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Sveriges framtida klimat: Underlag till Dricksvattenutredningen
SMHI, Core Services.
SMHI, Core Services.
SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
SMHI, Professional Services.
Show others and affiliations
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det senaste resultatet från klimatforskningen har använts för att producera detaljerade analyser av Sveriges framtida klimat. Resultaten bygger på de klimatscenarier som använts av FN:s klimatpanel i dess femte utvärdering (AR5). I denna analys har två scenarier använts; RCP4.5 som innebär stora framtida utsläppsbegränsningar och RCP8.5 som innebär höga utsläpp av växthusgaser i framtiden. Beräkningar av framtidens klimat och vattentillgång bygger på nytt underlag och delvis nya förutsättningar jämfört med tidigare analyser som presenterats av SMHI. De stora dragen i den beräknade förändringen av nederbörd, temperatur, vattentillgång och flöden kvarstår från tidigare utredningar. Användningen av RCP8.5-scenariet, med sin höga framtida koncentration av växthusgaser, förstärker effekterna jämfört med tidigare publicerade analyser. Eftersom resultaten från FN:s klimatpanel (AR5) presenterades så sent som 2013 så har underlaget framtaget av SMHI präglats av ett intensivt utvecklingsarbete. Resultaten har krävt användande av ny metodik och resultaten kommer även fortsättningsvis att utvärderas av SMHI. Analysen har gjorts för ett antal parametrar som är relevanta för dricksvattenförsörjningen. I tabellen nedan visas en översiktlig sammanfattning av resultaten. Parameter Förändring Lufttemperatur Ökning i hela landet, främst i norra Sverige, främst vintertid. Medelnederbörd Ökning i hela landet, främst i Norrlands inland, främst vinter och vår. Kraftig korttidsnederbörd Ökning i hela landet, främst för de korta varaktigheterna. Vattentillgång Ökning av årsmedel i hela landet förutom östra Götaland. Ökningen är störst på vintern. Minskning på sommaren, främst i östra Götaland. 100-årsflöde och 200-årsflöde Ökning i stora delar av landet. Minskning i Norrlands inland och norra kustland samt nordvästra Svealand Lågflöden Mer vanligt i Götaland och Svealand, främst östra Götaland Havsnivåer Stigande havsnivå, nettoökningen störst i södra Sverige Temperatur Klimatberäkningarna visar på en ökning av årsmedeltemperaturen under innevarande sekel, men med stor spridning av resultaten. Störst beräknas ökningen bli i norr, vilket överensstämmer med tidigare resultat från såväl SMHI som IPCC. Skillnaderna mellan de två utsläppsscenarierna är små för perioden 2021-2050 men ökar mot slutet av århundradet. Scenario RCP4.5 innebär i medeltal en ökning på ca 3 grader till 2100 jämfört med perioden 1961-1990. För RCP8.5 är ökningen större, i medeltal ca 6 grader till 2100. Nederbörd Medelnederbörden beräknas öka i hela landet i framtiden. Störst väntas ökningen bli i Norrlands inland. Skillnaden mellan de två utsläppsscenarierna är små för perioden 2021-2050 men ökar mot slutet av århundradet. En ökning väntas under alla årstider, men främst för vintern och våren. Den extrema korttidsnederbörden beräknas bli mer intensiv i ett framtida klimat. Detta gäller främst skyfall med kort varaktighet. Vattentillgång och flöden I framtiden väntas sett över hela året en ökning av vattentillgången i stora delar av landet, främst i norra Sverige och längs Västkusten. I sydöstra Sverige väntas istället en minskning vilket beror på ökad avdunstning. I större delen av landet väntas vårfloden bli lägre och vinterflödena väntas istället öka. Ändringen i vattentillgång skiljer sig åt mellan olika årstider. Sommartid väntas en minskad vattentillgång i större delen av landet, med den största minskningen i östra Götaland. De extrema flödena väntas i framtiden inträffa mer sällan i Norrlands inland och norra kustland samt nordvästra Svealand. I övriga delar av landet väntas de extrema flödena bli vanligare. De nya beräkningarna visar att en större andel av Sveriges yta kan komma att utsättas för förstärkta extremflöden jämfört med tidigare beräkningar. I framtiden väntas antalet dagar med låga flöden bli fler i Götaland och stora delar av Svealand. Den största förändringen beräknas ske i östra Götaland. Detta är en följd av att avdunstningen ökar till följd av ökad temperatur. Havsnivå Den globala havsnivån väntas stiga i framtiden. En beräknad övre gräns för ökningen är ungefär 1 m till år 2100 enligt IPCC:s senaste utvärdering. Landhöjningen motverkar havsnivåhöjningen, speciellt i norra Sverige.

Abstract [en]

The latest results from climate research have been used to produce detailed analyses of Sweden’s future climate. The results build on the climate scenarios that have been used by the UN’s climate panel in its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Two scenarios have been used in this analysis: RCP4.5, which significantly limits future emissions, and RCP8.5, which is a more conservative “business as usual” scenario. Calculations of the future climate and water availability are based on new material and some new conditions compared to analyses previously presented by SMHI. The calculated changes in precipitation, temperature, water availability and flooding are broadly the same as earlier reports. The use of the RCP8.5 scenario, with its high future concentration of greenhouse gases, strengthens the effects compared to previous analyses. Since the results of the UNs climate panel (AR5) were presented as late as 2013, the material produced by SMHI has involved intensive development. The results have required new methodologies and will continue to be evaluated by SMHI. Analyses have been made for a number of parameters that are relevant to the supply of drinking water. The table below summarises the results. Parameter Change Airtemperature Increasing in the whole country, in particular in northern Sweden, mainly during winter. Average precipitation Increasing in the whole country, in particular inland Norrland, mainly during winter and spring. Extreme short-term precipitation Increasing in the whole country, mainly for short-term heavy showers. Water availability Increasing in the whole country except for eastern Götaland. The increase is greatest during the winter. Decreasing during summer, in particular in eastern Götaland. 100-year floods and 200-year floods Increasing in large areas of the country. Decreasing in inland Norrland and the northern coast as well as north west Svealand. Low river flows Becoming more common in Götaland and Svealand, particularly in eastern Götaland. Sea levels Raised sea levels, with the greatest net rise in southern Sweden. Temperature Climate calculations show an increase in the mean annual temperature during the current century, but with a large spread of the result. The largest increase is calculated for the north, which is in agreement with earlier results from both SMHI and IPCC. The difference between the two emission scenarios is small for the period 2021-2050 but increases towards the end of the century. The RCP4.5 scenario implies an increase of around 3 degrees on average by 2100, compared to the period 1961-1990. The increase is greater for RCP8.5, giving an average of around 6 degrees by 2100. Precipitation Average precipitation is calculated to increase for the whole country in the future. The greatest increase is expected for inland Norrland. The difference between the two emission scenarios is small for the period 2021-2050 but increases by the end of the century. An increase is expected during all seasons, but mostly for winter and spring. Extreme short-term precipitation is calculated to become more intensive in a future climate. This applies particularly to short torrential showers. Water availability and flow In the future, an increase in water availability is expected in large parts of the country, particularly in northern Sweden and along the West Coast. Southern Sweden can instead expect a reduction which is due to increased evaporation. For large parts of the country the spring floods are expected to be lower and the winter floods will increase. The change in water availability differs between the seasons. During summer a decreasing in water availability is expected in large parts of the country, in particular in eastern Götaland. Extreme floods are expected to occur less often in inland Norrland, the northern coastal areas and for north western Svealand. In the rest of the country, extreme floods are expected to be more common. New calculations show that a larger part of Sweden’s area could be susceptible to stronger extreme floods compared to earlier calculations. In the future, more days with low river flows are expected in Götaland and large parts of Svealand. The greatest change is expected in eastern Götaland. This is a result of increased evaporation due to the rise in temperature. Sea level The global sea level is expected to rise in the future. A calculated upper limit for the increase has been put at about 1 m by the year 2100 according to the latest evaluation from IPCC. The land rise counteracts the rise in sea level, in particular for northern Sweden. Precipitation Average precipitation is calculated to increase for the whole country in the future. The greatest increase is expected for inland Norrland. The difference between the two emission scenarios is small for the period 2021-2050 but increases by the end of the century. An increase is expected during all seasons, but mostly for winter and spring. Extreme short-term precipitation is calculated to become more intensive in a future climate. This applies particularly to short torrential showers. Water availability and flow In the future, an increase in water availability is expected in large parts of the country, particularly in northern Sweden and along the West Coast. Southern Sweden can instead expect a reduction which is due to increased evaporation. For large parts of the country the spring floods are expected to be lower and the winter floods will increase. The change in water availability differs between the seasons. During summer a decreasing in water availability is expected in large parts of the country, in particular in eastern Götaland. Extreme floods are expected to occur less often in inland Norrland, the northern coastal areas and for north western Svealand. In the rest of the country, extreme floods are expected to be more common. New calculations show that a larger part of Sweden’s area could be susceptible to stronger extreme floods compared to earlier calculations. In the future, more days with low river flows are expected in Götaland and large parts of Svealand. The greatest change is expected in eastern Götaland. This is a result of increased evaporation due to the rise in temperature. Sea level The global sea level is expected to rise in the future. A calculated upper limit for the increase has been put at about 1 m by the year 2100 according to the latest evaluation from IPCC. The land rise counteracts the rise in sea level, in particular for northern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SMHI , 2015. , 81 p.
Series
Climatology, ISSN 1654-2258 ; 14
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-2842Local ID: Klimat, Rapporter, Serie KlimatologiOAI: oai:DiVA.org:smhi-2842DiVA: diva2:948140
Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2016-07-08 Last updated: 2016-07-08Bibliographically approved

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