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  • 1. ASKNE, J
    et al.
    LEPPARANTA, M
    Thompson, Thomas
    SMHI.
    THE BOTHNIAN EXPERIMENT IN PREPARATION FOR ERS-1, 1988 (BEPERS-88) - AN OVERVIEW1992In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 13, no 13, p. 2377-2398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BEPERS-88 was an extensive field campaign on the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in sea ice remote sensing in the Baltic Sea. This experiment was performed in order to study the possibilities of using the ERS-1 satellite SAR (and radar altimeter) in connection with the brackish ice in the Baltic Sea. The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing CV-580 C/X-band SAR was flown and an extensive validation programme was carried out. The data have been used for SAR image analysis, backscatter investigations, geophysical validation of SAR over sea ice, and evaluation of the potentials of SAR in operational ice information services. The results indicate that SAR can be used to discriminate between ice and open water, classify ice types into three categories, quantify ice ridging intensity, and determine the ice drift. As an operational tool SAR is expected to be an excellent complement to NOAA imagery and ground truth.

  • 2. Bennartz, R
    et al.
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Correlation of precipitation estimates from spaceborne passive microwave sensors and weather radar imagery for BALTEX PIDCAP2003In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 723-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the evaluation of a-combined radar and passive microwave dataset obtained during the PIDCAP study of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX), where three-dimensional volumes of data from the Gotland radar were obtained timed according to the overpasses of the DMSP-satellites F10 and F13. Both satellites are 'equipped with a Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), suitable for precipitation retrievals. We compare radar precipitation estimates, convolved to the native resolution of the SSM/I, at different altitudes with polarization and scattering indices (S-85) derived from the SSM/I. For all 22 overpasses investigated here radar precipitation estimates at 3-4 km altitude correlate well with the SSM/I-derived S-85 (average correlation coefficient = 0.70). Although more directly linked to surface precipitation, polarization indices have been found to be less correlated with radar data, due to limitations inherent in the remote sensing of precipitation at higher latitudes. A stratification of the dataset into frontal and convective events revealed significant variations in these relationships for different types of precipitation events, thus reflecting different cloud microphysical processes associated with precipitation initialization. The relationship between S85 and radar rain estimates at higher altitudes varies considerably for different convective and frontal events. The sensitivity of S-85 to radar-derived rain rate ranges from 3.1 K mm(-1) h(-1) for a strong convective event to about 25 K mm(-1) h(-1) for the frontal and about 70 mm(-1) h(-1) for the small-scale convective events. For extrapolated surface precipitation estimates, sensitivities decrease to 14 mm(-1) h(-1) and 25 mm(-1) h(-1) for frontal and small-scale convective precipitation, respectively.

  • 3.
    Carlund, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Land, P
    Aerosol optical depth over the Baltic Sea derived from AERONET and SeaWiFS measurements2005In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 233-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three years of data on aerosol optical depth (tau(a)) from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea have been analysed and compared with Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data. Normally, the atmosphere over Gotland could be considered as clear, with a daily median value Of tau(a) at 500 nm of about 0.08. The median value of Angstrom's wavelength exponent (alpha) for wavelengths between 440 nm and 870 nm was 1.37, indicating that the dominant aerosol is more of a continental than of a pure maritime type. SeaWiFS GAC level 2 data on tau(a) and alpha were compared to data from the ground-based AERONET station. For the 37 cases of simultaneous satellite and ground-based measurements under cloud-free skies it was found that, on average, the value of tau(a)(865 nm) from SeaWiFS was about 0.02 higher than tau(a)(870 nm) from the AERONET station. At the same time approximate tau(a)(440 nm) from SeaWiFS was about 0.03 lower than tau(a)(440 nm) of AERONET. alpha(510, 865) from SeaWiFS was, on average, 1.2 lower than alpha(500, 870) from the AERONET measurements. These results cannot explain the very frequent occurences of negative values of normalized water-leaving radiance at 412 nm and 443 nm in the SeaWiFS reprocessing #3 data.

  • 4.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Grassl, H.
    Comparison of low brightness temperatures derived from the AVHRR thermal channels with in situ measurements in Antarctica2009In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 525-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites' Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs) represent the longest record (more than 25 years) of continuously available satellite-based thermal measurements, and have well-chosen spatial and spectral resolutions. As a consequence, these data are used extensively to develop cloud climatologies. However, for such applications, accurate calibration and intercalibration of both solar and thermal channels of the AVHRRs is necessary so as to homogenize the data obtained from the different AVHRR sensors. AVHRR thermal channels 4 and 5 are routinely used in threshold-based hierarchical decision-tree cloud detection and classification algorithms, and therefore an evaluation of the stability of these channels at low temperatures is important. In this letter, the AVHRR channel 4 and 5 brightness temperatures (BTs) are compared at five stations in Antarctica. The data for the period of June, July and August (the coldest months of every year and with minimal atmospheric influence) from 1982 to 2006 were used for the evaluations. The calibration and intercalibration of the thermal channels are found to be very robust. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) range from 2.2 to 3.4K and the correlation coefficients from 0.84 to 0.95. No apparent artefacts or artificial jumps in the BTs are visible in the data series after changes of sensors. The BTs from the thermal channels of the AVHRRs can be used for preparing cloud climatologies, as their intercalibration is found to be consistent across different afternoon satellites.

  • 5.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Moberg, Mats
    SMHI.
    THE ALGAL BLOOM IN THE BALTIC DURING JULY AND AUGUST 1991, AS OBSERVED FROM THE NOAA WEATHER-SATELLITES1994In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 963-965Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Moberg, Mats
    SMHI.
    Thompson, Thomas
    SMHI.
    REAL-TIME USE OF ERS-1 SAR IMAGERY FOR ICE SERVICE AND ICEBREAKING OPERATIONS IN THE BALTIC SEA1995In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 16, no 17, p. 3441-3458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea ice forms every winter in the Baltic Sea and several icebreakers in Sweden and Finland keep the major ports in the area open for sea-trade all the year around. Information and forecasts of the sea ice formation, drift and deformation are vital for safe and efficient winter navigation. In this respect, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is of great interest, since this technique is almost cloud independent and has potential for real-time ice mapping. The usefulness of SAR imagery for sea ice operations has been evaluated in the Baltic Sea. The imagery was used both for ice mapping, for icebreaker operations and ship routeing. Images presented onboard the icebreakers were highly appreciated and easily interpreted by the crew. The data were frequently used for ship routeing (33 per cent) of merchant vessels and for direct icebreaker assistance (53 per cent). It was concluded by several icebreaker masters that an image resolution of about 100 m was indeed enough to distinguish ridged areas and in the same time obtain a large enough geographical coverage per image.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPERATIONAL CLOUD CLASSIFICATION MODEL1989In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 10, no 4-5, p. 687-693Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Kumar, Madathiparambil Ranganathapai Ramesh
    et al.
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Levy, Gad
    Sankar, Syam
    Bakan, Stephan
    Grassl, Hartmut
    A multi-sensor climatological view of double ITCZs over the Indian Ocean2012In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0143-1161, E-ISSN 1366-5901, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 2925-2936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterize the climatological features of the double inter-tropical convergence zones (DITCZs) over the western Indian Ocean during November-December by a synergistic analysis of the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite (HOAPS III) data (1988-2005) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) A-Train data (2002-2009). We investigate rainfall, freshwater flux and cloud liquid water, cloud fraction and relative humidity over the DITCZs. In addition, the daily rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) are used to document the DITCZs during the El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) events. An analysis of the GPCP data shows that the DITCZs are clearly discernible during strong ENSO events (1997, 2002 and 2006), in sharp contrast to the DITCZs in the eastern Pacific Ocean, where they are absent during ENSOs. Further, these convergence zones on either side of the equator are of short duration, approximately 3-6 pentads during November and December. All satellite sensor data sets consistently capture the major features of DITCZs. As an accurate simulation of DITCZs in coupled global climate models remains a challenge, the results from the present study would provide a platform for evaluating these models.

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