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  • 1. Godhe, Anna
    et al.
    Cusack, Caroline
    Pedersen, John
    Andersen, Per
    Anderson, Donald M.
    Bresnan, Eileen
    Cembella, Allan
    Dahl, Einar
    Diercks, Sonja
    Elbraechter, Malte
    Edler, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Galluzzi, Luca
    Gescher, Christine
    Gladstone, Melissa
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Kulis, David
    LeGresley, Murielle
    Lindahl, Odd
    Marin, Roman
    McDermott, Georgina
    Medlin, Linda K.
    Naustvoll, Lars-Johan
    Penna, Antonella
    Toebe, Kerstin
    Intercalibration of classical and molecular techniques for identification of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) and estimation of cell densities2007In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 56-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A workshop with the aim to compare classical and molecular techniques for phytoplankton enumeration took place at Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Sweden, in August 2005. Seventeen different techniques - nine classical microscopic-based and eight molecular methods - were compared. Alexandrium fundyense was the target organism in four experiments. Experiment 1 was designed to determine the range of cell densities over which the methods were applicable. Experiment 2 tested the species specificity of the methods by adding Alexandrium ostenfeldii, to samples containing A. fundyense. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the ability of the methods to detect the target organism within a natural phytoplankton community. Most of the methods could detect cells at the lowest concentration tested, 100 cells L-1, but the variance was high for methods using small volumes, such as counting chambers and slides. In general, the precision and reproducibility of the investigated methods increased with increased target cell concentration. Particularly molecular methods were exceptions in that their relative standard deviation did not vary with target cell concentration. Only two of the microscopic methods and three of the molecular methods had a significant linear relationship between their cell count estimates and the A. fundyense concentration in experiment 2, where the objective was to discriminate that species from a morphologically similar and genetically closely related species. None of the investigated methods were affected by the addition of a natural plankton community background matrix in experiment 3. The results of this study are discussed in the context of previous intercomparisons and the difficulties in defining the absolute, true target cell concentration. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Wells, Mark L.
    et al.
    Trainer, Vera L.
    Smayda, Theodore J.
    Karlson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Trick, Charles G.
    Kudela, Raphael M.
    Ishikawa, Akira
    Bernard, Stewart
    Wulff, Angela
    Anderson, Donald M.
    Cochlan, William P.
    Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future2015In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 49, p. 68-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change pressures will influence marine planktonic systems globally, and it is conceivable that harmful algal blooms may increase in frequency and severity. These pressures will be manifest as alterations in temperature, stratification, light, ocean acidification, precipitation-induced nutrient inputs, and grazing, but absence of fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms driving harmful algal blooms frustrates most hope of forecasting their future prevalence. Summarized here is the consensus of a recent workshop held to address what currently is known and not known about the environmental conditions that favor initiation and maintenance of harmful algal blooms. There is expectation that harmful algal bloom (HAB) geographical domains should expand in some cases, as will seasonal windows of opportunity for harmful algal blooms at higher latitudes. Nonetheless there is only basic information to speculate upon which regions or habitats HAB species may be the most resilient or susceptible. Moreover, current research strategies are not well suited to inform these fundamental linkages. There is a critical absence of tenable hypotheses for how climate pressures mechanistically affect HAB species, and the lack of uniform experimental protocols limits the quantitative cross-investigation comparisons essential to advancement. A HAB "best practices" manual would help foster more uniform research strategies and protocols, and selection of a small target list of model HAB species or isolates for study would greatly promote the accumulation of knowledge. Despite the need to focus on keystone species, more studies need to address strain variability within species, their responses under multifactorial conditions, and the retrospective analyses of long-term plankton and cyst core data; research topics that are departures from the norm. Examples of some fundamental unknowns include how larger and more frequent extreme weather events may break down natural biogeographic barriers, how stratification may enhance or diminish HAB events, how trace nutrients (metals, vitamins) influence cell toxicity, and how grazing pressures may leverage, or mitigate HAB development. There is an absence of high quality time-series data in most regions currently experiencing HAB outbreaks, and little if any data from regions expected to develop HAB events in the future. A subset of observer sites is recommended to help develop stronger linkages among global, national, and regional climate change and HAB observation programs, providing fundamental datasets for investigating global changes in the prevalence of harmful algal blooms. Forecasting changes in HAB patterns over the next few decades will depend critically upon considering harmful algal blooms within the competitive context of plankton communities, and linking these insights to ecosystem, oceanographic and climate models. From a broader perspective, the nexus of HAB science and the social sciences of harmful algal blooms is inadequate and prevents quantitative assessment of impacts of future HAB changes on human wellbeing. These and other fundamental changes in HAB research will be necessary if HAB science is to obtain compelling evidence that climate change has caused alterations in HAB distributions, prevalence or character, and to develop the theoretical, experimental, and empirical evidence explaining the mechanisms underpinning these ecological shifts. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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