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Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2019 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-2019
SMHI, Core Services.
SMHI, Core Services.
SMHI, Core Services.
2020 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A climatological atlas of the oxygen situation in the deep water of the Baltic Sea was firstpublished in 2011 in SMHI Report Oceanography No 42. Since 2011, annual updates have beenmade as additional data have been reported to the ICES data center. In this report the results for2018 have been updated and the preliminary results for 2019 are presented. Oxygen data from2019 have been collected from various sources such as international trawl survey, nationalmonitoring programmes and research projects with contributions from Poland, Estonia, Russia,Denmark, Sweden and Finland.For the autumn period each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia(oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). The depths of onset of hypoxia andanoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representingthe depths at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions respectively are found. The volume and areaof hypoxia and anoxia were then calculated and the results transferred to maps and diagrams tovisualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period.The updated results for 2018 and the preliminary results for 2019 show that the severe oxygenconditions in the Baltic Proper after the regime shift in 1999 continue. In 2018 the largestbottom areas and volumes affected by anoxia was recorded during the analysed period startingin 1960. Anoxic conditions affected ~24% of the bottom areas and ~33% suffered from hypoxiain 2018 and similar values just below was noted during 2019. The results from these two yearscould be the beginning of a new trend as the anoxia has reached another stage and new areas areaffected regularly. In the southern basins of the Baltic Proper, such as the Gulf of Gdansk, HanöBight and in the Bornholm Basin, hypoxia has previously been found in the deep water butanoxia is now found regularly in the deep water. The hydrogen sulphide that had disappearedfrom the Eastern and Northern Gotland Basin due to the inflows in 2014-2016 is now steadilyincreasing in the deep water again. No major inflow has occurred since 2016.

Abstract [sv]

En klimatologisk atlas över syresituationen i Östersjöns djupvatten publicerades 2011 i SMHIsReport Oceanography No 42. Sedan 2011 har årliga uppdateringar gjorts då kompletterandedata från länder runt Östersjön har rapporerats till ICES datacenter. I denna rapport harresultaten från 2018 uppdaterats och preliminära resultat för 2019 tagits fram. Resultaten för2019 baseras på data insamlade under internationella fiskeriundersökningar, nationellmiljöövervakning och forskningsprojekt med bidrag från Danmark, Estland, Sverige, Finland,Ryssland och Polen.Förekomsten av hypoxi (syrebrist) och anoxi (helt syrefria förhållanden) under höstperioden,har undersökts i varje mätprofil. Djupet där hypoxi eller anoxi först påträffas i en profil harinterpolerats mellan provtagningsstationer och kombinerats med en djupdatabas för beräkningav utbredning och volym av hypoxiska och anoxiska förhållanden. Resultaten har överförts tillkartor och diagram för att visualisera syresituationen i Östersjöns djupvatten 1960-2019.Resultaten för 2018 och de preliminära resultaten för 2019 visar att den extrema syrebristen somobserverats i Egentliga Östersjön, efter regimskiftet 1999, fortsätter. Under 2018 noterades denstörsta utbredningen av syrefria bottnar sedan tidsseriens start 1960. Omkring ~24% avbottnarna var syrefria och ~33% var påverkade av syrebrist. Liknande nivåer återfinns 2019.Resultaten från de senaste två åren indikerar en ny fas då utbredningen av syrefria bottnar harnått nya områden. I de södra områdena av Egentliga Östersjön; Hanöbukten, Gdanskbukten ochBornholmsbassängen har syrebrist förekommit i djupvattnet tidigare men nu återfinns syrefriaområden regelbundet. Mängden svavelväte, som på grund av inflödena 2014-2016, heltförsvann från Östra och Norra Gotlandsbassängerna, ökar åter i dessa bassängers djupvatten.Inget större inflöde till Östersjön har inträffat under perioden 2017-2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020.
Series
RO, Report Oceanography, ISSN 0283-1112 ; 67
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-5643OAI: oai:DiVA.org:smhi-5643DiVA, id: diva2:1413260
Available from: 2020-03-10 Created: 2020-03-10 Last updated: 2020-03-10Bibliographically approved

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Hansson, MartinViktorsson, LenaAndersson, Lars

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