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  • 1.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Larson, M.
    Hanson, H.
    A numerical model of coastal overwash2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Maritime Engineering, ISSN 1741-7597, E-ISSN 1751-7737, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overwash, the flow of water and sediment over the crest of a beach, contributes to flooding and the deposition of sand landward of the beach crest. Washover, the sand deposited by overwash, contributes to the sediment budget and migration of barrier islands. The ability to predict the occurrence, location, and thickness of overwash deposits is important for coastal residents, coastal town planners, environmental planners, and engineers alike. In this study, a numerical model that simulates the sediment transport and one-dimensional barrier profile change caused by overwash was developed. The magnitude of overwash and the morphology of washovers are dependent on the overwash regime. New formulae are developed to estimate the sediment transport rate over the beach crest for both run-up overwash, using ballistics theory, and inundation overwash, treating flow over the crest as weir flow. Two-dimensional flow is described on the back barrier by considering the continuity of a block of water at steady state, taking into account lateral spreading, friction, and infiltration. The model is tested against 26 different beach profile sets from several different locations, and several different storms, exhibiting a variety of initial morphologies. The model is capable of reproducing varying overwash morphology responses including dune crest erosion, dune destruction, barrier rollback, the thinning of a washover deposit on the backbarrier, and overwash over a multiple dune system.

  • 2. Larson, M.
    et al.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Jimenez, J. A.
    Hanson, H.
    Analytical model of beach erosion and overwash during storms2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Maritime Engineering, ISSN 1741-7597, E-ISSN 1751-7737, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During severe storms high waves and water levels may greatly impact the sub-aerial portion of the beach inducing significant morphological change at elevations that the waves can not reach under normal conditions. Morphological formations such as dunes and barrier islands may suffer from direct wave impact and erode. Overwash occurs if the wave run-up and/or the mean water level are sufficiently high allowing for water and sediment to pass over the beach crest, which in turn causes flooding and deposition of sediment shoreward of the crest. An analytical model of sub-aerial beach response to storms was developed based on impact theory, including overwash, and the evolution of schematised dunes was investigated. Furthermore, the analytical model was applied to the case of schematised barrier islands exposed to extensive overwash. After validation using field data, the analytical model was employed at two coastal sites, namely Ocean City on the United States east coast and the Ebro Delta on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in order to calculate quantities for assessing the storm impact on beaches, such as eroded volume, overwash volume, beach crest reduction, and contour-line retreat. These quantities were subsequently analysed to derive empirical probability distribution functions to be utilised in different types of risk assessment concerning flooding and erosion in coastal areas.

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