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Real-world traffic emission factors of gases and particles measured in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden
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2004 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 38, no 5, 657-673 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurements in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden give the real-world traffic emission factors for a number of gaseous and particle pollutants. These include 49 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, NOX, benzene, toluene, xylenes, aldehydes, elements and inorganic/organic carbon contained in particles, the sub-micrometer aerosol number size distribution, PM2.5 and PM10. The exhaust pipe emission factors are divided with the help of automated traffic counts into the two pollutant sources, the heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and light-duty vehicles (LDV). The LDV fleet contains 95% petrol cars and the total fleet contains about 5% HDV. When data permitted, the emission factors were further calculated at different vehicle speeds. The current work shows that average CO, NOX and benzene emission factors amounted to 5.3, 1.4 and 0.017 g veh(-1) km(-1), respectively. Since the mid-90s CO and benzene decreased by about 15%, carbonyls by about a factor 2, whereas NOX did not change much. PAR emission factors were 2-15 times higher than found during dynamometer tests. Most particles are distributed around 20 nm diameter and the LDV fleet contributes to about 65% of both PM and particle number. In general, the gaseous emissions are higher in Sweden than in USA and Switzerland, foremost due to the lower fraction catalytic converters in Sweden. The PM and number emissions of particles are also slightly higher in the Swedish tunnel. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 38, no 5, 657-673 p.
Keyword [en]
PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particle size distribution, NOX, aldehydes
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-1325DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.10.030ISI: 000188777000002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:smhi-1325DiVA: diva2:814159
Available from: 2015-05-26 Created: 2015-05-26 Last updated: 2016-05-27Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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