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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    THERMALLY DRIVEN CIRCULATION WITHIN AN EXPERIMENTAL ENCLOSURE1990In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 111-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    RYDBERG, L
    EXCHANGE OF WATER AND NUTRIENTS BETWEEN THE SKAGERRAK AND THE KATTEGAT1993In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 159-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Gastgifvars, Maria
    et al.
    Lauri, Hannu
    Sarkanen, Annakaisa
    Myrberg, Kai
    Andrejev, Oleg
    Ambjörn, Cecilia
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Modelling surface drifting of buoys during a rapidly-moving weather front in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea2006In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 567-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gulf of Finland is an elongated estuary located in the north-eastern extremity of the Baltic Sea. This semi-enclosed sea-area is subject to heavy sea traffic, and is one of the main risk areas for oil accidents in the Baltic. The continuous development and validation of operational particle drift and oil-spill forecasting systems is thus seen to be essential for this sea-area. Here, the results of a three-day drift experiment in May 2003 are discussed. The field studies were performed using GPS-positioned surface floating buoys. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how well models can reproduce the drift of these buoys. Model simulations, both in forecast and hindcast modes. were carried out by three different 3D hydrodynamic models, the results of which are evaluated by comparing the calculated drifts with observations. These models were forced by HIRLAM (High Resolution Limited Area Model) and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological forecast fields. The simulated drift of the buoys showed a good agreement with observations even when, during the study period, a rapidly-changing wind situation was observed to affect the investigation area; in this situation the winds turned about 100 degrees in half an hour. In such a case it is a very complicated task to forecast the drifters' routes: there is a need to regularly update the meteorological forcing fields and to use these regularly-updated fields throughout the simulations. It is furthermore recommended that forecasts should be made using several circulation models and several meteorological forecasts, in order to get an overview of the accuracy of the forecasted drifts and related differences in between the forecasts. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    COASTAL UPWELLING IN THE BALTIC SEA - SATELLITE AND INSITU MEASUREMENTS OF SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES INDICATING COASTAL UPWELLING1987In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 449-462Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Ikauniece, Anda
    et al.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kalnina, Laimdota
    Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"2017In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 195, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Modeling the pathways and ages of inflowing salt- and freshwater in the Baltic Sea2007In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 610-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional, eddy-permitting ocean circulation model with implemented bottom boundary layer model and flux-corrected transport scheme is used to calculate the pathways and ages of various water masses in the Baltic Sea. The agreement between simulated and observed temperature and salinity profiles of the period 1980-2004 is satisfactory. Especially the renewal of the deep water in the Baltic proper by gravity-driven dense bottom flows is better simulated than in previous versions of the model. Based upon these model results details of the mean circulation are analyzed. For instance, it is found that after the major Baltic inflow in January 2003 saline water passing the Slupsk Furrow flows directly towards northeast along the eastern slope of the Hoburg Channel. However, after the baroclinic summer inflow in August/September 2002 the deep water flow spreads along the southwestern slope of the Gdansk Basin. Further, the model results show that the patterns of mean vertical advective fluxes across the halocline that close the large-scale vertical circulation are rather patchy. Mainly within distinct areas are particles of the saline inflow water advected vertically from the deep water into the surface layer. To analyze the time scales of the circulation mean ages of various water masses are calculated. It is found that at the sea surface of the Bornholm Basin, Gotland Basin, Bothnian Sea, and Bothnian Bay the mean ages associated to inflowing water from Kattegat amount to 26-30, 28-34, 34-38, and 38-42 years, respectively. Largest mean sea surface ages of more than 30 years associated to the freshwater of the rivers are found in the central Gotland Basin and Belt Sea. At the bottom the mean ages are largest in the western Gotland Basin and amount to more than 36 years. In the Baltic proper vertical gradients of ages associated to the freshwater inflow are smaller than in the case of inflowing saltwater from Kattegat indicating an efficient recirculation of freshwater in the Baltic Sea. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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