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  • 1.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Thomas, Manu
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Korhonen, H.
    Lehtinen, K. E. J.
    Kokkola, H.
    MATCH-SALSA - Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry model coupled to the SALSA aerosol microphysics model - Part 1: Model description and evaluation2015In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 171-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have implemented the sectional aerosol dynamics model SALSA (Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications) in the European-scale chemistry-transport model MATCH (Multi-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry). The new model is called MATCH-SALSA. It includes aerosol microphysics, with several formulations for nucleation, wet scavenging and condensation. The model reproduces observed higher particle number concentration (PNC) in central Europe and lower concentrations in remote regions. The modeled PNC size distribution peak occurs at the same or smaller particle size as the observed peak at four measurement sites spread across Europe. Total PNC is underestimated at northern and central European sites and accumulation-mode PNC is underestimated at all investigated sites. The low nucleation rate coefficient used in this study is an important reason for the underestimation. On the other hand, the model performs well for particle mass (including secondary inorganic aerosol components), while elemental and organic carbon concentrations are underestimated at many of the sites. Further development is needed, primarily for treatment of secondary organic aerosol, in terms of biogenic emissions and chemical transformation. Updating the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) scheme will likely have a large impact on modeled PM2.5 and also affect the model performance for PNC through impacts on nucleation and condensation.

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  • 2. Andersson, E.
    et al.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Methodology for evaluating lateral boundary conditions in the regional chemical transport model MATCH (v5.5.0) using combined satellite and ground-based observations2015In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 3747-3763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemispheric transport of air pollutants can have a significant impact on regional air quality, as well as on the effect of air pollutants on regional climate. An accurate representation of hemispheric transport in regional chemical transport models (CTMs) depends on the specification of the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). This study focuses on the methodology for evaluating LBCs of two moderately long-lived trace gases, carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O-3), for the European model domain and over a 7-year period, 2006-2012. The method is based on combining the use of satellite observations at the lateral boundary with the use of both satellite and in situ ground observations within the model domain. The LBCs are generated by the global European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West (EMEP MSC-W) model; they are evaluated at the lateral boundaries by comparison with satellite observations of the Terra-MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) sensor (CO) and the Aura-OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) sensor (O-3). The LBCs from the global model lie well within the satellite uncertainties for both CO and O-3. The biases increase below 700 hPa for both species. However, the satellite retrievals below this height are strongly influenced by the a priori data; hence, they are less reliable than at, e.g. 500 hPa. CO is, on average, underestimated by the global model, while O-3 tends to be overestimated during winter, and underestimated during summer. A regional CTM is run with (a) the validated monthly climatological LBCs from the global model; (b) dynamical LBCs from the global model; and (c) constant LBCs based on in situ ground observations near the domain boundary. The results are validated against independent satellite retrievals from the Aqua-AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) sensor at 500 hPa, and against in situ ground observations from the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) network. It is found that (i) the use of LBCs from the global model gives reliable in-domain results for O-3 and CO at 500 hPa. Taking AIRS retrievals as a reference, the use of these LBCs substantially improves spatial pattern correlations in the free troposphere as compared to results obtained with fixed LBCs based on ground observations. Also, the magnitude of the bias is reduced by the new LBCs for both trace gases. This demonstrates that the validation methodology based on using satellite observations at the domain boundary is sufficiently robust in the free troposphere. (ii) The impact of the LBCs on ground concentrations is significant only at locations in close proximity to the domain boundary. As the satellite data near the ground mainly reflect the a priori estimate used in the retrieval procedure, they are of little use for evaluating the effect of LBCs on ground concentrations. Rather, the evaluation of ground-level concentrations needs to rely on in situ ground observations. (iii) The improvements of dynamic over climatological LBCs become most apparent when using accumulated ozone over threshold 40 ppb (AOT40) as a metric. Also, when focusing on ground observations taken near the inflow boundary of the model domain, one finds that the use of dynamical LBCs yields a more accurate representation of the seasonal variation, as well as of the variability of the trace gas concentrations on shorter timescales.

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  • 3. Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Coupling aerosol optics to the MATCH (v5.5.0) chemical transport model and the SALSA (v1) aerosol microphysics module2016In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 1803-1826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new aerosol-optics model is implemented in which realistic morphologies and mixing states are assumed, especially for black carbon particles. The model includes both external and internal mixing of all chemical species, it treats externally mixed black carbon as fractal aggregates, and it accounts for inhomogeneous internal mixing of black carbon by use of a novel "core-grey-shell" model. Simulated results of aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical depth, backscattering coefficients and the Angstrom exponent, as well as radiative fluxes are computed with the new optics model and compared with results from an older optics-model version that treats all particles as externally mixed homogeneous spheres. The results show that using a more detailed description of particle morphology and mixing state impacts the aerosol optical properties to a degree of the same order of magnitude as the effects of aerosol-microphysical processes. For instance, the aerosol optical depth computed for two cases in 2007 shows a relative difference between the two optics models that varies over the European region between 28 and 18 %, while the differences caused by the inclusion or omission of the aerosol-microphysical processes range from 50 to 37 %. This is an important finding, suggesting that a simple optics model coupled to a chemical transport model can introduce considerable errors affecting radiative fluxes in chemistry-climate models, compromising comparisons of model results with remote sensing observations of aerosols, and impeding the assimilation of satellite products for aerosols into chemical-transport models.

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  • 4. Balaji, Venkatramani
    et al.
    Maisonnave, Eric
    Zadeh, Niki
    Lawrence, Bryan N.
    Biercamp, Joachim
    Fladrich, Uwe
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Aloisio, Giovanni
    Benson, Rusty
    Caubel, Arnaud
    Durachta, Jeffrey
    Foujols, Marie-Alice
    Lister, Grenville
    Mocavero, Silvia
    Underwood, Seth
    Wright, Garrett
    CPMIP: measurements of real computational performance of Earth system models in CMIP62017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 5. Baranizadeh, Elham
    et al.
    Murphy, Benjamin N.
    Julin, Jan
    Falahat, Saeed
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Reddington, Carly L.
    Arola, Antti
    Ahlm, Lars
    Mikkonen, Santtu
    Fountoukis, Christos
    Patoulias, David
    Minikin, Andreas
    Hamburger, Thomas
    Laaksonen, Ari
    Pandis, Spyros N.
    Vehkamaki, Hanna
    Lehtinen, Kari E. J.
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Implementation of state-of-the-art ternary new-particle formation scheme to the regional chemical transport model PMCAMx-UF in Europe2016In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 2741-2754Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 6.
    Belusic, Danijel
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    de Vries, Hylke
    Dobler, Andreas
    Landgren, Oskar
    Lind, Petter
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Lindstedt, David
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Pedersen, Rasmus A.
    Carlos Sanchez-Perrino, Juan
    Toivonen, Erika
    van Ulft, Bert
    Wang, Fuxing
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Andrae, Ulf
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Batrak, Yurii
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Lenderink, Geert
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Pietikainen, Joni-Pekka
    Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    van Meijgaard, Erik
    Wu, Minchao
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    HCLIM38: a flexible regional climate model applicable for different climate zones from coarse to convection-permitting scales2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1311-1333Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Berg, Peter
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Bosshard, Thomas
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Yang, Wei
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Zimmermann, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    MIdASv0.2.1-MultI-scale bias AdjuStment2022In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 15, no 15, p. 6165-6180Article in journal (Refereed)
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    MIdASv0.2.1– MultI-scale bias AdjuStment
  • 8.
    Berg, Peter
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Impacts of using spectral nudging on regional climate model RCA4 simulations of the Arctic2013In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 849-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4 is investigated for the Arctic CORDEX (COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment) region, with an emphasis on its suitability to be coupled to a regional ocean and sea ice model. Large biases in mean sea level pressure (MSLP) are identified, with pronounced too-high pressure centred over the North Pole in summer of over 5 hPa, and too-low pressure in winter of a similar magnitude. These lead to biases in the surface winds, which will potentially lead to strong sea ice biases in a future coupled system. The large-scale circulation is believed to be the major reason for the biases, and an implementation of spectral nudging is applied to remedy the problems by constraining the large-scale components of the driving fields within the interior domain. It is found that the spectral nudging generally corrects for the MSLP and wind biases, while not significantly affecting other variables, such as surface radiative components, two-metre temperature and precipitation.

  • 9. Blazica, V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Zagar, N.
    The impact of periodization methods on the kinetic energy spectra for limited-area numerical weather prediction models2015In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the comparison of the most common periodization methods used to obtain spectral fields of limited-area models for numerical weather prediction. The focus is on the impact that the methods have on the spectra of the fields, which are used for verification and tuning of the models. A simplified model is applied with random fields that obey a known kinetic energy spectrum. The periodization methods under consideration are detrending, the discrete cosine transform and the application of an extension zone. For the extension zone, three versions are applied: the Boyd method, the ALADIN method and the HIRLAM method. The results show that detrending and the discrete cosine transform have little impact on the spectra, as does the Boyd method for extension zone. For the ALADIN and HIRLAM methods, the impact depends on the width of the extension zone - the wider the zone, the more artificial energy and the larger impact on the spectra. The width of the extension zone correlates to the modifications in the shape of the spectra as well as to the amplitudes of the additional energy in the spectra.

  • 10. Boone, Aaron
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Gollvik, Stefan
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Napoly, Adrien
    Jarlan, Lionel
    Brun, Eric
    Decharme, Bertrand
    The interactions between soil-biosphere-atmosphere land surface model with a multi-energy balance (ISBA-MEB) option in SURFEXv8-Part 1: Model description2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 843-872Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 11. Ciarelli, Giancarlo
    et al.
    Theobald, Mark R.
    Vivanco, Marta G.
    Beekmann, Matthias
    Aas, Wenche
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Manders-Groot, Astrid
    Couvidat, Florian
    Mircea, Mihaela
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Mar, Kathleen
    Raffort, Valentin
    Roustan, Yelva
    Pay, Maria-Teresa
    Schaap, Martijn
    Kranenburg, Richard
    Adani, Mario
    Briganti, Gino
    Cappelletti, Andrea
    D'Isidoro, Massimo
    Cuvelier, Cornelis
    Cholakian, Arineh
    Bessagnet, Bertrand
    Wind, Peter
    Colette, Augustin
    Trends of inorganic and organic aerosols and precursor gases in Europe: insights from the EURODELTA multi-model experiment over the 1990-2010 period2019In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 4923-4954Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 12. Clusius, Petri
    et al.
    Xavier, Carlton
    Pichelstorfer, Lukas
    Zhou, Putian
    Olenius, Tinja
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Roldin, Pontus
    Boy, Michael
    Atmospherically Relevant Chemistry and Aerosol box model - ARCA box (version 1.2)2022In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 15, no 18, p. 7257-7286Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Atmospherically Relevant Chemistry and Aerosol box model - ARCA box (version 1.2)
  • 13. Colette, Augustin
    et al.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Manders, Astrid
    Mar, Kathleen
    Mircea, Mihaela
    Pay, Maria-Teresa
    Raffort, Valentin
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    Cuvelier, Cornelius
    Adani, Mario
    Bessagnet, Bertrand
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Briganti, Gino
    Butler, Tim
    Cappelletti, Andrea
    Couvidat, Florian
    D'Isidoro, Massimo
    Doumbia, Thierno
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Granier, Claire
    Heyes, Chris
    Klimont, Zig
    Ojha, Narendra
    Otero, Noelia
    Schaap, Martijn
    Sindelarova, Katarina
    Stegehuis, Annemiek I.
    Roustan, Yelva
    Vautard, Robert
    van Meijgaard, Erik
    Vivanco, Marta Garcia
    Wind, Peter
    EURODELTA-Trends, a multi-model experiment of air quality hindcast in Europe over 1990-20102017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 3255-3276Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 14. Demory, Marie-Estelle
    et al.
    Berthou, Segolene
    Fernandez, Jesus
    Sorland, Silje L.
    Brogli, Roman
    Roberts, Malcolm J.
    Beyerle, Urs
    Seddon, Jon
    Haarsma, Rein
    Schar, Christoph
    Buonomo, Erasmo
    Christensen, Ole B.
    Ciarlo, James M.
    Fealy, Rowan
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Peano, Daniele
    Putrasahan, Dian
    Roberts, Christopher D.
    Senan, Retish
    Steger, Christian
    Teichmann, Claas
    Vautard, Robert
    European daily precipitation according to EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) and high-resolution global climate models (GCMs) from the High-Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP)2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 5485-5506Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 15.
    Doescher, Ralf
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Acosta, Mario
    Alessandri, Andrea
    Anthoni, Peter
    Arsouze, Thomas
    Bergman, Tommi
    Bernardello, Raffaele
    Boussetta, Souhail
    Caron, Louis-Philippe
    Carver, Glenn
    Castrillo, Miguel
    Catalano, Franco
    Cvijanovic, Ivana
    Davini, Paolo
    Dekker, Evelien
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.
    Docquier, David
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Echevarria, Pablo
    Fladrich, Uwe
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Fuentes Franco, Ramon
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Groger, Matthias
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hardenberg, Jost, V
    Hieronymus, Jenny
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Karami, Pasha
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Makkonen, Risto
    Massonnet, Francois
    Menegoz, Martin
    Miller, Paul A.
    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo
    Nieradzik, Lars
    van Noije, Twan
    Nolan, Paul
    O'Donnell, Declan
    Ollinaho, Pirkka
    van den Oord, Gijs
    Ortega, Pablo
    Tinto Prims, Oriol
    Ramos, Arthur
    Reerink, Thomas
    Rousset, Clement
    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan
    Le Sager, Philippe
    Schmith, Torben
    Schrodner, Roland
    Serva, Federico
    Sicardi, Valentina
    Madsen, Marianne Sloth
    Smith, Benjamin
    Tian, Tian
    Tourigny, Etienne
    Uotila, Petteri
    Vancoppenolle, Martin
    Wang, Shiyu
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Warlind, David
    Willen, Ulrika
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Yang, Shuting
    Yepes-Arbos, Xavier
    Zhang, Qiong
    The EC-Earth3 Earth system model for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 62022In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 2973-3020Article in journal (Refereed)
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    The EC-Earth3 Earth system model for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6
  • 16.
    Eliasson, Salomon
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    van Meijgaard, Erik
    Meirink, Jan Fokke
    Stengel, Martin
    Willén, Ulrika
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    The Cloud_cci simulator v1.0 for the Cloud_cci climate data record and its application to a global and a regional climate model2019In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 829-847Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 17.
    Eliasson, Salomon
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Willén, Ulrika
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    A simulator for the CLARA-A2 cloud climate data record and its application to assess EC-Earth polar cloudiness2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 297-314Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 18. Eyring, Veronika
    et al.
    Bock, Lisa
    Lauer, Axel
    Righi, Mattia
    Schlund, Manuel
    Andela, Bouwe
    Arnone, Enrico
    Bellprat, Omar
    Broetz, Bjorn
    Caron, Louis-Philippe
    Carvalhais, Nuno
    Cionni, Irene
    Cortesi, Nicola
    Crezee, Bas
    Davin, Edouard L.
    Davini, Paolo
    Debeire, Kevin
    de Mora, Lee
    Deser, Clara
    Docquier, David
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Earnshaw, Paul
    Ehbrecht, Carsten
    Gier, Bettina K.
    Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube
    Goodman, Paul
    Hagemann, Stefan
    Hardiman, Steven
    Hassler, Birgit
    Hunter, Alasdair
    Kadow, Christopher
    Kindermann, Stephan
    Koirala, Sujan
    Koldunov, Nikolay
    Lejeune, Quentin
    Lembo, Valerio
    Lovato, Tomas
    Lucarini, Valerio
    Massonnet, Francois
    Mueller, Benjamin
    Pandde, Amarjiit
    Perez-Zanon, Nuria
    Phillips, Adam
    Predoi, Valeriu
    Russell, Joellen
    Sellar, Alistair
    Serva, Federico
    Stacke, Tobias
    Swaminathan, Ranjini
    Torralba, Veronica
    Vegas-Regidor, Javier
    von Hardenberg, Jost
    Weigel, Katja
    Zimmermann, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0-an extended set of large-scale diagnostics for quasi-operational and comprehensive evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 3383-3438Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Earth system model evaluation tool
  • 19. Eyring, Veronika
    et al.
    Righi, Mattia
    Lauer, Axel
    Evaldsson, Martin
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Wenzel, Sabrina
    Jones, Colin
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Anav, Alessandro
    Andrews, Oliver
    Cionni, Irene
    Davin, Edouard L.
    Deser, Clara
    Ehbrecht, Carsten
    Friedlingstein, Pierre
    Gleckler, Peter
    Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk
    Hagemann, Stefan
    Juckes, Martin
    Kindermann, Stephan
    Krasting, John
    Kunert, Dominik
    Levine, Richard
    Loew, Alexander
    Maekelae, Jarmo
    Martin, Gill
    Mason, Erik
    Phillips, Adam S.
    Read, Simon
    Rio, Catherine
    Roehrig, Romain
    Senftleben, Daniel
    Sterl, Andreas
    van Ulft, Lambertus H.
    Walton, Jeremy
    Wang, Shiyu
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Williams, Keith D.
    ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP2016In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 1747-1802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected essential climate variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern Ocean processes, continental dry biases, and soil hydrology-climate interactions, as well as atmospheric CO2 budgets, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting such activities within CMIP and at individual modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the user.

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  • 20. Groeger, Matthias
    et al.
    Placke, Manja
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Boergel, Florian
    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Dutheil, Cyril
    Graewe, Ulf
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Neumann, Thomas
    Radtke, Hagen
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Su, Jian
    Vali, Germo
    The Baltic Sea Model Intercomparison Project (BMIP) - a platform for model development, evaluation, and uncertainty assessment2022In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 8613-8638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    The Baltic Sea Model Intercomparison Projext
  • 21. Gutowski, William J., Jr.
    et al.
    Giorgi, Filippo
    Timbal, Bertrand
    Frigon, Anne
    Jacob, Daniela
    Kang, Hyun-Suk
    Raghavan, Krishnan
    Lee, Boram
    Lennard, Christopher
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    O'Rourke, Eleanor
    Rixen, Michel
    Solman, Silvina
    Stephenson, Tannecia
    Tangang, Fredolin
    WCRP COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX): a diagnostic MIP for CMIP62016In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 4087-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 22. Haarsma, Rein
    et al.
    Acosta, Mario
    Bakhshi, Rena
    Bretonniere, Pierre-Antoine
    Caron, Louis-Philippe
    Castrillo, Miguel
    Corti, Susanna
    Davini, Paolo
    Exarchou, Eleftheria
    Fabiano, Federico
    Fladrich, Uwe
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Fuentes Franco, Ramon
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Garcia-Serrano, Javier
    von Hardenberg, Jost
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Levine, Xavier
    Meccia, Virna Loana
    van Noije, Twan
    van den Oord, Gijs
    Palmeiro, Froila M.
    Rodrigo, Mario
    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan
    Le Sager, Philippe
    Tourigny, Etienne
    Wang, Shiyu
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    van Weele, Michiel
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    HighResMIP versions of EC-Earth: EC-Earth3P and EC-Earth3P-HR - description, model computational performance and basic validation2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 3507-3527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    HighResMIP versions of EC-Earth
  • 23. Haarsma, Reindert J.
    et al.
    Roberts, Malcolm J.
    Vidale, Pier Luigi
    Senior, Catherine A.
    Bellucci, Alessio
    Bao, Qing
    Chang, Ping
    Corti, Susanna
    Fuckar, Neven S.
    Guemas, Virginie
    von Hardenberg, Jost
    Hazeleger, Wilco
    Kodama, Chihiro
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Leung, L. Ruby
    Lu, Jian
    Luo, Jing-Jia
    Mao, Jiafu
    Mizielinski, Matthew S.
    Mizuta, Ryo
    Nobre, Paulo
    Satoh, Masaki
    Scoccimarro, Enrico
    Semmler, Tido
    Small, Justin
    von Storch, Jin-Song
    High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP62016In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 4185-4208Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 24.
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The sea level simulator v1.0: a model for integration of mean sea level change and sea level extremes into a joint probabilistic framework2023In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 2343-2354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    The sea level simulator v1.0: a model for integration of mean sea level change and sea level extremes into a joint probabilistic framework
  • 25.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Dieterich, Christian
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Fransner, Filippa
    Groger, Matthias
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Liu, Ye
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Pemberton, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Ljungemyr, Patrik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nygren, Petter
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Falahat, Saeed
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nord, Adam
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Jönsson, Anette
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lake, Irene
    SMHI, Core Services. SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Doos, Kristofer
    Hieronymus, Magnus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Dietze, Heiner
    Loeptien, Ulrike
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Westerlund, Antti
    Tuomi, Laura
    Haapala, Jari
    Nemo-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-based ocean model for the Baltic and North seas - research and operational applications2019In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 363-386Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Tjernstrom, Michael
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    L'Ecuyer, Tristan
    Vertical structure of cloud radiative heating in the tropics: confronting the EC-Earth v3.3.1/3P model with satellite observations2021In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 4087-4101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the coupling of clouds to large-scale circulation is one of the grand challenges for the global climate research community. In this context, realistically modelling the vertical structure of cloud radiative heating (CRH) and/or cooling in Earth system models is a key premise to understand this coupling. Here, we evaluate CRH in two versions of the European Community Earth System Model (EC-Earth) using retrievals derived from the combined radar and lidar data from the CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellites. One model version is also used with two different horizontal resolutions. Our study evaluates large-scale intraseasonal variability in the vertical structure of CRH and cloud properties and investigates the changes in CRH during different phases of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a process that dominates the interannual climate variability in the tropics. EC-Earth generally captures both the intraseasonal and meridional pattern of variability in CRH over the convectively active and stratocumulus regions and the CRH during the positive and negative phases of ENSO. However, two key differences between model simulations and satellite retrievals emerge. First, the magnitude of CRH, in the upper troposphere, over the convectively active zones is up to twice as large in the models compared to the satellite data. Further dissection of net CRH into its shortwave and longwave components reveals noticeable differences in their vertical structure. The shortwave component of the radiative heating is overestimated by all model versions in the lower-most troposphere and underestimated in the middle troposphere. These over- and underestimates of shortwave heating are partly compensated by an overestimate of longwave cooling in the lowermost troposphere and heating in the middle troposphere. The biases in CRH can be traced back to disagreement in cloud amount and cloud water content. There is no noticeable improvement of CRH by increasing the horizontal resolution in the model alone. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating models with satellite observations that resolve the vertical structure of clouds and cloud properties.

  • 27. Karna, Tuomas
    et al.
    Ljungemyr, Patrik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Falahat, Saeed
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Ringgaard, Ida
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Korabel, Vasily
    Murawski, Jens
    Maljutenko, Ilja
    Lindenthal, Anja
    Jandt-Scheelke, Simon
    Verjovkina, Svetlana
    Lorkowski, Ina
    Lagemaa, Priidik
    She, Jun
    Tuomi, Laura
    Nord, Adam
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Huess, Vibeke
    Nemo-Nordic 2.0: operational marine forecast model for the Baltic Sea2021In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 5731-5749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Nemo-Nordic 2.0: operational marine forecast model for the Baltic Sea
  • 28. Karypidou, Maria Chara
    et al.
    Sobolowski, Stefan Pieter
    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Katragkou, Eleni
    The impact of lateral boundary forcing in the CORDEX-Africa ensemble oversouthern Africa2023In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 1887-1908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    The impact of lateral boundary forcing in the CORDEX-Africa ensemble oversouthern Africa
  • 29. Kotlarski, S.
    et al.
    Keuler, K.
    Christensen, O. B.
    Colette, A.
    Deque, M.
    Gobiet, A.
    Goergen, K.
    Jacob, D.
    Luethi, D.
    van Meijgaard, E.
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Schaer, C.
    Teichmann, C.
    Vautard, R.
    Warrach-Sagi, K.
    Wulfmeyer, V.
    Regional climate modeling on European scales: a joint standard evaluation of the EURO-CORDEX RCM ensemble2014In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1297-1333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EURO-CORDEX is an international climate downscaling initiative that aims to provide high-resolution climate scenarios for Europe. Here an evaluation of the ERA-Interim-driven EURO-CORDEX regional climate model (RCM) ensemble is presented. The study documents the performance of the individual models in representing the basic spatiotemporal patterns of the European climate for the period 1989-2008. Model evaluation focuses on near-surface air temperature and precipitation, and uses the E-OBS data set as observational reference. The ensemble consists of 17 simulations carried out by seven different models at grid resolutions of 12 km (nine experiments) and 50 km (eight experiments). Several performance metrics computed from monthly and seasonal mean values are used to assess model performance over eight subdomains of the European continent. Results are compared to those for the ERA40-driven ENSEMBLES simulations. The analysis confirms the ability of RCMs to capture the basic features of the European climate, including its variability in space and time. But it also identifies nonnegligible deficiencies of the simulations for selected metrics, regions and seasons. Seasonally and regionally averaged temperature biases are mostly smaller than 1.5 degrees C, while precipitation biases are typically located in the +/- 40% range. Some bias characteristics, such as a predominant cold and wet bias in most seasons and over most parts of Europe and a warm and dry summer bias over southern and southeastern Europe reflect common model biases. For seasonal mean quantities averaged over large European subdomains, no clear benefit of an increased spatial resolution (12 vs. 50 km) can be identified. The bias ranges of the EURO-CORDEX ensemble mostly correspond to those of the ENSEMBLES simulations, but some improvements in model performance can be identified (e. g., a less pronounced southern European warm summer bias). The temperature bias spread across different configurations of one individual model can be of a similar magnitude as the spread across different models, demonstrating a strong influence of the specific choices in physical parameterizations and experimental setup on model performance. Based on a number of simply reproducible metrics, the present study quantifies the currently achievable accuracy of RCMs used for regional climate simulations over Europe and provides a quality standard for future model developments.

  • 30. Marecal, V.
    et al.
    Peuch, V. -H
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, S.
    Arteta, J.
    Beekmann, M.
    Benedictow, A.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bessagnet, B.
    Cansado, A.
    Cheroux, F.
    Colette, A.
    Coman, A.
    Curier, R. L.
    van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    Drouin, A.
    Elbern, H.
    Emili, E.
    Engelen, R. J.
    Eskes, H. J.
    Foret, G.
    Friese, E.
    Gauss, M.
    Giannaros, C.
    Guth, J.
    Joly, M.
    Jaumouille, E.
    Josse, B.
    Kadygrov, N.
    Kaiser, J. W.
    Krajsek, K.
    Kuenen, J.
    Kumar, U.
    Liora, N.
    Lopez, E.
    Malherbe, L.
    Martinez, I.
    Melas, D.
    Meleux, F.
    Menut, L.
    Moinat, P.
    Morales, T.
    Parmentier, J.
    Piacentini, A.
    Plu, M.
    Poupkou, A.
    Queguiner, S.
    Robertson, Lennart
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Rouil, L.
    Schaap, M.
    Segers, A.
    Sofiev, M.
    Tarasson, L.
    Thomas, Manu Anna
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Timmermans, R.
    Valdebenito, A.
    van Velthoven, P.
    van Versendaal, R.
    Vira, J.
    Ung, A.
    A regional air quality forecasting system over Europe: the MACC-II daily ensemble production2015In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 2777-2813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the pre-operational analysis and forecasting system developed during MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and continued in the MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate: Interim Implementation) European projects to provide air quality services for the European continent. This system is based on seven state-of-the art models developed and run in Europe (CHIMERE, EMEP, EURAD-IM, LOTOS-EUROS, MATCH, MOCAGE and SILAM). These models are used to calculate multi-model ensemble products. The paper gives an overall picture of its status at the end of MACCII (summer 2014) and analyses the performance of the multi-model ensemble. The MACC-II system provides daily 96 h forecasts with hourly outputs of 10 chemical species/aerosols (O-3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, NO, NH3, total NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and PAN + PAN precursors) over eight vertical levels from the surface to 5 km height. The hourly analysis at the surface is done a posteriori for the past day using a selection of representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. The performance of the system is assessed daily, weekly and every 3 months (seasonally) through statistical indicators calculated using the available representative air quality data from European monitoring stations. Results for a case study show the ability of the ensemble median to forecast regional ozone pollution events. The seasonal performances of the individual models and of the multi-model ensemble have been monitored since September 2009 for ozone, NO2 and PM10. The statistical indicators for ozone in summer 2014 show that the ensemble median gives on average the best performances compared to the seven models. There is very little degradation of the scores with the forecast day but there is a marked diurnal cycle, similarly to the individual models, that can be related partly to the prescribed diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions in the models. During summer 2014, the diurnal ozone maximum is underestimated by the ensemble median by about 4 mu g m(-3) on average. Locally, during the studied ozone episodes, the maxima from the ensemble median are often lower than observations by 30-50 mu g m(-3). Overall, ozone scores are generally good with average values for the normalised indicators of 0.14 for the modified normalised mean bias and of 0.30 for the fractional gross error. Tests have also shown that the ensemble median is robust to reduction of ensemble size by one, that is, if predictions are unavailable from one model. Scores are also discussed for PM10 for winter 2013-1014. There is an underestimation of most models leading the ensemble median to a mean bias of 4.5 mu g m(-3). The ensemble median fractional gross error is larger for PM10 (similar to 0.52) than for ozone and the correlation is lower (similar to 0.35 for PM10 and similar to 0.54 for ozone). This is related to a larger spread of the seven model scores for PM10 than for ozone linked to different levels of complexity of aerosol representation in the individual models. In parallel, a scientific analysis of the results of the seven models and of the ensemble is also done over the Mediterranean area because of the specificity of its meteorology and emissions. The system is robust in terms of the production availability. Major efforts have been done in MACC-II towards the operationalisation of all its components. Foreseen developments and research for improving its performances are discussed in the conclusion.

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  • 31. Napoly, Adrien
    et al.
    Boone, Aaron
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Gollvik, Stefan
    SMHI.
    Martin, Eric
    Seferian, Roland
    Carrer, Dominique
    Decharme, Bertrand
    Jarlan, Lionel
    The interactions between soil-biosphere-atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model multi-energy balance (MEB) option in SURFEXv8-Part 2: Introduction of a litter formulation and model evaluation for local-scale forest sites2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1621-1644Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 32.
    Pemberton, Per
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Löptien, Ulrike
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hordoir, Robinson
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Haapala, Jari
    Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea2017In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 3105-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33. Righi, Mattia
    et al.
    Andela, Bouwe
    Eyring, Veronika
    Lauer, Axel
    Predoi, Valeriu
    Schlund, Manuel
    Vegas-Regidor, Javier
    Bock, Lisa
    Broetz, Bjorn
    de Mora, Lee
    Diblen, Faruk
    Dreyer, Laura
    Drost, Niels
    Earnshaw, Paul
    Hassler, Birgit
    Koldunov, Nikolay
    Little, Bill
    Tomas, Saskia Loosveldt
    Zimmermann, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0-technical overview2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1179-1199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34. Schlund, Manuel
    et al.
    Hassler, Birgit
    Lauer, Axel
    Andela, Bouwe
    Joeckel, Patrick
    Kazeroni, Remi
    Tomas, Saskia Loosveldt
    Medeiros, Brian
    Predoi, Valeriu
    Senesi, Stephane
    Servonnat, Jerome
    Stacke, Tobias
    Vegas-Regidor, Javier
    Zimmermann, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Eyring, Veronika
    Evaluation of native Earth system model output with ESMValTool v2.6.02023In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 315-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Evaluation of native Earth system model output with ESMValTool v2.6.0
  • 35. Simpson, David
    et al.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Briolat, Alan
    Imhof, Hannah
    Johansson, John
    Priestley, Michael
    Valdebenito, Alvaro
    GenChem v1.0-a chemical pre-processing and testing system for atmospheric modelling2020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 6447-6465Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 36. Streffing, Jan
    et al.
    Sidorenko, Dmitry
    Semmler, Tido
    Zampieri, Lorenzo
    Scholz, Patrick
    Andres-Martinez, Miguel
    Koldunov, Nikolay
    Rackow, Thomas
    Kjellsson, Joakim
    Goessling, Helge
    Athanase, Marylou
    Wang, Qiang
    Hegewald, Jan
    Sein, Dmitry, V
    Mu, Longjiang
    Fladrich, Uwe
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Barbi, Dirk
    Gierz, Paul
    Danilov, Sergey
    Juricke, Stephan
    Lohmann, Gerrit
    Jung, Thomas
    AWI-CM3 coupled climate model: description and evaluation experiments for a prototype post-CMIP6 model2022In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 6399-6427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    AWI-CM3coupled climate model: description and evaluation experiments for a prototype post-CMIP6 model
  • 37.
    Thomas, Manu Anna
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Kahnert, Michael
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Kokkola, H.
    Hansson, Ulf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Jones, Colin
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Integration of prognostic aerosol-cloud interactions in a chemistry transport model coupled offline to a regional climate model2015In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1885-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce uncertainties and hence to obtain a better estimate of aerosol (direct and indirect) radiative forcing, next generation climate models aim for a tighter coupling between chemistry transport models and regional climate models and a better representation of aerosol-cloud interactions. In this study, this coupling is done by first forcing the Rossby Center regional climate model (RCA4) with ERA-Interim lateral boundaries and sea surface temperature (SST) using the standard cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) formulation (hereafter, referred to as the 'stand-alone RCA4 version' or 'CTRL' simulation). In the stand-alone RCA4 version, CDNCs are constants distinguishing only between land and ocean surface. The meteorology from this simulation is then used to drive the chemistry transport model, Multiple-scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), which is coupled online with the aerosol dynamics model, Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications (SALSA). CDNC fields obtained from MATCH-SALSA are then fed back into a new RCA4 simulation. In this new simulation (referred to as 'MOD' simulation), all parameters remain the same as in the first run except for the CDNCs provided by MATCH-SALSA. Simulations are carried out with this model setup for the period 2005-2012 over Europe, and the differences in cloud microphysical properties and radiative fluxes as a result of local CDNC changes and possible model responses are analysed. Our study shows substantial improvements in cloud microphysical properties with the input of the MATCH-SALSA derived 3-D CDNCs compared to the stand-alone RCA4 version. This model setup improves the spatial, seasonal and vertical distribution of CDNCs with a higher concentration observed over central Europe during boreal summer (JJA) and over eastern Europe and Russia during winter (DJF). Realistic cloud droplet radii (CD radii) values have been simulated with the maxima reaching 13 mu m, whereas in the stand-alone version the values reached only 5 mu m. A substantial improvement in the distribution of the cloud liquid-water paths (CLWP) was observed when compared to the satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the boreal summer months. The median and standard deviation values from the 'MOD' simulation are closer to observations than those obtained using the stand-alone RCA4 version. These changes resulted in a significant decrease in the total annual mean net fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) by -5 W m(-2) over the domain selected in the study. The TOA net fluxes from the 'MOD' simulation show a better agreement with the retrievals from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument. The aerosol indirect effects are estimated in the 'MOD' simulation in comparison to the pre-industrial aerosol emissions (1900). Our simulations estimated the domain averaged annual mean total radiative forcing of -0.64 W m(-2) with a larger contribution from the first indirect aerosol effect (-0.57 W m(-2)) than from the second indirect aerosol effect (-0.14 W m(-2)).

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  • 38.
    Thomas, Manu
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Roberts, Malcolm
    Roberts, Christopher
    Lohmann, Katja
    A statistical and process-oriented evaluation of cloud radiative effects in high-resolution global models2019In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1679-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 39.
    Thomas, Manu
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    L'Ecuyer, Tristan
    Wang, Shiyu
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Snowfall distribution and its response to the Arctic Oscillation: an evaluation of HighResMIP models in the Arctic using CPR/CloudSat observations2019In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 3759-3772Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 40. Tian, Tian
    et al.
    Yang, Shuting
    Karami, Pasha
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Massonnet, Francois
    Kruschke, Tim
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Benefits of sea ice initialization for the interannual-to-decadal climate prediction skill in the Arctic in EC-Earth32021In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 4283-4305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial part of Arctic climate predictability at interannual timescales stems from the knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. Among all sea ice properties, its volume, which is a product of sea ice concentration (SIC) and thickness (SIT), is the most responsive parameter to climate change. However, the majority of climate prediction systems are only assimilating the observed SIC due to lack of long-term reliable global observation of SIT. In this study, the EC-Earth3 Climate Prediction System with anomaly initialization to ocean, SIC and SIT states is developed. In order to evaluate the regional benefits of specific initialized variables, three sets of retrospective ensemble prediction experiments are performed with different initialization strategies: ocean only; ocean plus SIC; and ocean plus SIC and SIT initialization. In the Atlantic Arctic, the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) and Barents seas are the two most skilful regions in SIC prediction for up to 5-6 lead years with ocean initialization; there are re-emerging skills for SIC in the Barents and Kara seas in lead years 7-9 coinciding with improved skills of sea surface temperature (SST), reflecting the impact of SIC initialization on ocean-atmosphere interactions for interannual-to-decadal timescales. For the year 2-9 average, the region with significant skill for SIT is confined to the central Arctic Ocean, covered by multi-year sea ice (CAO-MYI). Winter preconditioning with SIT initialization increases the skill for September SIC in the eastern Arctic (e.g. Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas) and in turn improve the skill of air surface temperature locally and further expanded over land. SIT initialization outperforms the other initialization methods in improving SIT prediction in the Pacific Arctic (e.g. East Siberian and Beaufort seas) in the first few lead years. Our results suggest that as the climate warming continues and the central Arctic Ocean might become seasonal ice free in the future, the controlling mechanism for decadal predictability may thus shift from sea ice volume to ocean-driven processes.

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  • 41. van Noije, Twan
    et al.
    Bergman, Tommi
    Le Sager, Philippe
    O'Donnell, Declan
    Makkonen, Risto
    Goncalves-Ageitos, Maria
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Fladrich, Uwe
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    von Hardenberg, Jost
    Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka
    Korhonen, Hannele
    Laakso, Anton
    Myriokefalitakis, Stelios
    Ollinaho, Pirkka
    Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez
    Reerink, Thomas
    Schrodner, Roland
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Yang, Shuting
    EC-Earth3-AerChem: a global climate model with interactive aerosols and atmospheric chemistry participating in CMIP62021In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 5637-5668Article in journal (Refereed)
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    EC-Earth3-AerChem: a global climate model with interactive aerosols and atmospheric chemistry participating in CMIP6
  • 42. Weigel, Katja
    et al.
    Bock, Lisa
    Gier, Bettina K.
    Lauer, Axel
    Righi, Mattia
    Schlund, Manuel
    Adeniyi, Kemisola
    Andela, Bouwe
    Arnone, Enrico
    Berg, Peter
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Caron, Louis-Philippe
    Cionni, Irene
    Corti, Susanna
    Drost, Niels
    Hunter, Alasdair
    Lledo, Llorenc
    Mohr, Christian Wilhelm
    Pacal, Aytac
    Perez-Zanon, Nuria
    Predoi, Valeriu
    Sandstad, Marit
    Sillmann, Jana
    Sterl, Andreas
    Vegas-Regidor, Javier
    von Hardenberg, Jost
    Eyring, Veronika
    Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0-diagnostics for extreme events, regional and impact evaluation, and analysis of Earth system models in CMIP2021In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 3159-3184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper complements a series of now four publications that document the release of the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0. It describes new diagnostics on the hydrological cycle, extreme events, impact assessment, regional evaluations, and ensemble member selection. The diagnostics are developed by a large community of scientists aiming to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of Earth system models (ESMs) which are participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). The second release of this tool aims to support the evaluation of ESMs participating in CMIP Phase 6 (CMIP6). Furthermore, datasets from other models and observations can be analysed. The diagnostics for the hydrological cycle include several precipitation and drought indices, as well as hydroclimatic intensity and indices from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The latter are also used for identification of extreme events, for impact assessment, and to project and characterize the risks and impacts of climate change for natural and socio-economic systems. Further impact assessment diagnostics are included to compute daily temperature ranges and capacity factors for wind and solar energy generation. Regional scales can be analysed with new diagnostics implemented for selected regions and stochastic downscaling. ESMValTool v2.0 also includes diagnostics to analyse large multi-model ensembles including grouping and selecting ensemble members by userspecified criteria. Here, we present examples for their capabilities based on the well-established CMIP Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset.

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    Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 – diagnostics for extreme events, regional and impact evaluation, and analysis of Earth system models in CMIP
  • 43.
    Wyser, Klaus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Fladrich, Uwe
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Fuentes Franco, Ramon
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Karami, Pasha
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Kruschke, Tim
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    The SMHI Large Ensemble (SMHI-LENS) with EC-Earth3.3.12021In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 5781-5796Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 44.
    Wyser, Klaus
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    van Noije, Twan
    Yang, Shuting
    von Hardenberg, Jost
    O'Donnell, Declan
    Doescher, Ralf
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    On the increased climate sensitivity in the EC-Earth model from CMIP5 to CMIP62020In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 3465-3474Article in journal (Refereed)
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    On the increased climat sensitivity in the EC-Earth model from CMIP5 to CMIP6
  • 45.
    Yazgi, Daniel
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Olenius, Tinja
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    J-GAIN v1.1: a flexible tool to incorporate aerosol formation rates obtained by molecular models into large-scale models2023In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 16, no 17, p. 5237-5249Article in journal (Refereed)
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    J-GAIN v1.1: a flexible tool to incorporate aerosol formation rates obtained by molecular models into large-scale models
  • 46. Zhang, Qiong
    et al.
    Berntell, Ellen
    Axelsson, Josefine
    Chen, Jie
    Han, Zixuan
    de Nooijer, Wesley
    Lu, Zhengyao
    Li, Qiang
    Zhang, Qiang
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Yang, Shuting
    Simulating the mid-Holocene, last interglacial and mid-Pliocene climate with EC-Earth3-LR2021In: Geoscientific Model Development, ISSN 1991-959X, E-ISSN 1991-9603, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 1147-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Simulating the mid-Holocene, last interglacial and mid-Pliocene climate with EC-Earth3-LR
1 - 46 of 46
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