctic Ocean where the inflowing Atlantic and Pacific waters are primarily cooled and freshened before exiting back to the North Atlantic. In the model, the water mass transformation in the T direction is primarily accomplished by the surface heat flux. However, the surface freshwater flux plays a minor role in the transformation of water toward lower salinities, which is mainly driven by a downgradient mixing of salt in the interior ocean. Near the freezing line, the seasonal melt and growth of sea ice influences the transformation pattern.

  • 8.
    Rahm, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Svensson, Urban
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    DISPERSION OF MARKED FLUID ELEMENTS IN A TURBULENT EKMAN LAYER1986In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 2084-2096Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Svensson, Urban
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    A MATHEMATICAL-MODEL OF THE OCEAN BOUNDARY-LAYER UNDER DRIFTING MELTING ICE1990In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Wu, Lichuan
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Hristov, Tihomir
    Rutgersson, Anna
    SMHI.
    Vertical Profiles of Wave-Coherent Momentum Flux and Velocity Variances in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer2018In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 625-641Article in journal (Refereed)
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