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Andersen, J. H., Axe, P., Backer, H., Carstensen, J., Claussen, U., Fleming-Lehtinen, V., . . . Villnas, A. (2011). Getting the measure of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea: towards improved assessment principles and methods. Biogeochemistry, 106(2), 137-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting the measure of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea: towards improved assessment principles and methods
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2011 (English)In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The eutrophication status of the entire Baltic Sea is classified using a multi-metric indicator-based assessment tool. A total of 189 areas are assessed using indicators where information on reference conditions (RefCon), and acceptable deviation (AcDev) from reference condition could be combined with national monitoring data from the period 2001-2006. Most areas (176) are classified as 'affected by eutrophication' and only two open water areas and 11 coastal areas are classified as 'unaffected by eutrophication'. The classification is made by application of the recently developed HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT), which is described in this paper. The use of harmonized assessment principles and the HEAT tool allows for direct comparisons between different parts of the Baltic Sea despite variations in monitoring activities. The impaired status of 176 areas is directly related to nutrient enrichment and elevated loads from upstream catchments. Baltic Sea States have implemented nutrient management strategies since years which have reduced nutrient inputs. However, eutrophication is still a major problem for large parts of the Baltic Sea. The 2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan is projected to further reduce nutrient inputs aiming for a Baltic Sea unaffected by eutrophication by 2021.

Keywords
Eutrophication, Baltic Sea, Assessment, HEAT, Nutrients, Ecological status, Nutrient management strategies
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-503 (URN)10.1007/s10533-010-9508-4 (DOI)000297224800002 ()
Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Andersen, J. H., Murray, C., Kaartokallio, H., Axe, P. & Molvaer, J. (2010). A simple method for confidence rating of eutrophication status classifications. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(6), 919-924
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simple method for confidence rating of eutrophication status classifications
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2010 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 919-924Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the development of a methodology for assessing confidence in ecological status classifications. The method presented here can be considered as a secondary assessment, supporting the primary assessment of eutrophication or ecological status. The confidence assessment is based on scoring the quality of the indicators on which the primary assessment is made. This represents a first step towards linking status classification with information regarding their accuracy and precision. Applied to an existing data set used for assessment of eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea (including the Kattegat and Danish Straits) we demonstrate that confidence in the assessment is Good or High in 149 out of 189 areas assessed (79%). Contrary to our expectations, assessments of the open parts of the Baltic Sea have a higher confidence than assessments of coastal waters. We also find that in open waters of the Baltic Sea, some biological indicators have a higher confidence than indicators representing physical-chemical conditions. In coastal waters, phytoplankton, submerged aquatic vegetation and indicators of physical-chemical conditions have a higher confidence than indicators of the quality of benthic invertebrate communities. Our analyses also show that the perceived weaknesses of eutrophication assessments are due more to Low confidence in reference conditions and acceptable deviations, rather than in the monitoring data. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Eutrophication, Classification, Indicators, HEAT, Confidence rating, Water Framework Directive
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
Oceanography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:smhi:diva-564 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.03.020 (DOI)000279798800023 ()20381096 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-22 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0260-2008

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