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Interannual, seasonal and regional variations of precipitation and evaporation over the Baltic Sea
SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4971-9441
SMHI.
SMHI.
1997 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 26, no 8, 484-492 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precipitation and evaporation rates over the Baltic Sea during the period 1981-1994 have been analyzed. The precipitation rate was based upon available meteorological weather, which were interpolated to grid paints using a two-dimensional objective analysis scheme, The evaporation rate was calculated using an ocean model, in which the Baltic Sea was treated as 13 sub-basins with high vertical resolution. Sea-surface temperatures as well as sea ice were calculated and verified extensively against temperature and ice-chart information, In the model, the latent heat flux was calculated according to a bulk formula parameterization. The evaporation rate was then calculated from the latent heat calculations and reduced by sea ice concentration, assuming that evaporation from sea ice is negligible. The long-term difference between precipitation and evaporation rates (the atmospheric fresh water inflow) is positive, which implies that the atmosphere adds fresh water to the Baltic Sea. For the period 1981 - 1994, the total mean atmospheric freshwater inflow was calculated to be 1986 m(3) s(-1). This is less than the total river runoff, but almost as large as the contribution from the River Neva, and thus an important source in the freshwater balance of the Baltic Sea. For the long time mean, the inclusion of sea ice increased (by reducing evaporation with 8%) the atmospheric freshwater inflow by 26% for the studied period, compared to an artificial case without ice in the Baltic Sea. The precipitation and evaporation over the Baltic Sea show, however, large interannual, seasonal and regional differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1997. Vol. 26, no 8, 484-492 p.
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Climate
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1562ISI: 000071643500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:smhi-1562DiVA: diva2:850701
Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2016-04-11Bibliographically approved

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