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  • 1. Aminot, A
    et al.
    Kirkwood, D
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The QUASIMEME laboratory performance studies (1993-1995): Overview of the nutrients section1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 35, no 1-6, p. 28-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The QUASIMEME Project (1993-1996) was established to assist European laboratories to improve the data they produce in marine monitoring programmes. Through laboratory performance Studies (with six-monthly reports), workshops and expert visits the programme was fully interactive. There were five rounds of laboratory performance studies. For the nutrient section, in which about 50 laboratories took part, the reference materials distributed to the participants consisted of standard solutions of nutrients and seawater samples stabilized by autoclaving. The material included low and high concentrations typical of those encountered in coastal seawater; at least two samples with different concentrations were distributed in each round. Robust statistics were used to determine the means and standard deviations for each set of results. For inorganic nutrients, the assessment of the data for bias and precision was based mainly on a Z- and P-scoring system in which targets of +/- 6% were allocated to the high concentrations, likewise +/- 12.5% to the low concentrations. This overview discusses overall performance separately for nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, and classifies the performance of individual laboratories in each round, while maintaining their anonymity. Performance for nitrate plus nitrite and nitrite improved steadily and these determinands are now fully under control; at the end of the programme, standard deviations (SD) for nitrate plus nitrite were 0.2 mu mol l(-1) at low concentration and 0.6 mu mol l(-1) (4%) at high concentration, and for nitrite they were 0.03 mu mol l(-1) and 0.06 mu mol l(-1) (5%) respectively. Phosphate showed a somewhat stable level of performance with SD of 0.06 mu mol l(-1) and 0.10 mu mol l(-1) (10%) at low and high concentrations respectively, but this could be improved. Ammonia proved the most difficult to determine, and in spite of a substantial improvement at the beginning of the exercise, this determinand is not under control in many laboratories. At low concentrations, ammonia shows a positive bias of 0.2 mu mol l(-1) and a SD of 0.3 mu mol l(-1), while at high concentrations SD reaches 0.5 mu mol l(-1) (20%). For total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), the exercises show that only two thirds of the participants produced consistent data for TN, and less than half of them produced consistent data for TP. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Andersen, Jesper H.
    et al.
    Murray, Ciaran
    Kaartokallio, Hermanni
    Axe, Philip
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Molvaer, Jarle
    A simple method for confidence rating of eutrophication status classifications2010In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 919-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the development of a methodology for assessing confidence in ecological status classifications. The method presented here can be considered as a secondary assessment, supporting the primary assessment of eutrophication or ecological status. The confidence assessment is based on scoring the quality of the indicators on which the primary assessment is made. This represents a first step towards linking status classification with information regarding their accuracy and precision. Applied to an existing data set used for assessment of eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea (including the Kattegat and Danish Straits) we demonstrate that confidence in the assessment is Good or High in 149 out of 189 areas assessed (79%). Contrary to our expectations, assessments of the open parts of the Baltic Sea have a higher confidence than assessments of coastal waters. We also find that in open waters of the Baltic Sea, some biological indicators have a higher confidence than indicators representing physical-chemical conditions. In coastal waters, phytoplankton, submerged aquatic vegetation and indicators of physical-chemical conditions have a higher confidence than indicators of the quality of benthic invertebrate communities. Our analyses also show that the perceived weaknesses of eutrophication assessments are due more to Low confidence in reference conditions and acceptable deviations, rather than in the monitoring data. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Höglund, Anders
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Environmentally safe areas and routes in the Baltic proper using Eulerian tracers2012In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 64, no 7, p. 1375-1385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the shipping of environmentally hazardous cargo has increased considerably in the Baltic proper. In this study, a large number of hypothetical oil spills with an idealized, passive tracer are simulated. From the tracer distributions, statistical measures are calculated to optimize the quantity of tracer from a spill that would stay at sea as long as possible. Increased time may permit action to be taken against the spill before the oil reaches environmentally vulnerable coastal zones. The statistical measures are used to calculate maritime routes with maximum probability that an oil spill will stay at sea as long as possible. Under these assumptions, ships should follow routes that are located south of Bornholm instead of the northern routes in use currently. Our results suggest that the location of the optimal maritime routes depends on the season, although interannual variability is too large to identify statistically significant changes. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Jutterstrom, S.
    et al.
    Andersson, Helén
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Omstedt, A.
    Malmaeus, J. M.
    Multiple stressors threatening the future of the Baltic Sea-Kattegat marine ecosystem: Implications for policy and management actions2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 86, no 1-2, p. 468-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the combined effects of ocean acidification, eutrophication and climate change on the Baltic Sea and the implications for current management strategies. The scientific basis is built on results gathered in the BONUS+ projects Baltic-C and ECOSUPPORT. Model results indicate that the Baltic Sea is likely to be warmer, more hypoxic and more acidic in the future. At present management strategies are not taking into account temporal trends and potential ecosystem change due to warming and/or acidification, and therefore fulfilling the obligations specified within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, OSPAR and HELCOM conventions and national environmental objectives may become significantly more difficult. The paper aims to provide a basis for a discussion on the effectiveness of current policy instruments and possible strategies for setting practical environmental objectives in a changing climate and with multiple stressors. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 5. Karlsson, Therese M.
    et al.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Brostrom, Goran
    Almroth, Bethanie Carney
    Gipperth, Lena
    Hassellov, Martin
    The unaccountability case of plastic pellet pollution2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 129, no 1, p. 52-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Kirkwood, D S
    et al.
    Aminot, A
    Carlberg, Stig
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    The 1994 QUASIMEME laboratory performance study: Nutrients in seawater and standard solutions1996In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 32, no 8-9, p. 640-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1994 QUASIMEME (nutrients) Laboratory-Performance Study (LPS) is presented, The year's programme consisted of two periods, December-May and June-November, (These are referred to as Round 2 and Round 3, respectively, the previous 1993 LPS being Round 1.) In each period, participating laboratories were sent two types of sample material, that is seawater samples and a standard solution containing a mixture of nutrient salts, The standard solution required dilution (by participants) and multiple analyses over several weeks in order to assess long-term repeatability, In Round 2, a few laboratories, identified as poor performers in Round 1 (1993), undertook a 'learning programme' in which they received, unknowingly, samples identical to those analysed in Round 1, The other laboratories received samples different from those used in Round 1, In Round 3, all laboratories received the same package of samples, different from those used in Round 1 and Round 2, The results clearly indicate that general all-round improvements in data quality have been achieved. Crown copyright (C) 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

  • 7.
    Krysell, Mikael
    SMHI, Core Services.
    How accreditation changed us1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 35, no 1-6, p. 167-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, laboratories involved in national or international marine monitoring programmes are strongly encouraged to seek accreditation or another formal proof of competence, The question often asked is whether a laboratory actually produces more reliable data when a quality system has been set up. A method of monitoring the differences in laboratory performance from year to year is presented in this paper. In the case of the SMHI Oceanographical Laboratory there has been substantial improvement in laboratory performance since formal quality assurance measures were introduced. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Lu, Liangliang
    et al.
    Goerlandt, Floris
    Banda, Osiris A. Valdez
    Kujala, Pentti
    Höglund, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    A Bayesian Network risk model for assessing oil spill recovery effectiveness in the ice-covered Northern Baltic Sea2019In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 139, p. 440-458Article in journal (Refereed)
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