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  • 1. Cuxart, J
    et al.
    Holtslag, A A M
    Beare, R J
    Bazile, E
    Beljaars, A
    Cheng, A
    Conangla, L
    Ek, M
    Freedman, F
    Hamdi, R
    Kerstein, A
    Kitagawa, H
    Lenderink, G
    Lewellen, D
    Mailhot, J
    Mauritsen, T
    Perov, Veniamin
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Schayes, G
    Steeneveld, G J
    Svensson, G
    Taylor, P
    Weng, W
    Wunsch, S
    Xu, K M
    Single-column model intercomparison for a stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer2006In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 273-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parameterization of the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer is a difficult issue, having a significant impact on medium-range weather forecasts and climate integrations. To pursue this further, a moderately stratified Arctic case is simulated by nineteen single-column turbulence schemes. Statistics from a large-eddy simulation intercomparison made for the same case by eleven different models are used as a guiding reference. The single-column parameterizations include research and operational schemes from major forecast and climate research centres. Results from first-order schemes, a large number of turbulence kinetic energy closures, and other models were used. There is a large spread in the results; in general, the operational schemes mix over a deeper layer than the research schemes, and the turbulence kinetic energy and other higher-order closures give results closer to the statistics obtained from the large-eddy simulations. The sensitivities of the schemes to the parameters of their turbulence closures are partially explored.

  • 2. Lang, Francisco
    et al.
    Belusic, Danijel
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Siems, Steven
    Observations of Wind-Direction Variability in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer2018In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 166, no 1, p. 51-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Smedman, A S
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Measured and simulated latent and sensible heat fluxes at two marine sites in the Baltic Sea2001In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 53-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, turbulent heat flux data from two sites within the Baltic Sea are compared with estimates from two models. The main focus is on the latent heat flux. The measuring sites are located on small islands close to the islands of Bornholm and Gotland. Both sites have a wide wind direction sector with undisturbed over-water fetch. Mean parameters and direct fluxes were measured on masts during May to December 1998. The two models used in this study are the regional-scale atmospheric model HIRLAM and the ocean model PROBE-Baltic. It is shown that both models overestimate the sensible and latent heat fluxes. The overestimation can, to a large extent, be explained by errors in the air-water temperature and humidity differences. From comparing observed and modelled data, the estimated 8-month mean errors in temperature and humidity are up to 1 degreesC and 1 g kg(-1),respectively. The mean errors in the sensible and latent heat fluxes for the same period are approximately 15 and 30 W m(-2), respectively. Bulk transfer coefficients used for calculating heat and humidity fluxes at the surface were shown to agree rather well with the measurements, at least for the unstable data. For stable stratification, the scatter in data is generally large, and it appears that the bulk formulation chosen overestimates turbulent heat fluxes.

  • 4. Sukoriansky, S
    et al.
    Galperin, B
    Perov, Veniamin
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Application of a new spectral theory of stably stratified turbulence to the atmospheric boundary layer over sea ice2005In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 231-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new spectral closure model of stably stratified turbulence is used to develop a K - epsilon model suitable for applications to the atmospheric boundary layer. This K - epsilon model utilizes vertical viscosity and diffusivity obtained from the spectral theory. In the epsilon equation, the Coriolis parameter-dependent formulation of the coefficient C-1 suggested by Detering and Etling is generalized to include the dependence on the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, N. The new K - epsilon model is tested in simulations of the ABL over sea ice and compared with observations from BASE as simulated in large-eddy simulations by Kosovic and Curry, and observations from SHEBA.

  • 5. Tjernstrom, M
    et al.
    Zagar, M
    Svensson, G
    Cassano, J J
    Pfeifer, S
    Rinke, A
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Dethloff, K
    Jones, Colin
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Semmler, T
    Shaw, M
    Modelling the arctic boundary layer: An evaluation of six arcmip regional-scale models using data from the Sheba project2005In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 337-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A primary climate change signal in the central Arctic is the melting of sea ice. This is dependent on the interplay between the atmosphere and the sea ice, which is critically dependent on the exchange of momentum, heat and moisture at the surface. In assessing the realism of climate change scenarios it is vital to know the quality by which these exchanges are modelled in climate simulations. Six state-of-the-art regional-climate models are run for one year in the western Arctic, on a common domain that encompasses the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment ice-drift track. Surface variables, surface fluxes and the vertical structure of the lower troposphere are evaluated using data from the SHEBA experiment. All the models are driven by the same lateral boundary conditions, sea-ice fraction and sea and sea-ice surface temperatures. Surface pressure, near-surface air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed agree well with observations, with a falling degree of accuracy in that order. Wind speeds have systematic biases in some models, by as much as a few metres per second. The surface radiation fluxes are also surprisingly accurate, given the complexity of the problem. The turbulent momentum flux is acceptable, on average, in most models, but the turbulent heat fluxes are, however, mostly unreliable. Their correlation with observed fluxes is, in principle, insignificant, and they accumulate over a year to values an order of magnitude larger than observed. Typical instantaneous errors are easily of the same order of magnitude as the observed net atmospheric heat flux. In the light of the sensitivity of the atmosphere-ice interaction to errors in these fluxes, the ice-melt in climate change scenarios must be viewed with considerable caution.

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