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Skjevik, Ann-Turi
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Wesslander, K., Viktorsson, L. & Skjevik, A.-T. (2019). The Swedish National Marine Monitoring Programme 2018. Hydrography Nutrients Phytoplankton.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish National Marine Monitoring Programme 2018. Hydrography Nutrients Phytoplankton
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents the main results of the Swedish national marine monitoring programme of thepelagic during 2018. The monitoring data of hydrography, nutrients and phytoplankton are analysedfor the seas surrounding Sweden: the Skagerrak, the Kattegat, the Sound, the Baltic Proper, theBothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay.The national environmental monitoring of the pelagic is carried out by SMHI (SwedishMeteorological and Hydrological Institute), Stockholm University and UMF (Umeå Marine SciencesCentre). Data is collected, analysed and reported with support from Swedish environmentalmonitoring and on behalf of by SwAM (Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management). TheSMHI monitoring is made in cooperation between the national environmental monitoring of thepelagic and the SMHI oceanographic sampling programme for the seas surrounding Sweden and is cofinancedby SwAM and SMHI. This annual summary of the national monitoring is made by SMHI andis financed by the contract between SwAM and SMHI.The weather in 2018 was characterized by high air temperatures and a few storms that impliedconsequences for the state in the sea. The spring arrived quickly and the sea surface temperatureincreased rapidly from April to May. In August and September two storms, named Johanne and Knud,passed the region and the surface layer was well-mixed at several stations. At the East coast upwellingevents were noted in both the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea.During the year there were two small deep water inflows to the Baltic Proper that temporarilyimproved the oxygen condition in the southern parts. No improvements of the oxygen condition wereseen in the Eastern and Western Gotland Basins, instead the amount of hydrogen sulphide increased inthese basins during the year.The spring bloom had arrived in the Skagerrak and the Kattegat in March and concentrations ofdissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were close to or at thedetection limit from April to September. In the Skagerrak and the Kattegat the spring bloom wasdominated by the diatom Skeletonema marinoi. In the Baltic Proper the spring bloom was observed amonth later, in April. The extensive cyanobacteria bloom in the Baltic Proper started already in Mayand during the late September cruise cyanobacteria were still abundant. The dinoflagellateProrocentrum compressum was found in high cell numbers during the autumn at all stations on theWest coast. This flagellate has rarely been observed previously and although it is not harmful it isinteresting when species suddenly occur and stay for a longer period. The potentially harmful diatomgenus Pseudo-nitzschia bloomed in the beginning of December.Surface concentrations of DIP and DIN were mainly normal except from in the Skagerrak and theKattegat where concentrations were lower than usual in December. Concentrations of silicate wereabove normal levels before the spring bloom at most of the stations and in the Baltic Proper silicatewas also high in the autumn.In 2018 there were some difficulties with available research vessels for the planned cruises and somecruises needed to be cancelled with short notice. Many planned observations were therefore missed, inparticular during the summer period.

Abstract [sv]

Den här rapporten sammanfattar de huvudsakliga resultaten av det svenska nationella marinaövervakningsprogrammet av pelagialen under 2018. Resultat från mätningar av hydrografi,näringsämnen och växtplankton diskuteras för haven runt Sverige; Skagerrak, Kattegatt, Öresund,Egentliga Östersjön, Bottenhavet och Bottenviken. Den nationella miljöövervakningen inomdelprogrammet fria vattenmassan utförs av SMHI (Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut),Stockholms Universitet och UMF (Umeå marina forskningscentrum). Data är insamlade, analyseradeoch rapporterade med stöd från svensk miljöövervakning och på uppdrag av HaV (Havs- ochvattenmyndigheten). SMHIs övervakningsprogram sker genom ett samarbete mellan den nationellamiljöövervakningen inom delprogrammet fria vattenmassan och SMHIs oceanografiska mätprogramför övervakning av haven runt Sverige och samfinansieras av HaV och SMHI. Denna årligasammanställning av den nationella miljöövervakningen görs av SMHI i en rapport som finansierasgenom avtalet mellan HaV och SMHI.Vädret under 2018 präglades av hög värme och ett par stormar som fick konsekvenser för tillståndet ihavet. Våren kom snabbt och havsvattentemperaturen ökade mycket mellan april och maj. I augustioch september drog två stormar förbi, benämnda Johanne och Knud, och ytlagret blev på flera håll välomblandat. På östkusten noterades uppvällning både längs med kusten i Egentliga Östersjön och iBottenhavet.Under året var det två mindre djupvatteninflöden till Östersjön och dessa förbättrade syresituationentemporärt i de sydligaste delarna. Ingen förbättring av syresituationen noterades i Östra- och VästraGotlandsbassängen och istället ökade mängden svavelväte i dessa bassänger under året.I mars var vårblomningen igång i Skagerrak och Kattegatt, och koncentrationerna av fosfat och löstoorganiskt kväve var nära eller på detektionsgränsen från april till september. I Skagerrak ochKattegatt dominerades vårblomningen av kiselalgen Skeletonema marinoi. I Östersjön startadevårblomningen i april. Den omfattande blomningen av cyanobakterier i Östersjön var igång redan imaj och var fortfarande pågående under expeditionen i andra halvan av september. Under höstenobserverades dinoflagellaten Prorocentrum compressum i höga cellantal vid alla stationer påVästkusten. Den här flagellaten är sällsynt och även om den inte är skadlig så är det intressant när enart plötsligt dyker upp och stannar under en längre period. Det potentiellt skadliga kiselalgsläktetPseudo-nitzschia blommade i början av december.Koncentrationerna av fosfat och löst oorganiskt kväve i ytvattnet var i huvudsak normala förutom iSkagerrak och Kattegatt där de var lägre än normalt i december. Koncentrationerna av kisel var högreän normalt före vårblomningen vid de flesta stationerna och i Östersjön var de även höga underhösten.Under 2018 var det en del svårigheter med tillgängliga fartyg för expeditionerna och någraexpeditioner behövde ställas in. Många planerade observationer uteblev därför, speciellt undersommarperioden.

Publisher
p. 138
Series
RO, Report Oceanography, ISSN 0283-1112 ; 66
Keywords
Oceanography, marine monitoring, nutrients, Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Skagerrak, Kattegat
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-5227 (URN)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
Wesslander, K., Viktorsson, L. & Skjevik, A.-T. (2018). The SwedishNational MarineMonitoringProgramme 2017: HydrographyNutrientsPhytoplankton.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The SwedishNational MarineMonitoringProgramme 2017: HydrographyNutrientsPhytoplankton
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents the main results of the Swedish national marine monitoring programme of the pelagic during 2017. The monitoring data of hydrography, nutrients and phytoplankton are analysed for the seas surrounding Sweden: Skagerrak, Kattegat, The Sound, Baltic Proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. The monitoring is carried out by SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute), SU (Stockholm University) and UMF (Umeå Marine Sciences Centre) and the monitoring programme is co-funded by SwAM (Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management), SMHI, SU and UMF. Data is collected, analysed and reported with support from Swedish environmental monitoring and commissioned by SwaM.

The Baltic current along the Swedish west coast implies large variations in surface salinity and the unusually large outflow of brackish water from the Baltic Sea in 2017 was reflected as low surface salinity in Skagerrak and Kattegat in the beginning of the year. There were no major deep water inflows to the Baltic Sea during 2017 but a few inflows of minor magnitude. These minor inflows only temporarily improved the oxygen condition in the Bornholm Basin and in the southern part of the Eastern Gotland Basin.

The salinity below the halocline was above normal in the Gotland Basins and in the Northern Baltic Proper, and also in the surface layer in the Eastern Gotland Basin for almost the whole year.

In Skagerrak and Kattegat, surface concentrations of phosphate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen were normal while dissolved silica concentrations were elevated especially in spring. In the Baltic Sea, the concentration of silicate in the surface water was elevated in all basins. According to the estimated total content of silicate there has been an increase in silica content in the Baltic Sea since the early 1990’s. Surface concentrations of phosphate were above normal in the Gotland basins and the Northern Baltic Proper while inorganic nitrogen content was above normal in parts of the Arkona and Bornholm basins. During spring and summer, the inorganic nitrogen was consumed at greater depths than usual in the Baltic Proper. In particular concentrations of phosphate and dissolved silica were generally lower than normal in the bottom layer.

Instead of diatoms, the flagellate genus Pseudochattonella, which is potentially toxic to fish, bloomed in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in February – April. During autumn there was a prolonged diatom bloom though. In the Baltic Sea spring bloom occurred in April. The cyanobacteria bloom began in May already with Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. During June and July all three of the filamentous cyanobacteria, A. flos-aquae, Dolichospermum lemmermannii and the potentially harmful Nodularia spumigena were found in the phytoplankton samples in various amounts.

In the Bothnian Sea, the sea surface temperature during summer was lower than normal and the oxygen conditions in the bottom layer was not critical but still below normal levels.

Abstract [sv]

Den här rapporten sammanfattar de huvudsakliga resultaten av det svenska nationella marina övervakningsprogrammet av pelagialen under 2017. Resultat från mätningar av hydrografi, näringsämnen och växtplankton diskuteras för  haven runt Sverige; Skagerrak, Kattegatt, Öresund, Egentliga Östersjön, Bottenhavet och Bottenviken. Övervakningen utförs av SMHI (Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut), SU (Stockholms Universitet) och UMF (Umeå marina forskningscentrum) och övervakningsprogrammet samfinansieras av HaV (Havs- och vattenmyndigheten), SMHI, SU and UMF. Data är insamlade, analyserade och rapporterade med stöd från svensk miljöövervakning och på uppdrag HaV.

Den Baltiska strömmen längs Västkusten medför stora fluktuationer av  salthalten i ytan och det ovanligt höga utflödet med bräckt vatten från Östersjön under 2017 avspeglades som låg ytsalthalt i Skagerrak och Kattegatt i början av året. Det var inga stora djupvatteninflöden till Östersjön under 2017 men ett par av mindre storlek. Dessa mindre inflöden förbättrade syreförhållanden endast temporärt i Bornholms-bassängen och i södra delen av Östra Gotlandsbassängen.

Salthalten under haloklinen var högre än normalt i Gotlands-bassängerna och i Norra Egentliga Östersjön samt även i ytlagret i Östra Gotlandsbassängen.

Koncentrationen av fosfat och oorganiskt kväve i Skagerrak och Kattegatts ytvatten var normal medan silikatkoncentrationen var hög, speciellt under våren. I Östersjöns ytvatten var det höga nivåer av silikat i alla bassänger. Enligt det uppskattade totala innehållet av kisel i Östersjön har det pågått en ökning av kisel sedan början av 90-talet. Koncentrationen av fosfat i ytvattnet var över normal i Gotlandsbassängerna och Norra Egentliga Östersjön medan koncentrationen av oorganiskt kväve var mer än normalt i Arkona- och Bornholmsbassängen. Under vår och sommar var det djup där det oorganiska kvävet tar slut i Egentliga Östersjön större än normalt. I djupvattenlagret var det lägre koncentrationer än normalt av särskilt fosfat och silikat.

I stället för de sedvanliga kiselalgerna var det det för fisk skadliga flagellatsläktet Pseudochattonella som blommade på Västkusten i februari till april. Under hösten förekom däremot en utdragen kiselalgsblomning. I Östersjön förekom vårblomningen i april. Cyanobakterieblomningen startade redan i maj med Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Under juni och juli fanns alla tre av de filamentösa cyanobakterierna, A. flos-aquae, Dolichospermum lemmermannii och den potentiellt skadliga Nodularia spumigena, i växtplanktonproverna i varierande mängd.

I Bottenhavet var ytvattentemperaturen lägre än normalt och koncentrationen av syre var under normala nivåer, men ändå högre än kritiska.

Publisher
p. 122
Series
RO, Report Oceanography, ISSN 0283-1112 ; 64
Keywords
Oceanography, marine monitoring, nutrients, Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Skagerrak, Kattegat
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-4687 (URN)
Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Karlson, B. & Skjevik, A.-T. (2017). Algblomningar - en utmaning för miljöövervakning och forskning. Västerhavet, 4-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algblomningar - en utmaning för miljöövervakning och forskning
2017 (Swedish)In: Västerhavet, ISSN 1104-3458, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kontaktgruppen Hav, 2017
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-4479 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
Wesslander, K., Andersson, L., Axe, P., Johansson, J., Linders, J., Nexelius, N. & Skjevik, A.-T. (2017). Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound - OSPAR ASSESSMENT 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish National Report on Eutrophication Status in the Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound - OSPAR ASSESSMENT 2016
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish OSPAR waters were assessed by applying the OSPAR Common Procedure for the time period 2006 – 2014. The Swedish parts of Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Sound constitute the outer part of the transition zone between the estuarine Baltic Sea and the oceanic North Sea and were investigated for nutrients, chlorophyll-a,oxygen, macrophytes, phytoplankton and zoobenthos. The conclusion from the overall assessment of the Swedish OSPAR waters was that only Skagerrak open sea could be classified as a Non-Problem Area and all other assessment units were classified as Problem Areas.  Atmospheric input of nitrogen significantly decreased in both Skagerrak and Kattegat and the land based input of total nutrients also decreased in Skagerrak, Kattegat as well as the Sound. However, the short-term trend of nitrogen input to the Sound was positive. Skagerrak is governed by trans-boundary transports from the North Sea of mainly nitrogen but also phosphorus. Kattegat receives trans-boundary nutrients from both the Baltic Sea through the Sound and from Skagerrak and transports nutrients towards the coast and the western part of the basin.  Overall, concentrations of DIN, DIP, TN and chlorophyll-a decreased in most areas, however, no significant trends were found for DIP. Increasing concentrations were found in silicate, POC and TP. The Secchi depth increased in most areas. Oxygen deficiency was mainly a problem in the fjords and the Kattegat open sea.  In Skagerrak coastal waters winter nutrients were only elevated in the fjords. Concentrations of DIN generally decreased significantly and there were tendencies of decreasing DIP. This pattern was also supported by the total nitrogen while total phosphorus increased. Secchi depth was improving and there was a significant positive trend of increasing depths. However, zoobenthos were still in bad condition and phytoplankton indicator species were often elevated. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were generally decreasing but still elevated in the inner coastal waters. There were also problems with algal toxins such as DST (Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin) and PST (Paralystic Shellfish Toxin) infections in the area. According to the OSPAR classification scheme, a unit with no evident increased nutrient enrichment can be classified as a Problem Area but the cause might be due to trans-boundary transport from adjacent areas. In the open area of Kattegat there were still problems with oxygen deficiency, especially in the southern parts, even though the trend was significantly positive for the assessment period 2006 – 2014. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a and DIN decreased significantly, however, DIN levels were still generally elevated, especially in the southern parts of Kattegat while DIP was closer to the assessment level. In Kattegat coastal waters winter nutrients were elevated in all assessment units, except from the inner coastal waters, even though there was a general pattern of decreasing going trends. Chlorophyll-a was mainly elevated in the Sound and the estuaries. Secchi depth is generally improving and a significant increase was seen in the Sound. Also in Kattegat, zoobenthos were in bad condition and phytoplankton indicator species were often elevated. 

Publisher
p. 160
Series
RO, Report Oceanography, ISSN 0283-1112
Keywords
OSPAR, assessment, eutrophication, Skagerrak, Kattegat
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-4120 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-01 Created: 2017-08-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Majaneva, M., Rintala, J.-M., Hajdu, S., Hallfors, S., Hallfors, G., Skjevik, A.-T., . . . Blomster, J. (2012). The extensive bloom of alternate-stage Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) in the Baltic Sea during autumn-spring 2007-2008. European journal of phycology, 47(3), 310-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The extensive bloom of alternate-stage Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) in the Baltic Sea during autumn-spring 2007-2008
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2012 (English)In: European journal of phycology, ISSN 0967-0262, E-ISSN 1469-4433, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During autumn 2007, an unusual increase in an algal species belonging to the order Prymnesiales was observed throughout the Baltic Sea Proper during routine national monitoring. Electron microscopical examination of the blooming species showed two types of flat scales - small and large - that resembled those of the alternate stage of Prymnesium polylepis. No spine-bearing scales were found. The 18S rDNA sequence data (n = 20, c. 1500 bp) verified the species identification as P. polylepis. There was up to 0.5% (7 bp) variability in the P. polylepis partial 18 S rDNA sequences from the Baltic Sea. These environmental sequences differed by 0-0.35% (0-4 bp) from cultured P. polylepis (isolate UIO036), and by 1.0-3.7% from other available Prymnesium sequences. The number of cells assumed to be P. polylepis began to increase in October 2007 coincidently with significantly calm and dry weather, and at their maximum the cells accounted for over 80% of the total phytoplankton biovolume in December-January. During February-April 2008, 95% of the Prymnesiales cells were in the size class of P. polylepis (>6 mu m). The species attained bloom concentrations (>1 x 10(6) cells l(-1)) from March to May 2008. The species was observed throughout the Baltic Sea, except the Bothnian Bay, Gulf of Riga and the Kattegat. No toxic effects of the bloom were observed.

Keywords
18S rDNA, Baltic Sea, phytoplankton, Prymnesium polylepis alternate stage, Prymnesium polylepis bloom, harmful alga, winter
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-481 (URN)10.1080/09670262.2012.713997 (DOI)000308435700010 ()
Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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