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The Meteorological Auto Code (MAC) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at SMHI
SMHI.
SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8376-2729
SMHI.
Helsinki University in Finland.
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sweden was a pioneering country in the development of NumericalWeather Prediction (NWP). The worlds first operational numerical forecast was produced already in 1954 by the International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm. SMHI started a bit later, but in 1961 a long term program for development of NWP was initiated. The activities grew gradually during the 1960’s and resulted in a core component for the SMHI forecast services. An early challenge was to overcome the limited computational resources with slow computational speed, small memory size and primitive software support. It was necessary to compensate for these limitations with dedicated work and creativity. A core component in this work was the software system MAC (Meteorological Auto Code) that was developed by the NWP group at SMHI. The MAC system is described in detail in this report and it included all computational software needed for the weather service, for example numerical models, objective analysis techniques, automatic data extraction, quality control of observations as well as forecast products in graphical or digital form.

We hope that this report will provide the younger generation with some insight into the conditions for development of NWP during the 1960’s.

Abstract [sv]

Sverige var ett föregångsland inom numeriska vädderprognoser och den allra första operativa väderprognosen gjordes redan 1954 på det Internationella Meteorologiska Institutet i Stockholm. SMHI kom igång senare, men 1961 startade man ett långsiktigt program för NWP (numerical weather prediction). Projektet växte gradvis under 1960-talet och blev så småningom en central komponent i SMHIs prognostjänst. En utmaning under de tidiga åren var de begränsade dataresurserna med primitiv programvara, och med dagens mått begränsat minnesutrymme och låg beräkningshastighet. För att kompensera dessa brister krävdes både beslutsamhet och ett stort mått av kreativitet. Som en central komponent i arbetet utvecklade NWP-gruppen datorsystemet MAC (Meteorological Auto Code) som här beskrivs i detalj samt också alla de beräkningsprogram som krävdes för prognostjänsten. Detta inkluderade olika prognosmodeller, analys samt program för databehandling och observationskontroll samt produktion av prognosresultaten i grafisk eller digital form.

Det är vår förhoppning att f´öreliggande artikel skall ge den yngre generationen en inblick i hur det var att syssla med NWP under 1960-talet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 21 p.
Series
RMK: Report Meteorology and Climatology, ISSN 0347-2116 ; 117
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Climate Research
Research subject
Meteorology; Climate
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-2152OAI: oai:DiVA.org:smhi-2152DiVA: diva2:926921
Available from: 2016-05-10 Created: 2016-05-10 Last updated: 2016-05-31Bibliographically approved

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Gustafsson, NilsThompson, ThomasKållberg, Per

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CiteExportLink to record
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